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Levator scapulae muscle

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Last Updated: 19 September 2020

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General | Latest Info

Levator scapulae muscle

Details
ActionsElevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
Arterydorsal scapular artery
InsertionSuperior part of medial border of scapula
Nervecervical nerve (C3, C4) and dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
OriginPosterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebrae
Pronunciation/ l v e t r s k p j l i /
Identifiers
FMA32519
Latinmusculus levator scapulae
TA22234
TA98A04.3.01.009

Chronic contraction within levator scapulae muscle can be a frequent source of pain in shoulders and posterior neck, with radiation of pain into the occipital area. This condition is seen in people with tension and anxiety, those who work extensively on keyboard, or those who regularly hold the telephone between ear and shoulder. Hint that levator scapulae is in need of treatment come when patient holds his or her contralateral hand over the area between shoulder and neck and rubs the upper back with his or her fingers. Tender point: this point is located at the superomedial border of the scapula between the scapula and nape of the neck. Slide your fingers medially over the scapular spine and move laterally to medially. When the spine of the scapula ends, hook your fingers up and onto the superior medial border of the scapula and press posterior to anterior and medial to lateral against the medial edge of the scapula. Referral pattern: Pain is felt in posterior neck through shoulder, with referral pain in the occipital area. Treatment position: With patient supine, side - bend neck toward side of tender point. Flex patients ' shoulders to approximately 30 - 45 degrees with elbow flexed. Abduct shoulder slightly and apply cephalic force through shaft of humerus to elevate scapula. It feels as though you are shoving a shoulder toward ear.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Structure

Levator scapulae muscle originates from posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1, c2, c3, and C4 vertebrae. Muscle inserted on posterior lip of medial scapular border, typically between superior angle and root of scapular spine. Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius overlay superior and inferior aspect of levator scapulae, respectively, with levator scapulae comprising part of the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck. The primary action of levator scapulae is to elevate scapula. Levator scapula works in conjunction with trapezius and rhomboid muscles to accomplish this motion. Levator scapulae, in conjunction with descending fibers of trapezius, latissimus dorsi, rhomboids, pectoralis major and minor, and gravity, also inferiorly rotate scapula, depressing glenoid cavity. Additionally, levator scapulae muscle also assists in neck extension, ipsilateral rotation, and lateral flexion.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Function

When the spine is fix, levator scapulae elevate scapula and rotate its inferior angle medially. It often works in combination with other muscles like rhomboids and pectoralis minor to rotate down. Elevating or rotating one shoulder at a time would require muscles to stabilize the cervical spine and keep it immobile so it does not flex or rotate. Elevating both at once with equal amounts of pull on both sides of cervical spinal origins would counteract these forces. Downward rotation would be prevented by co - contraction of other muscles that elevate the spine, upper fibers of the trapezius, which is an upward rotator. When the shoulder is fix, levator scapulae rotate to the same side and flexes cervical spine laterally. When both shoulders are fix, simultaneous co - contraction of both levator scapulae muscles in equal amounts would not produce lateral flexion or rotation, and may produce straight flexion or extension of the cervical spine.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Relations

Muscle of this month is lovely little Levator Scapulae. If you sit at a desk, look down at your phone, or simply live the life of a modern - day human, you may have experience some pain in this region of your neck from time to time. Let's go over the anatomy of this muscle, recognize pain patterns and symptoms, and look at stretches and exercises to help reduce pain and prevent irritation. Actions: elevate scapula, downwardly rotate scapula, laterally flex head and neck, rotate head and neck to the same side, and Bilaterally it extend head and neck. Origin: transverse processes of first through fourth cervical vertebrae. Insertion: medial border of scapula, between superior angle and superior portion of spine of scapula. Nerves: cervical 3 4, and dorsal scapular C4 and 5. It is deep to trapezius, superficial on the side of the neck. It originates from the top 4 cervical vertebrae, and inserts on the top - most point of the scapula, at the medial - superior corner. It is a thin, flat muscle located just below the upper part of the trapezius.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Understanding the Levator Scapula Muscle

Understanding surgical anatomic relationships of motor nerves to levator scapulae muscle is imperative for surgical denervation of this muscle in patients with laterocollis. Levator scapulae muscle originates in the anterior aspect of the scapula and inserts into the upper cervical vertebrae and mastoid process. It travels beneath the upper fibers of the trapezius. This muscle acts to elevate the scapula and tilt the head toward the same side. Typical clinical features of this relatively rare CD symptom are lateral tilting of neck and elevation of shoulder. Rotation of the head is minimal, and so the head tilts laterally only in coronal plane. Sometimes the ear touches the shoulder, and because of the tonic nature of symptom,s there is no space between the neck and shoulder. Palpation of firm and tight LS muscle bundle in posterior cervical triangle is the most reliable diagnostic physical examination. According to anatomical study by Frank et al., Average of approximately two nerves from the cervical plexus emerge from beneath the posterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle in cephalad to caudad progression to enter the posterior triangle of the neck on their way to innervating levator scapulae. These cervical plexus contributions exhibit a fairly regular relationship to the emergence of eleventh nerve and auricular point along the posterior border of sternocleidomastoid muscle. After emerging from the posterior border of sternocleidomastoid to enter the posterior triangle of the neck, cervical plexus contributions to levator scapulae travel for variable distances posteriorly and inferiorly, sometimes branching or coming together. Ultimately, these nerves cross the anterior border of levator scapulae as 1 to 3 nerves in regular superior to inferior progression. Dorsal scapular nerve from brachial plexus exhibit highly variable anatomic relations in inferior aspect of the posterior triangle, and penetrate or give branches to levator scapulae in about 30% of examined cases. Levator scapulae muscle receives predictable motor supply from the cervical plexus. Contribution of nerve supply is reported to be 5. 5% from C2, 100% from C3 and C4, and 19% from C5 anterior branches. Nerve supply to LSM is not from the dorsal part of muscle, but from the ventrolateral surface, and because of this anatomy, denervation procedure is not difficult in anterior approach. Patients are operated on under endotracheal anesthesia and in supine position with their head rotated to opposite side of the surgical field. Muscle relaxant is not used except at induction of anesthesia to monitor intraoperative muscle contraction. I use an operative microscope for skin incision. The skin incision is about 8 cm long along the posterior border of SCM. Great auricular nerve, branches of external jugular vein, and accessory nerve are carefully identified and preserve. Great auricular nerve is followed along the posterior surface of SCM to the surface layer to LSM.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Definition

Levator scapulae muscle is a strap - like muscle found on either side of the back of the neck. When viewed from the posterior, muscles are masked by the trapezius muscle in the upper back. There are two of these muscles, one on the left, and one on the right side of the back of the neck. From their site of origin, they descend towards shoulder and upper back. Functionally, primary role of levator scapulae muscles is to elevate and rotate shoulders. Therefore, tightness in levator scapulae muscles is commonly associated with back, neck, and shoulder pain and dysfunction.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Anatomy of the Levator Scapulae

Each of the levator scapulae muscles originate from posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1, C2, C3, C4. In more simple terms, muscles arise from the back side of bony projections found in the first four cerebral vertebrae. Muscle inserts into the superior part of the medial border of the scapula from superior angle to smooth triangular space. To put it more simply, it is inserted towards top of the broad, inner side of each shoulder blade. Levator scapulae muscle is innervate by two nerve branches: nerves of the cervical plexus as well as the dorsal scapular nerve. Dorsal scapula arises from the root of C5 of brachial plexus. The Dorsal scapular nerve innervates three muscles: levator scapulae, rhomboid minor, and rhomboid major.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Levator Scapulae-Associated Pain

Pain in Levator Scapulae is one of the most common skeletal muscle complaints that people bring to health care professionals. This is because Levator Scapulae muscles can get very tight and inflame if they are overwork. This happens when shoulders are frequently elevate, and especially when individuals are slumping over. Therefore, pain in this muscle is common in people who work on computers. It is also common in people with a head forward posture, in people who regularly carry heavy bag on one shoulder, and in individuals who perform activities with repetitive arm movements, such as swimmers, tennis players, and shot putters. This type of pain is felt directly at the location of Levator Scapulae, as well as in structures surrounding the neck, shoulders, shoulder blades, and elsewhere in the upper back. Additionally, pain and tightness of this muscle can cause impaired movement of the neck and shoulders. It can even cause pain and dysfunction in cervical structures that could lead to cervicogenic headaches. Interestingly, much of the pain associated with Levator Scapulae is thought to be the result of anatomical variation that alters the insertion point of muscle. Chronic inflammation and pain associated with Levator Scapulae even has its own name - Levator Scapulae syndrome. This term is rarely used in modern medical literature and is mostly used historically.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

Levator scapulae muscles are superficial extrinsic muscles of the back that primarily function to elevate scapulae. Levator comes from the Latin levare, meaning to raise. Scapulae refer to scapulas, or shoulder blades, possibly originating from Greek skaptein, meaning to dig. In conjunction with other posterior axial - appendicular muscles, levator scapulae can inferiorly rotate glenoid cavity as well as extend and laterally flex the neck. Levator scapulae also serve role in connecting the axial skeleton with the superior appendicular skeleton. Levator scapulae can have involvement in numerous pathologies, including snapping scapula syndrome, levator scapulae syndrome, Sprengel deformity, cervical myofascial pain, and fibromyalgia.


The ''I Don't Know'' Muscle

The superficial layer of intrinsic muscles is largely covered by lattisimus dorsi, trapezius, levator scapulae and rhomboid muscles. The Splenius group has two parts; splenius capitis arises from spinous processes of C7 - T4 and nuchal ligament and inserts into the mastoid process and lateral third of superior nuchal line; splenius cervicis arises from spinous processes of T3 - T6 and inserts into posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C3. Splenius muscles wrap around the sides and back of the neck; they extend and laterally bend neck and head, and rotate head to the same side. They are innervate by medial branches of dorsal rami of spinal nerves C2 - C6. The erector spinae muscle group extends from the sacrum to the skull. It forms a prominent musculotendineous mass on each side of the vertebral column and lies within thoracolumbar fascia. Erector spinae can be divided into three vertical columns: laterally placed iliocostalis; intermediate longissimus; and medially placed spinalis muscle group. All three originate from iliac crest, dorsal aspect of sacrum, sacroiliac ligaments, and sacral and lumbar spinous processes. Erector spinae is largely covered by erector spinae aponeurosis, which is formed by tendons of longissimus thoracis medially and iliocostalis pars thoracis laterally. Erector spinae contain predominantly type I muscle fibers. The number and density of muscle fibers are highest in the lateral column and lowest in the medial column of erector spinae. This indicates that the lateral column is predominantly involved in initiating finer movements or maintaining posture, whereas the medial column is involved in initiating gross movement. Erector spinae receives its blood supply from segmental arteries - posterior intercostal, subcostal, and lumbar. Lateral and intermediate branches of dorsal rami of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves innervate erector spinae. The Iliocostalis muscle column has lumbar, thoracic and cervical parts. Iliocostalis lumborum arises from sacrum and iliac crests and inserts into angles of the lower six ribs. Iliocostalis thoracis fibers arise medial to insertion points of iliocostalis lumborum on angles of the upper six ribs. Iliocostalis cervicis originates below from angles of third to sixth ribs medial to insertion points of iliocostalis thoracis and inserts onto posterior tubercles of C4 to C6. Muscle bundles of iliocostalis, inserted into their respective ribs, run parallel to each other along a line which is defined by the caudal tip of posterior superior iliac spine and the lateral border of iliocostalis at the twelfth rib. Medial to iliocostalis lie largest and longest part of erector spinae, longissimus muscle group. Longissimus and iliocostalis are separate from each other posteriorly but usually not anteriorly in the lumbar region. Longissimus is divided into three parts according to the regions it traverse.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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