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Level Of Organization Is Blood

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Last Updated: 28 October 2020

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Living things are highly organized and structure, following a hierarchy that can be examined on a scale from small to large. Atom is the smallest and most fundamental unit of matter. It consists of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. Atoms form molecules. A molecule is a chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bonds. Many molecules that are biologically important are macromolecules, large molecules that are typically formed by polymerization. An example of a macromolecule is deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains instructions for the structure and functioning of all living organisms. Some cells contain aggregates of macromolecules surrounded by membranes; these are called organelles. Organelles are small structures that exist within cells. Examples of organelles include mitochondria and chloroplasts, which carry out indispensable functions: mitochondria produce energy to power cell, while chloroplasts enable green plants to utilize energy in sunlight to make sugars. All living things are made of cells; cell itself is the smallest fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms. Some organisms consist of single cell and others are multicellular. Cells are classified as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotes are single-celled or colonial organisms that do not have membrane-bound nuclei or organelles; in contrast, cells of eukaryotes do have membrane-bound organelles and membrane-bound nucleus. In larger organisms, cells combine to make tissues, which are groups of similar cells carrying out similar or related functions. Organs are collections of tissues grouped together performing a common function. Organs are present not only in animals but also in plants. An organ system is a higher level of organization that consists of functionally related organs. Mammals have many organ systems. For instance, circulatory systems transport blood through the body and to and from lungs; it includes organs such as the heart and blood vessels. Organisms are individual living entities. For example, each tree in the forest is an organism. Single-celled prokaryotes and single-celled eukaryotes are also considered organisms and are typically referred to as microorganisms. All individuals of species living within a specific area are collectively called population. For example, forest may include many pine trees. All of these pine trees represent the population of pine trees in this forest. Different populations may live in the same specific area. For example, forests with pine trees include populations of flowering plants and also insects and microbial populations. A community is a sum of populations inhabiting a particular area. For instance, all of the trees, flowers, insects, and other populations in the forest form a forest community. The forest itself is an ecosystem. The ecosystem consists of all living things in a particular area together with abiotic, non-living parts of that environment such as nitrogen in soil or rain water. At the highest level of organization, biosphere is a collection of all ecosystems, and it represents zones of life on earth. It includes land, water, and even the atmosphere to a certain extent.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Tissues in Levels of Organization

Tissues are a group of similar cells of the same origin that carry out specific functions together. Humans have four different types of basic tissues. Connective tissues such as bone tissue are made up of fibrous cells and give shape and structure to organs. Muscle tissue is made up of cells that can contract together and allow animals to move. Epithelial tissues make up outer layers of organs, such as skin or outer layer of the stomach. Nervous tissue is made of specialized cells that transmit information through electrochemical impulses, such as tissue of nerves, spinal cord, and brain.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Level 1: Cells

The first and most basic level of organization is cellular level. The cell is the basic unit of life and the smallest unit capable of reproduction. While cells vary greatly in their structure and function based on type of organism, all cells have a few things in common. Cells are made up of organic molecules, contain nucleic acids, are filled with fluid called cytoplasm, and have membrane made out of lipids. Cells also contain many structures within cytoplasm called organelles, which perform various cellular functions. Cells may be prokaryotic in bacteria and archaea, or eukaryotic in plants, animals, protists, and fungi. In humans, most cells combine to form tissues, but some cells are found independent of solid tissues and have their own functions. Red blood cells found circulating in the bloodstream carrying oxygen throughout the human body is an example of an independent cell.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Level 4: Organ Systems

An organ system is a collection of organs that that work together to perform similar function. There are eleven different organ systems in the human body, each with its own specific functions. One example is the digestive system, which is made up of many organs that work together to digest and absorb nutrients from food. While most organ systems control few specific physiological processes, some processes are more complex and require multiple organ systems to work together. For example, blood pressure is controlled by a combination of the renal system, circulatory system, and nervous system. Levels of Organization in Animals: organism contains organ systems made up of organs that consist of tissues, which are in turn made up of cells.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Levels of Organization in Biology

Levels of organization are structures in nature, usually defined by part-whole relationships, with things at higher levels being composed of things at next lower level. Typical levels of organization that one find in literature include atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organismal, group, population, community, ecosystem, landscape, and biosphere levels. References to levels of organization and related hierarchical depictions of nature are prominent in life sciences and their philosophical study, and appear not only in introductory textbooks and lectures, but also in cutting-edge research articles and reviews. In philosophy, perennial debates such as reduction, emergence, mechanistic explanation, interdisciplinary relations, natural selection, and many other topics, also rely substantially on notion. Yet, in spite of the ubiquity of notion, levels of organization have received little explicit attention in biology or its philosophy. Usually they appear in the background as an implicit conceptual framework that is associated with vague intuitions. Attempts at providing general and broadly applicable definitions of levels of organization have not met wide acceptance. In recent years, several authors have put forward localized and minimalistic accounts of levels, and others have raised doubts about the usefulness of notion as a whole. There are many kinds of levels that one may find in philosophy, science, and everyday lifethe term is notoriously ambiguous. Besides levels of organization, there are levels of abstraction, realization, Being, analysis, processing, theory, science, complexity, and many others. In this article, focus will be on levels of organization and debates associated with them, and other kinds of levels will only be discussed when they are relevant to this main topic.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Basic Body Structure and Organization

Before you begin to study different structures and functions of the human body, it is helpful to consider its basic architecture; that is, how its smallest parts are assembled into larger structures. It is convenient to consider structures of the body in terms of fundamental levels of organization that increase in complexity: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms and biosphere. Figure 3. Organ Systems of the Human Body. Organs that work together are grouped into organ systems. Organism level is the highest level of organization. Organism is a living being that has a cellular structure and that can independently perform all physiologic functions necessary for life. In multicellular organisms, including humans, all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of the body work together to maintain the life and health of organism.


The Levels of Organization

To study the chemical level of organization, scientists consider the simplest building blocks of matter: subatomic particles, atoms and molecules. All matter in the universe is composed of one or more unique pure substances called elements, familiar examples of which are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, and iron. The smallest unit of any of these pure substances is atom. Atoms are made up of subatomic particles such as proton, electrons and neutron. Two or more atoms combine to form molecule, such as water molecules, proteins, and sugars found in living things. Molecules are chemical building blocks of all body structure. Cell is the smallest independently functioning unit of a living organism. Even bacteria, which are extremely small, independently-living organisms, have cellular structure. Each bacterium is a single cell. All living structures of human anatomy contain cells, and almost all functions of human physiology are performed by cells or are initiated by cells. Human cells typically consist of flexible membranes that enclose cytoplasm, water-base cellular fluid together with a variety of tiny functioning units called organelles. In humans, as in all organisms, cells perform all the functions of life. Tissue is a group of many similar cells that work together to perform specific function. The organ is anatomically distinct structure of the body composed of two or more tissue types. Each organ performs one or more specific physiological functions. Organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform major functions or meet physiological needs of the body. This book covers eleven distinct organ systems in the human body. Assigning organs to organ systems can be imprecise since organs that belong to one system can also have functions integral to another system. In fact, most organs contribute to more than one system. Organism level is the highest level of organization. Organism is a living being that has a cellular structure and that can independently perform all physiologic functions necessary for life. In multicellular organisms, including humans, all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of the body work together to maintain the life and health of the organism.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Critical Thinking Questions

You have probably had blood drawn from superficial vein in your arm, which was then sent to the Lab for analysis. Some of the most common blood testsfor, instance, those measuring lipid or glucose levels in plasmadetermine which substances are present in blood and in what quantities. Other blood tests check for composition of blood itself, including quantities and types of formed elements. One such test, called hematocrit, measures the percentage of RBCs, clinically known as erythrocytes, in blood sample. It is performed by spinning blood sample in a specialized centrifuge, process that causes heavier elements to suspend within the blood sample to separate from lightweight, liquid plasma. Because the heaviest elements in blood are erythrocytes, these settle at the very bottom of the hematocrit tube. Locate above erythrocytes is a pale, thin layer composed of remaining formed elements of blood. These are WBCs, clinically know as leukocytes, and platelets, cell fragments also called thrombocytes. This layer is referred to as buffy coat because of its color; it normally constitutes less than 1 percent of blood sample. Above the buffy coat is Blood plasma, normally pale, straw-colored fluid, which constitutes the remainder of the sample. The volume of erythrocytes after centrifugation is also commonly referred to as packed cell volume. In normal blood, about 45 percent of the sample is erythrocytes. Hematocrit of any one sample can vary significantly, however, about 36-50 percent, according to gender and other factors. Normal hematocrit values for females range from 37 to 47, with a mean value of 41; for males, hematocrit ranges from 42 to 52, with a mean of 47. The percentage of other formed elements, WBCs and platelets, is extremely small, so it is not normally considered with hematocrit. So means plasma percentage is the percent of blood that is not erythrocytes: for females, it is approximately 59, and for males, it is approximately 53.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

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