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Level Of Organization Is The Heart

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Last Updated: 01 December 2020

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Living things are highly organized and structure, following a hierarchy that can be examined on a scale from small to large. Atom is the smallest and most fundamental unit of matter. It consists of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. Atoms form molecules. A molecule is a chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bonds. Many molecules that are biologically important are macromolecules, large molecules that are typically formed by polymerization. An example of a macromolecule is deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains instructions for the structure and functioning of all living organisms.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Level 1: Cells

The first and most basic level of organization is cellular level. The cell is the basic unit of life and the smallest unit capable of reproduction. While cells vary greatly in their structure and function based on type of organism, all cells have a few things in common. Cells are made up of organic molecules, contain nucleic acids, are filled with fluid called cytoplasm, and have membrane made out of lipids. Cells also contain many structures within cytoplasm called organelles, which perform various cellular functions. Cells may be prokaryotic in bacteria and archaea, or eukaryotic in plants, animals, protists, and fungi. In humans, most cells combine to form tissues, but some cells are found independent of solid tissues and have their own functions. Red blood cells found circulating in the bloodstream carrying oxygen throughout the human body is an example of an independent cell.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Level 2: Tissues

After cell, tissue is the next level of organization in the human body. Tissue is a group of connected cells that have similar function. There are four basic types of human tissues: epithelial, muscle, nervous, and connective tissues. These four tissue types, which are shown in Figure below, make up all organs of the human body. Connective tissue is made up of cells that form the body structure. Examples include bone and cartilage. Epithelial tissue is made up of cells that line inner and outer body surfaces, such as skin and the lining of the digestive tract. Epithelial tissue protects the body and its internal organs, secretes substances such as hormones, and absorbs substances such as nutrients. Muscle tissue is made up of cells that have unique ability to contract, or become shorter. Muscles attach to bones enable the body to move. Nervous tissue is made up of neurons, or nerve cells, that carry electrical messages. Nervous tissue make up the brain and nerves that connect the brain to all parts of the body.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Level 4: Organ Systems

Table

Organ SystemMajor Tissues and OrgansFunction
CardiovascularHeart; blood vessels; bloodTransports oxygen, hormones, and nutrients to the body cells. Moves wastes and carbon dioxide away from cells.
LymphaticLymph nodes; lymph vesselsDefend against infection and disease, moves lymph between tissues and the blood stream.
DigestiveEsophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestineDigests foods and absorbs nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and water.
EndocrinePituitary gland, hypothalamus; adrenalglands; ovaries; testesProduces hormones that communicate between cells.
IntegumentarySkin, hair, nailsProvides protection from injury and water loss, physical defense against infection by microorganisms, andtemperature control.
MuscularCardiac (heart) muscle; skeletal muscle; smooth muscle; tendonsInvolved in movement and heat production.
NervousBrain, spinal cord; nervesCollects, transfers, and processes information.
ReproductiveFemale: uterus; vagina; fallopian tubes; ovaries Male: penis; testes; seminal vesiclesProduces gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones .
RespiratoryTrachea, larynx, pharynx, lungsBrings air to sites where gas exchange can occur between the blood and cells (around body) or blood and air (lungs).
SkeletalBones, cartilage; ligamentsSupports and protects soft tissues of body; produces blood cells; stores minerals.
UrinaryKidneys; urinary bladderRemoves extra water , salts, and waste products from blood and body; controls pH; controls water and salt balance.
ImmuneBone marrow; spleen; white blood cellsDefends against diseases.

After tissues, organs are the next level of the organization of the human body. An organ is a structure that consists of two or more types of tissues that work together to do the same job. Examples of human organs include the brain, heart, lungs, skin, and kidneys. Human organs are organized into organ systems, many of which are shown in Figure below. An organ system is a group of organs that work together to carry out complex overall function. Each organ of the system does part of a larger job. Many of the organ systems that make up the human body are represented here. What is the overall function of each organ system? Your bodys 12 organ systems are show below. Your organ systems do not work alone in your body. They must all be able to work together. For example, one of the most important functions of organ systems is to provide cells with oxygen and nutrients and to remove toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide. A number of organ systems, including cardiovascular and respiratory systems, all work together to do this.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Basic Body Structure and Organization

To study the chemical level of organization, scientists consider the simplest building blocks of matter: subatomic particles, atoms and molecules. All matter in the universe is composed of one or more unique pure substances called elements, familiar examples of which are hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, and iron. The smallest unit of any of these pure substances is atom. Atoms are made up of subatomic particles such as proton, electrons and neutron. Two or more atoms combine to form molecule, such as water molecules, proteins, and sugars found in living things. Molecules are chemical building blocks of all body structure. Cell is the smallest independently functioning unit of a living organism. Even bacteria, which are extremely small, independently-living organisms, have cellular structure. Each bacterium is a single cell. All living structures of human anatomy contain cells, and almost all functions of human physiology are performed by cells or are initiated by cells. Human cells typically consist of flexible membranes that enclose cytoplasm, water-base cellular fluid together with a variety of tiny functioning units called organelles. In humans, as in all organisms, cells perform all the functions of life. Tissue is a group of many similar cells that work together to perform specific function. The organ is anatomically distinct structure of the body composed of two or more tissue types. Each organ performs one or more specific physiological functions. An organ system is a group of organs that work together to perform major functions or meet the physiological needs of the body. This book covers eleven distinct organ systems in the human body. Assigning organs to organ systems can be imprecise since organs that belong to one system can also have functions integral to another system. In fact, most organs contribute to more than one system. Organism level is the highest level of organization. Organism is a living being that has a cellular structure and that can independently perform all physiologic functions necessary for life. In multicellular organisms, including humans, all cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of the body work together to maintain the life and health of the organism.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

1.2: Levels of Organization

Most basic levels include atoms, molecules, and biomolecules. Atoms, smallest units of ordinary matter, are composed of nucleus and electrons. Molecules comprise two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds, most commonly covalent, ionic, or metallic bonds. Biomolecules are molecules found in living organisms, including proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Biomolecules are often polymerslarge, molecules that are created from smaller, repeating units. For instance, proteins are composed of amino acids, and nucleic acids are composed of nucleotides. Biomolecules can be endogenous or exogenous. Endogenous means that biomolecules are produced inside a living organism. Biomolecules can also be consume; for example, cows get carbohydrates from digesting grass, but grass must produce carbohydrates through photosynthesis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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