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There is a relationship between traffic speed, volume and density for highway, and how these factors relate to Level of Service ratings. Traffic speed and flow on urban streets are determined primarily by intersection capacity, which is affected by traffic volumes on cross streets and leave turn signal phases. As these tables indicate, traffic congestion is a non-linear function, meaning that small reduction in urban-peak traffic volume can cause a proportionally larger reduction in delay. For example, 5% reduction in traffic volumes on congested highways may cause a 10-30% increase in average vehicle speeds. As a result, even relatively small changes in traffic volume or capacity on congested roads can provide relatively large reductions in traffic delay. Free Flow Traffic. Users are practically unaffected by the presence of other vehicles on road section. Choice of speed and maneuverability are free. The level of comfort is excellent as drivers need minimal attention. Volume to capacity ratio is usually below 0. 2 steady Traffic. The presence of other vehicles begins to affect the behavior of individual drivers. Choice of speed is free, but maneuverability has somewhat decrease. Comfort is excellent, as drivers simply need to keep an eye on nearby vehicles. Steady Traffic but Limited. The presence of other vehicles affects drivers. The choice of speed is affected and maneuvering requires vigilance. The level of comfort decreases quickly at this level, because driver has a growing impression of being caught between other vehicles. Steady Traffic at High Density. Speed and maneuverability are severely reduce. Low level of comfort for driver, as collisions with other vehicles must constantly be avoid. A slight increase in traffic risks causing some operational problems and saturating the network. Traffic at Saturation. Low but uniform speed. Maneuverability is possible only under constraint of another vehicle. Users are frustrate. Congestion. Unstable speed with formation of waiting lines at several points. Cycles of stop and departure with no apparent pattern because created by the behavior of other drivers. A high level of vigilance is required for users with practically no comfort. At this level, the volume to capacity ratio exceeds 1, implying that the road segment is use above design capacity. The Rate of Traffic Service is maximal hourly rate that can cross point or road section according to road, traffic and control conditions. Therefore, each road infrastructure has five traffic rates of Service. Traffic reports also use color codes to illustrate traffic conditions such as green, yellow and red.
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Austroads, Australia and New Zealands lead Transport Planning organization, developing a Multi-Modal Level Of Service Framework which assesses transport system performance from the perspective of various users and Planning objectives. It does not require extensive new data or computations. This Framework is intended to help practitioners and decision-makers better define appropriate levels of Customer Service in order to balance competing demands in roadway design. Table 18 illustrates examples of Multi-Modal LOS Ratings which, like conventional roadway LOS Ratings, primarily measure travel speeds and delay. Table 18 Examples Of Multi-Modal LOS Ratings This Table summarizes LOS performance indicators that primarily measure travel speeds and delay. Table 19 summarizes indicators used in the Australian proposed rating system, which reflect a wider range of Planning objectives besides travel speed and delay. Table 19 Overview Of proposed LOS Framework New York City has established these goals, strategies and Metrics for Evaluating City street performance. This Framework is applied to several Case Studies which demonstrate its feasibility and utility. They show that Multi-Modal indicators can help transport agencies be more comprehensive and transparent when making trade-offs between the quality of travel in different modes.
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