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Level of support for evolution

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Last Updated: 21 October 2020

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Level of support for evolution

Evolutionary biology
Evolutionary biology portal, Category, , Related topics

Note that survey participants represent 12. 5% of RWUs and 9. 1% of PCs full - time students. Except for larger enrollment of female than male students in Biology at RWU, Biology profile is in accordance with the entire university, trend that coincides with bio - majors subsample; Nonmajors subsample has a high representation of sophomores who are expected to enroll in Science core during their second academic year. Pc has higher enrollment of female than male students in college and even higher enrollment of female than male biologists; rest of Biology profile is in accordance with the entire college; bio - majors subsample has higher freshman and lower sophomore representation than Biology department totals; Nonmajors subsample has high representation of juniors percentage of RWU versus PC Students who consider one of following explanations about Origin and development of life on Earth should be teach in Science classes: = Evolution, B = equal time to Evolution, creationism, intelligent design, C = do not know enough to say. Comparisons between institutions: Biology majors, chi - square = 1. 077, df = 2, P = 0. 58. B Nonmajors, chi - square = 9. 0, df = 2, P = 0. 01; asterisk indicates sign test two - tail pairwise comparison P 0. 05. C Biology freshman, chi - square = 0. 307, df = 2, P = 0. 85. D Biology sophomore, chi - square = 1. 459, df = 2, P = 0. 48. E Biology junior, chi - square = 8. 282, df = 2, P = 0. 016. F Biology senior, chi - square = 0. 260, df = 2, P = 0. 87 percentage of RWU versus PC students who consider one of the following statements is consistent with ID: = no opinion, B = ID is Religious doctrine consistent with creationism, C = ID is scientific alternative to Evolution and of equal scientific validity among Scientists, D = ID is scientific theory about Origin and Evolution of life on Earth, E = ID is not scientific but has been propose to counter Evolution base on false scientific claims. Comparisons between institutions: Biology majors, chi - square = 20. 943, df = 4, P 0. 001. B Nonmajors, chi - square = 10. 946, df = 4, P = 0. 02. C Biology freshman, chi - square = 27. 152, df = 4, P 0. 001. D Biology sophomore, chi - square = 35. 625, df = 4, P 0. 001. E Biology junior, chi - square = 16. 577, df = 4, P = 0. 002. F Biology senior, chi - square = 34. 145, df = 4, P 0. 001. Asterisks indicate sign test two - tail pairwise comparisons P 0. 05 percentage of RWU versus PC Students who think one of the following statements fits best their position concerning Evolution: = hearing about Evolution makes me appreciate factual explanation about the origin of life on Earth and its place in the Universe, B = hearing about Evolution makes no difference to me because Evolution and creationism are in harmony. Comparisons between institutions: Biology majors, chi - square = 1. 001, df = 1, P = 0. 317. B Nonmajors, chi - square = 0. 027, df = 1, P = 0. 86. C Biology freshman, chi - square = 2. 317, df = 1, P = 0. 12. D Biology sophomore, chi - square = 1. 173, df = 1, P = 0. 18. E Biology junior, chi - square = 3. 463, df = 1, P = 0.

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Religious

A fundamental part of Abdul - Baha's teachings on evolution is the belief that all life comes from the same origin: origin of all material life is one. He states that from this sole origin, complete diversity of life was generate: consider the world of created beings, how varied and diverse they are in species, yet with one sole origin, he explains that a slow, gradual process leads to development of complex entities: growth and development of all beings is gradual; this is universal divine organization and natural system. Seeds do not at once become tree; embryos do not at once become man; minerals do not suddenly become stone. No, they grow and develop gradually and attain limit of perfection.

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Medicine and industry

One major field for future evolutionary research with particular biomedical perspective is the study of alterations of natural selection, understood as differential reproductive success of carriers of different genes, and its impact on human morphology and pathology. Over the entire evolution of humankind, there was very significant opportunity for the process of natural selection. It mostly occurs due to high levels of differential mortality that allow less than half of individuals born to pass on their genes to next generations, eliminating the other half. Until mid - 19th century, infant and child mortality was so high that survivorship to age 15 years was around 50% or somewhat less, even in countries presently considered to be developed. Although some deaths happen without link to individual genetic endowment, many are linked to varying physical strength, levels of immunity, metabolic disorders, vision defects and less common congenital defects. Differential fertility contributes much less to overall opportunity for selection since there was little genetic variation in this characteristic. This situation has changed drastically during the last approximately 150 years with the most welcome advent of sanitation and generally available medical treatments. The opportunity for natural selection through differential mortality has been so severely reduced that, at the end of the 20th century, more than 90% of newborns had opportunity to fully participate in reproduction of the next generation, while fertility became dependent on conscious decisions of individuals and couples in both senses of avoiding births and giving birth by infertile couples. For the first time in the evolution of humanity, majority of natural selection pressures were relaxed to the apparent benefit of all of us. An increase in variability of heritable traits is a predictable outcome of such relaxation of selection as its stabilizing effects are diminish. This might not be true for psychiatric disorders, where social pressure may still influence reproductive success. There is also evidence that, at least for some disorders, psychiatric disorders may be linked to allele variations that predispose to differential susceptibility and adverse effects in terms of developing disorder. At genetic level, alleles do not have absolute adaptive or maladaptive value, they assume it by interaction with the rest of the genome and epigenetics determines their Darwinian fitness. Genes producing pathological effects in the past may not be considered maladaptive in an environment where there is effective treatment for diabetes. One can multiply such clinically relevant examples of relaxed natural selection. For example, increase in the range of human biological variation has been documented for plethora of anatomical structures. Some anomalous arteries have more than double their prevalence, and thyroidea ima branch of aortic arch had disappeared completely by the end of the 20th century. Climatic factors have been proposed to influence altered prevalence of internal thoracic artery.


CONCLUSION

Clearly, ramifications of natural selection for medical practice and research are wide - ranging. To be prepared to practice medicine in the 21st century, medical students need to master the concept of natural selection, as well as other evolutionary concepts fundamental to medicine. The application of Blooms taxonomy to master the fundamental evolutionary concept of natural selection is summarized in Table 2. The importance of this sort of basic evolutionary background for medical practice is likely to increase over time. The case that well illustrates this point is the continuing advance of genetic technologies. Next generation sequencing developments are reducing cost and increasing speeds at rates in excess of those predicted by Moores Law. This will mean even greater amounts and sophistication of genetic data available for individual patients. Yet even with this increase in genomic information, there are signs of trouble with regard to gaps in biomedical researchers ' training. In addition, evolutionary medicine is a vibrant and growing field of inquiry. June 2014 query on Entrez Pubmed search engine returned 7025 citations under term evolutionary medicineless than one - half of that return from term personalized medicine at 15 207; 2 years later, those same terms returned 10 354 citations under term evolutionary medicine and term personalized medicine had grown to 29 589 citations. This indicates that the difference between publications focusing on these two areas has grown over the last 2 years. Despite this difference in emphasis in biomedical literature, we would argue that the relevance of many evolutionary medicine tenets such as evolutionary mismatch is actually increasing. This is due to increasing globalization and export of Western lifestyles around the world, and the rate at which Western societies are accelerating away from conditions under which our species evolve. These forms of environmental change will bring about new health challenges that will be best addrest from an evolutionary perspective. For example, 21st century has seen tremendous strides in technological development. One of the newest of these, nanotechnology, will widely introduce novel materials into the biosphere. Nanoparticles may result from natural processes, be industrial byproducts or be specifically engineered for their nanoscale properties. Humans have been exposed to naturally produced nanoparticles for some time; however, last decade has seen a massive increase in and revolution in types of engineered nanomaterials. These new, engineered nanoparticles include particulates that have never been studied and other particulates that have been previously only been studied as components of mixtures. This drastic growth in production of nanomaterials will become an immediate concern for medical toxicology, since at present little research is being directed at nanosafety. Evolutionary theory alerts us to the possibility that these new compounds could be highly toxic to living organisms. In addition, given that nanoparticles are already in use as biocides against bacteria, evolutionary theory suggests that there is strong potential for rapid evolution of nanoparticle resistance and spread of this throughout the microbiome.

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Beliefs About Human Evolution

Tuesday is the 210 anniversary of Charles Darwin's birthday day now celebrated by some as Darwin Day. Darwin is best known for his theory of evolution through natural selection. When Darwin's work was first made public in 1859, it shocked Britain's religious establishment. And while today it is accepted by virtually all scientists, evolutionary theory is still rejected by many Americans, often because it conflicts with their religious beliefs about divine creation. While not an official holiday, Darwin Day has been adopted by scientific and humanist groups to promote everything from scientific literacy to secularism. This year, dozens of events have been planned worldwide, many of them anchored by scientific talks or symposiums. To mark occasion, here are six facts about public views on evolution, as well as other aspects of debate in the US and elsewhere: 1 Roughly eight - in - ten US adults say humans have evolved over time, according to data from a new Pew Research Center study. This includes one - third of all Americans who say that humans evolve due to processes like natural selection with no involvement by God or higher power, along with 48% who believe human evolution occurs through processes guided or allowed by God or higher power. The same survey found that 18% of Americans reject evolution entirely, saying humans have always existed in their present form. 2 Around four - in - ten white evangelical Protestants say humans have always existed in their present form, and about a quarter of black Protestants share this view, according to a new study. Among white mainline Protestants, just 16% say humans have always existed in their present form. Similar shares of Catholics and religiously unaffiliated say the same. Only among religiously unaffiliated - those who describe their Religion as atheist, agnostic or nothing in particular - do the majority accept evolution via natural selection with no involvement from God or higher power. Both Protestants and Catholics are considerably more likely to say evolution was guided or allowed by God than they are to say that humans evolved due to processes such as natural selection, or to say that humans have always existed in their present form. 3 Scientists overwhelmingly agree that humans evolve over time, and most Americans are aware that this is the case. Among scientists connected to the American Association for Advancement of Science, 98% say they believe humans evolved over time. Roughly three - quarters of Americans perceive that most biological scientists hold this view, according to a new study. Those in the general public who reject evolution are divided on whether there is scientific consensus on the topic: 46% say most biological scientists think humans have evolved due to processes such as natural selection, and 52% say most biological scientists think humans have always existed in their present form. 4 series of Court decisions have prohibited teaching of creationism or intelligent design in Public Schools.

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Methods

Along path leads from origins of primitive life, which exist at least 3. 5 billion years ago, to the profusion and diversity of life that exists today. This path is best understood as a product of evolution. Contrary to popular opinion, neither the term nor the idea of biological evolution began with Charles Darwin and his foremost work, on Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Many scholars from ancient Greek philosophers had inferred that similar species descend from common ancestor. Word evolution first appeared in the English language in 1647 in nonbiological connection, and it became widely used in English for all sorts of progressions from simpler beginnings. The term Darwin most often used to refer to biological evolution was descent with modification, which remains a good brief definition of process today. Darwin proposed that evolution could be explained by differential survival of organisms following their naturally occurring variationa process he termed Natural Selection. According to this view, offspring of organisms differ from one another and from their parents in ways that are heritablethat. Is, they can pass on differences genetically to their own offspring. Furthermore, organisms in nature typically produce more offspring than can survive and reproduce given the constraints of food, space, and other environmental resources. If a particular offspring has traits that give it an advantage in a particular environment, that organism will be more likely to survive and pass on those traits. As differences accumulate over generations, populations of organisms diverge from their ancestors. Darwin's original hypothesis has undergone extensive modification and expansion, but central concepts stand firm. Studies in genetics and molecular biologyfields unknown in Darwin's timehave, explained the occurrence of hereditary variations that are essential to Natural Selection. Genetic variations result from changes, or mutations, in the nucleotide sequence of DNA, molecule that genes are made from. Such changes in DNA can now be detected and described with great precision. Genetic mutations arise by chance. They may or may not equip organism with better means for surviving in its environment. But if a gene variant improves adaptation to the environment, organisms carrying that gene are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without it. Over time, their descendants will tend to increase, changing the average characteristics of the population. Although the genetic variation on which Natural Selection works is based on random or chance elements, Natural Selection itself produces adaptive change very opposite of chance. Scientists also have gained understanding of processes by which new species originate. A new species is one in which individuals cannot mate and produce viable descendants with individuals of preexisting species. The split of one species into two often starts because a group of individuals becomes geographically separate from the rest.

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Interinstitutional Comparisons

Students at secular RWU and Catholic PC had both similar and contrasting views concerning evolution. Similarities include: 76% of biology majors or 76% of nonmajors value the factual explanation evolution provides about the origin of life and its place in the universe; 86% of biology majors or 79% of nonmajors prefer science courses where human evolution is discuss, and 76% of biology majors or 79% of nonmajors welcome questions concerning evolution in exams. Biology freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors had high acceptance of evolution in these three areas at both institutions. Note that 23% of biology majors and 24% of nonmajors consider that evolution and creationism are in harmony. Biology freshmen or sophomores favor this view more than juniors or seniors at both institutions. Contrasting views include: 64% of biology majors or 42% of RWU versus 62% of PC nonmajors support exclusive teaching of evolution in Science classes; PC nonmajors have particularly strong philosophic - Scientific foundations. Note that 29% of biology majors or 38% of nonmajors favor equal time in Science class for evolution, creationism, and ID. Biology freshmen or sophomores favor this view more than juniors or seniors at both institutions. Only 52% of biology majors or 33% of nonmajors admit to accepting evolution openly regardless of other opinions. Few biology freshmen, sophomores, juniors, or seniors admit to accepting evolution privately to avoid conflicts with friends and family. Overall belief in creationism was low: 6% of RWU or PC biology majors and 7% of RWU or PC nonmajors admit to believing in creationism and expressing it openly, while 2% of RWU or PC biology majors and 4% of RWU or PC nonmajors acknowledge believing in creationism but not discussing it openly. Note that 21% of PC biology freshmen admit to believing in creationism and expressing it openly. Combined responses of biology majors or nonmajors who accept evolution and express it openly plus those who accept evolution privately show contrasting overall acceptance of evolution between biology majors and nonmajors. Freshman biology majors alone show higher overall acceptance of evolution than nonmajors, suggesting precollege background in support of evolution, probably linked to household influence and / or high school Science Education. Overall acceptance of evolution was particularly high when compared to the rest of biology majors alone: sophomore, junior, or senior. Notable difference between RWU and PC concerned students ' views about ID: 47% of RWU versus 17% of PC biology majors and 49% of RWU versus 27% of PC nonmajors had no opinion about ID. However, 16% of RWU versus 32% of PC biology majors think ID is a religious doctrine consistent with creationism, view supported by 14% of RWU versus 24% of PC freshmen, 20% of RWU versus 44% of PC sophomores, 15% of RWU versus 36% of PC juniors, or 16% of RWU versus 34% of PC seniors.

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Discussion

These results may represent general tendency among secular or religious liberal arts private colleges in Northeastern USA, particularly those similar to RWU or PC; more than 90% of students at both institutions are native to New England and the East Coast of the USA. Because public support of Science correlates positively to the level of schooling and income, local and regional differential acceptance of evolution should be expected if similar assessments were conducted at public or other private secular / religious institutions. Note that acceptance of evolution in the Northeastern USA is highest nationwide. Objections to teaching evolution in Science class might come from misinformed adults, rather than college students. In fact, acceptance of the theory of evolution in the USA increases with the level of education, from 20% in high school to 52% and 65% among college graduates or postgraduates, respectively; our interinstitutional or intrainstitutional comparisons results are comparable to or higher than the latter. Adults who, for example, believe that humans were designed in their present form within the last 10 000 years coincide with the views of the least educated population. Numerous documents illustrate this further and help the US understand the transition of evolution / creationism controversy from high school to college. Because parents and community leaders influence high school policies, teachers avoid conflicts with them by weakening the Science curriculum. To comply with parents ' demands and students ' curiosity for catchy jargon, such as intelligent design, 43% of high school teachers are willing to dedicate equal time to Science and ID, and 30% and 31% admit to having omitted evolution from their lessons or including nonscientific substitutes to evolution in their classes due to pressure, respectively. As a result, students arrive at college with weak Science backgrounds; our data on nonmajors acceptance of evolution for both interinstitutional and intrainstitutional comparisons demonstrate that. Although the majority of RWU and PC biology majors seem receptive to learning evolution, possible trend at sister institutions in Northeastern USA, it is crucial to continue assessing their perception and tendency to accept scientific principles, particularly now that objections to evolution resurface in North American and European Education systems, which nourish each other and influence worlds. The major implication of our findings, for the purpose of curricular / pedagogical reform, is that evolutionthe course, core theme of all sciences, centerpiece of all naturalistic explanations about atmosphere should be required at and integrated into all educational levels. Evolutionary theory should be offered widely and taught without distinction between biology majors and nonmajors as part of their Science literacy. Our study demonstrates that students are enthusiastic about learning factual explanations about the origin and diversification of life, including humans, and that contact with biology courses determines their acceptance of evolutionary theory. Higher - Education and outreach programs in biology for school teachers are fundamental to integrating evolution into our society culture. Biology School Teachers in the USA rely on poor to excellent evolution state Education standards that guide their teaching practices.

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The evidence for evolution

Darwin and other 19 - century biologists find compelling evidence for biological evolution in comparative study of living organisms, in their geographic distribution, and in fossil remains of extinct organisms. Since Darwin's time, evidence from these sources has become considerably stronger and more comprehensive, while biological disciplines that have emerged more recentlygenetics, biochemistry, physiology, ecology, animal behaviour, and especially molecular biologyhave supplied powerful additional evidence and detailed confirmation. The amount of information about evolutionary history stored in DNA and proteins of living things is virtually unlimited; scientists can reconstruct any detail of the evolutionary history of life by investing sufficient time and laboratory resources. Evolutionists are no longer concerned with obtaining evidence to support the fact of evolution, but rather are concerned with what sorts of knowledge can be obtained from different sources of evidence. The following sections identify the most productive of these sources and illustrate the types of information they have provide.

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Sources

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