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Base on the effectiveness of the listening process, three levels of listening have been identify. Level 1 is that of Non - Listening and is the least desirable, followed by Level 2 which is Passive Listening. Level 3 is Active Listening, which is most desirable. Though we listen at all three levels during the course of day depending on our interest and situation, it is beneficial to move to Level 3 for maximum listening effectiveness. Good managers and leaders spend more time listening at Level 3. Level 1 - Non - L istening: Here, listener may appear to be listening but actually he is more occupied with his own thoughts. He is minimally aware of speaker speaking. He is likely to appear detached and will be unresponsive and Passive. Level 2 - Passive Listening: Passive Listening is more about hearing than actually listening. Listeners superficially hear words but do not understand in depth what is being say. He concentrates on word content of message rather than feelings and emotions associated with the message. He does not get much involved in communication activity, and rather than contributing equally to conversational exchange, he merely speaks to. Level 3 - Active Listening: This is the most desirable form of listening wherein active listeners give full attention to what is being say. Listeners concentrate on what is being said and also motivate the speaker to speak, making it easier for the speaker to deliver message. The active listener not only comprehends messages better but is also in a better position to remember and recall message.S He not only pays attention to word content but also concentrates on emotional and non - verbal aspects of the message. In Active Listening, listener is directly involved in conversation. He provides feedback to speakers and voices his opinions and arguments.
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At this level, people stay at surface of listening and may be thinking about comments and questions they want to make or advice they want to give. They try to hear what the speaker is saying, but make little effort to understand the speaker's point of view. Level 2 listeners tend to listen logically, being concerned about content more than feeling,s and remain emotionally detached from conversation. Level 2 listening can lead to dangerous misunderstandings because the listener is concentrating only slightly on how things are being say. At level 3, it is obvious that person is not listening,. However, at level 2, speaker may be lulled into a false sense of being listened to and understood.
Listening is negatively affected by low concentration, trying too hard, jumping ahead, and / or focusing on style instead of substance. Act of listening may be affected by barriers that impede the flow of information. These barriers include distractions, inability to prioritize information, tendency to assume or judge based on little or no information, and general confusion about topics being discuss. Listening barriers may be psychological or physical. However, some of the most common barriers to effective listening include low concentration, lack of prioritization, poor judgement, and focusing on style rather than substance. Low concentration, or not paying close attention to speakers, is detrimental to effective listening. It can result from various psychological or physical situations such as visual or auditory distractions, physical discomfort, inadequate volume, lack of interest in subject material, stress, or personal bias. Regardless of cause, when listener is not paying attention to speakers ' dialogue, effective communication is significantly diminish. Both listeners and speakers should be aware of these kinds of impediments and work to eliminate or mitigate them. When listening to a speech, there is a time delay between the time the speaker utters sentence to the moment listener comprehends speaker's meaning. Normally, this happens within the span of a few seconds. If this process takes longer, listener has to catch up to speakers words if he or she continues to speak at a pace faster than the listener can comprehend. Often, it is easier for listeners to stop listening when they do not understand. Therefore, speaker needs to know which parts of speech may be more comprehension intensive than others, and adjust his or her speed, vocabulary, and sentence structure accordingly. Just as lack of attention to detail in conversation can lead to ineffective listening, so can focus too much attention on the least important information. Listeners need to be able to pick up on social cues and prioritize information they hear to identify the most important points within the context of conversation. Often, information the audience needs to know is delivered along with less pertinent or irrelevant information. When listeners give equal weight to everything they hear, it makes it difficult to organize and retain information they need. For instance, students who take notes in class must know what information to write down within the context of the entire lecture. Writing down lecture word for word is impossible as well as inefficient. When listening to speakers ' message,s it is common to sometimes overlook aspects of conversation or make judgments before all of the information is present. Listeners often engage in confirmation bias, which is a tendency to isolate aspects of conversation to support one own preexisting beliefs and values. This psychological process has a detrimental effect on listening for several reasons. First, confirmation bias tends to cause listeners to enter conversation before the speaker finishes her message and, thus, form opinions without first obtaining all pertinent information.
Whenever you listen to learn something, you are engage in informational listening. This is true in many day - to - day situations, in education and at work, When you listen to news, watch documentary, when friend tell you recipes or when you are talking through technical problems with a computer, there are many other examples of informational listening too. Although all types of listening are active, they require concentration and conscious effort to understand. Informational listening is less active than many other types of listening. When we listen to learn or be instructed, we are taking in new information and facts, we are not criticising or analysing. Informational listening, especially in formal settings like in work meetings or while in education, is often accompanied by Note Taking way of recording key information so that it can be reviewed later.
The U process feels familiar to people who use creativity in their professional work. They say, Sure. I know this way of operating from my own peak performance experiences. But then when you ask, how does work looks in your current institutional context, they roll their eyes and say, It looks more like this downloading thing. Why is that? Why is U road less travel in institutions? Because it requires inner journey and hard work. The ability to move through U as a team or organization or system requires New Social Technology. Social Technology of Presencing is based on seven essential leadership capacities that core group must cultivate. Without cultivation of these capacities, process described above wo deliver desire results. 1. Holding Space: Listen to What Life calls You to Do. The key principle of all community organizing is this, L. Agendas Anthony Thigpenn once told me., You never hand over complete cake. Instead, you invite people into your kitchen to collectively bake cake. The trouble with this principle is that most meetings in most organizations work other way around. You only call meeting once you have completed the cake and you want to cut it and serve it. To start with desire for cake rather than with completed cake requires the leader to create or hold space that invites others in. The key to holding space is listening: to yourself, to others, and to that which emerges from the collective that you convene. It also requires keeping your attention focus on the highest future possibility of group. Finally, it requires you to be intentionally incomplete, to hand over recipe, cooking tools, and ingredients rather than finish cake. Yes, you can talk about why this is a particularly good recipe, You can add some ingredients, and you can help mix batter, too. You can even go first if you want to. But you must intentionally leave a lot of open space for others to contribute. 2. Observing: Attend with Your Mind Wide Open. The second capacity in U process is to observe with an open mind by suspending your voice of judgment. Suspending your VOJ means shutting down the habit of judging based on past experience in order to open up new space of inquiry and wonder. Without suspending that VOJ, attempts to get inside places of most potential will be futile. 3. Sensing: Connect with Your Heart. The third capacity in U process is to connect to deeper forces of change through opening your heart. This is the essence of what moving down the left side of U is all aboutfacilitating opening process. The process involves tuning of three instruments: Open Mind, Open Heart, and Open Will. While Open Mind is familiar to most of us, other two capacities draw us into less familiar territory.
Innovators will need to actively listen to different groups of people based on what innovation strategy company follow. If a company follows an Outside - in approach, one will need to listen to every relevant group outside the company, from customers to competitors. However, if a company is following the Inside - Out approach of Innovation, one will be listening more to internal research groups, employees and, of course, visionaries leading initiative.S While the outside - in approach results in innovations that have the market waiting to consume them, inside - out approach many times leads to disruptive ideas and creation of Blue Oceans. Apple follows an Inside - Out approach to Innovation and we can say that they have created many new markets with their innovative offerings. When different product groups or business segments in a company have to work in tandem on innovation, Active Listening becomes even more important to understand each other better and act accordingly.
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