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Levels Of Organization From Smallest To Largest

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Last Updated: 24 October 2020

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Living things are highly organized and structure, following a hierarchy that can be examined on a scale from small to large. The atom is the smallest and most fundamental unit of matter. It consists of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. Atoms form molecules which are chemical structures consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bonds. Many molecules that are biologically important are macromolecules, large molecules that are typically formed by polymerization. An example of a macromolecule is deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains instructions for the structure and functioning of all living organisms.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

From Organelles to Biospheres

Living things are highly organized and structure, following a hierarchy that we can examine on scale from small to large. Atom is the smallest and most fundamental unit of matter. It consists of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. Atoms form molecules. A molecule is a chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by one or more chemical bonds. Many molecules that are biologically important are macromolecules, large molecules that are typically formed by polymerization. An example of a macromolecule is deoxyribonucleic acid, which contains instructions for the structure and functioning of all living organisms. Some cells contain aggregates of macromolecules surrounded by membranes. We call these organelles. Organelles are small structures that exist within cells. Examples of organelles include mitochondria and chloroplasts, which carry out indispensable functions: mitochondria produce energy to power cell,sss while chloroplasts enable green plants to utilize energy in sunlight to make sugars. All living things are made of cells. The cell itself is the smallest fundamental unit of structure and function in living organisms. Some organisms consist of single cells and others are multicellular. Scientists classify cells as prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotes are single - celled or colonial organisms that do not have membrane - bound nuclei. In contrast, cells of eukaryotes do have membrane - bound organelles and membrane - bound nucleus. In larger organisms, cells combine to make tissues, which are groups of similar cells carrying out similar or related functions. Organs are collections of tissues grouped together performing a common function. Organs are present not only in animals but also in plants. An organ system is a higher level of organization that consists of functionally related organs. Mammals have many organ systems. For instance, circulatory system transports blood through the body and to and from lungs. It includes organs such as the heart and blood vessels. Organisms are individual living entities. For example, each tree in the forest is an organism. Single - celled prokaryotes and single - celled eukaryotes are also organisms, which biologists typically call microorganisms. Biologists collectively call all individuals of species living within a specific area population. For example, forest may include many pine trees, which represent the population of pine trees in this forest. Different populations may live in the same specific area. For example, forests with pine trees include populations of flowering plants, insects, and microbial populations. A community is a sum of populations inhabiting a particular area. For instance, all of the trees, flowers, insects, and other populations in the forest form a forest community. The forest itself is an ecosystem. The ecosystem consists of all living things in a particular area together with abiotic, nonliving - parts of that environment such as nitrogen in soil or rain water. At the highest level of organization, biosphere is a collection of all ecosystems, and it represents zones of life on Earth. It includes land, water, and even the atmosphere to a certain extent.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Levels of Organization

Recurring motif in literature on levels of organization is to lament haphazard or unreflective way in which terms such as hierarchy or levels are apply, and to call for more precise analyses. However, surprisingly, few philosophers or scientists have taken up the challenge of developing substantial theory or account of levels of organization. In this section, we discuss three major accounts put forward in the philosophy of Science to clarify or posit what exactly levels of organization are. These are Paul Oppenheim and Hilary Putnams layer - cake account, mechanist account developed and advocated by Carl Craver and William Bechtel, and William Wimsatts ' local maximum account. After these, we also go through recent skeptical approaches to the idea of levels of organization. The two most visible accounts in philosophy of Science, layer - cake and mechanistic accounts, mark polarized visions for Levels concept. The Layer - cake account comprises a comprehensive conception that posit exhaustive stepwise compositional relations between all constituents of nature and strict correspondence between each putative level and primary scientific discipline that studies constituents occupying that level. The Mechanistic account proposes contextualized conception of ontological levels in nature that are defined in terms of constitutive parthood within Mechanism. The third account, Wimsatts local maximum account, has arguably received less mainstream attention in philosophy, and posits a more overarching framework for conceptualizing Levels in Science, covering both epistemic and ontological aspects. Though general, Wimsatts account is not comprehensive, admitting exceptions and multiple distinct criteria for characterizing levels that are congenial to both local and global conceptions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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