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Levipalatum texanum

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Last Updated: 25 November 2020

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General | Latest Info

Levipalatum texanum

Scientific classification
Class:Chromadorea
Family:Diplogastridae
Genus:Levipalatum
Kingdom:Animalia
Order:Rhabditida
Phylum:Nematoda
Species:Levipalatum texanum Ragsdale, Kanzaki & Sommer, 2014

Participation values for four species of Steinernema EPN IJs. Participation values were derived from separating the plate into three sections and scoring NEMATODES that had moved directionally 1 cm either towards the side where host volatiles or Control air was being deliver. Those that did not move directionally out of Center were scored as remaining in Middle. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired, ordinary one-way ANOVA evaluation for data points within-but not between-each group of Host, Middle, and Control. Bars with the same letter values are not significantly different. For breakdown of the scoring template, please see Fig. 4. Error Bars represent SEM. Panels A, B: Results from GC-MS of S. Glaseri and S. Riobrave infect G. Mellonella hosts. Numbers represent integration values of peaks. This reflects the overall relative abundance of individual odors. Here we found that most odors appear in highest abundance at 16 days post infection, however two chemicals-AMC and prenol-stand out by appearing at earlier time points. 3-Hydroxy-2butanone is found in association with S. Glaseri-infected hosts at 1 dpi and 16 dpi. 3-Methyl-2buten-1ol is found in both S. Riobrave and S. Glaseri infected hosts, and appears at 1dpi as well as at 3 dpi, and 16 dpi in both S. Riobrave and S. Glaseri-infected hosts. Panels C, D: Results of dose response curves for 3-Methyl-2buten-1ol and 3-Hydroxy-2butanone. These show responses of both S. Glaseri and S. Riobrave IJs to various concentrations of these chemicals. It is worth noting that concentrations list are what was applied to experimental arena, but are certainly higher than concentration experienced by NEMATODES. Error Bars represent SEM. Multi-Species response to prenol. Chemotaxis indices for Caenorhabditis elegans drosophila melanogaster, Levipalatum texanum, S. Riobrave IJs, S. Glaseri IJs participation values of each of the species test Representative photo of D. Melanogaster larvae in response to 200 mM prenol. The star indicates location of the prenol. Hybrid Assay Results. Chemotaxis index for hybrid assays do with S. Glaseri IJs. Statistical analysis do using a two-tail, pair, parametric t-test. Error Bars represent SEM, * P < 0. 001 representative photo of Control hybrid Assay using volatile and soluble cues, In this experiment, 5 l of ultrapure water was placed on agar plate underneath where uninfected host volatiles were being deliver. The blue dot represents the location of where air from the Control syringe was deliver, and the red dot represents where volatiles from uninfected hosts was deliver. Representative photo of hybrid Assay where 5 l 2 M prenol-dilute in ultra-pure water-was added to the test circle-where uninfected host volatiles were being deliver. The Combination of prenol and uninfected host volatiles is indicated by red dot with gold star. Blue dots indicate where air from the control syringe was being deliver. Error Bars represent SEM. * P < 0.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Conclusions

NEMATODES use olfactory cues for many purposes, including finding mates, avoiding danger, and locating food sources. In a previous study, odorant prenol was identified in association with entomopathogenic nematode-parasitized insect cadavers. It has been suggested that prenol may serve as information cue for EPNs, informing infective juveniles that potential host is not suitable for infection, and as a cue for IJ dispersal from Resource-deplete host. Exploring the genetic basis of behaviors induced by prenol in EPN species is unfortunately hindered by lack of molecular and genetic tools. C. Elegans dauers are attracted to prenol while EPN IJs are repelled by it. Such differences in response to odors have been previously observed to other odors like farnesol, 2 3-butadione, and CO 2. Despite differences in behavioral responses, neuronal and molecular pathways may still overlap, similar to the way C. Elegans dauers and adults respond differentially to CO 2 despite utilizing more or less the same neurons and molecular machinery. Prenol might be attractive to C. Elegans as a food cue since this odor is associated with a variety of plant matter including some fruits. This may also explain why Levipalatum texanum and Pristionchus pacificus are also both attracted to this odor. The goal of this study was to understand some of the mechanisms that drive C. Elegans attraction to prenol at neuronal and genetic levels. Identification of specific genes that have homologs in EPNs may help inform how EPNs sense and respond to prenol. To identify C. Elegans genes that influence attraction to prenol, we leverage C. Elegans Natural Diversity Resource. In addition, we identify sensory neurons and related molecular machinery involved in detection of and response to prenol. We also include evaluations of responses to similarly structured odorant: isoamyl alcohol, also know as 3-methylbutan-1ol. IAA is found in a variety of ecological situations relevant to C. Elegans ecology, including a variety of fruits, and as byproducts of fermentation by both bacteria and yeast; it is also an odorant that elicits robust attraction in C. Elegans. It has been demonstrated that IAA is sense through AWC neurons. In this study, we evaluated AWC neurons and numerous other genes purport to be involved with AWC-mediate attraction to odors, to determine involvement of these genes in detection of prenol by C. Elegans. Among genes tested were those in propose main signal transduction pathway for odor detection in AWC neuron. Our study also identified three other genes that are implicated in response to prenol, including dcap-2, clec-39, and other genes that have homologs in EPNs. Receive April 21 2020. Accept July 14 2020. Copyright 2020 Baiocchi et al.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Methods

S. Carpocapsae was from inbred strain All, S. Glaseri was from inbred strain NC, and S. Feltiae was from inbred strain SN 40. S. Riobrave was from inbred strain TX-355 41. EPN species were propagate as previously described in 10 11 42. Last-instar Galleria mellonella were infected with approximately 30 nematodes per host in a 6 cm petri dish and incubate at room temperature. After 7-10 days, infected and deceased hosts were placed on white traps, which were incubate at room temperature. White traps were incubate for 7-10 days. IJs were collected from white traps, rinsed 3 times in tap water, and were placed in cell culture flasks. Collect IJs were kept at room temperature and used within two weeks of being collect. IJs were often used within a few days of being collect, with most assays using IJs that were 17 days post emergence or younger. However, few experiments were done using older IJs. Levipalatum texanum 20 was isolated from Scapteriscus borellii mole crickets obtained through field sampling. Isolation of L. Texanum was done using methods previously described and used to isolate Pristionchus pacificus from insects 43. Briefly, mole crickets were sampled from Rio Hondo golf course in Downey, CA 11. Mole crickets were cut in half longitudinally and laid on 2 % agar plates. Nematodes observed on plates after 1 week were isolated and cultured on nematode growth media plat seed with E. Coli OP50, in the same manner as C. Elegans 44. Species identification was done by sequencing 18S rRNA gene and identifying the closest match in GenBank. The 18S sequence we generate was nearly identical to the 18 S sequence from L. Texanum EJR-2014, RS5280, accession number KJ877221 We use primers RH5401 and RH5402 to amplify and sequence 5 end and primers VL26345 and VL26346 to amplify and sequence 3 end of small ribosomal subunit 45 46. Our sequences have been deposited in GenBank with accession numbers MF149117 and MF149118. L. Texanum dauers were obtained using the same process used to obtain C. Elegans dauers described below. We note that this is the first report of L. Texanum coming from mole crickets, as they were originally isolated and described from scarab beetles. C. Elegans were culture as previously described 44 on NGM plates that had been seeded with OP50. To obtain dauers, nematodes were transferred to NGM plates with thin lawns of OP50. Plates were left undisturbed for 10-14 days to allow the food supply to be deplete. These starve plates were then evaluated around 10-14 days after being seeded with adults. Dauer larvae were collected and rinsed 3 times in tap water before being stored in cell culture flasks at room temperature for storage and use within two weeks.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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