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Lewis Conjugate

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Last Updated: 30 November 2020

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Acids and bases are important part of chemistry. One of most applicable theories is the Lewis Acid / Base motif that extends the definition of Acid and Base beyond H + and OH-ions as described by Br nsted-Lowry acids and bases. The Br nsted Acid-Base theory has been used throughout the history of Acid and Base chemistry. However, this theory is very restrictive and focuses primarily on acids and bases acting as proton donors and acceptors. Sometimes conditions arise where theory does not necessarily fit, such as in solids and gases. In 1923, GN Lewis from UC Berkeley proposed an alternate theory to describe acids and bases. His theory gave a generalized explanation of acids and bases Base on structure and bonding. Through use of the Lewis definition of acids and bases, chemists are now able to predict a wider variety of Acid-Base reactions. Lewis' theory uses electrons instead of proton transfer and specifically states that acid is a species that accepts electron pairs while Base donates electron pair. The reaction of Lewis Acid and Lewis Base will produce a coordinated covalent bond figure: coordinated covalent bond is just a type of covalent bond in which one reactant gives its electron pair to another reactant. In this case, Lewis Base donates its electrons to Lewis Acid. When they do react this way, the resulting product is called an addition compound, or more commonly, adduct. Lewis Acid: species that accepts electron pairs and will have vacant orbitals Lewis Base: species that donates electron pairs and will have lone-pair electrons

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Lewis Bases

Table

nameformulastructural formulapKa
MethaneCH 456
PropeneC 3 H 644
BenzeneC 6 H 643
AcetyleneC 2 H 225
CyclopentadieneC 5 H 618

Lewis Bases donated an electron pair. Lewis Bases are Nucleophilic, meaning that they attack positive charge with their lone pair. They utilize highest occupied molecular orbital or HOMO. Atom, Ion, or molecule with lone-pair of electrons, can thus be Lewis Base. Each of the following anions can give up their electrons to Acid, eg, {matheq}OH^-{endmatheq} {matheq}CN^-{endmatheq} {matheq}CH_3COO^-{endmatheq} {matheq}:NH_3{endmatheq} {matheq}H_2O:{endmatheq} {matheq}CO:{endmatheq} Lewis Base's HOMO interacts with Lewis Acid's LUMO to create bonded molecular orbitals. Both Lewis Acids and Bases contain HOMO and LUMOs but only HOMO is considered for Bases and only LUMO is considered for acids figure:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Amphoterism

As of now, you should know that acids and bases are distinguished as two separate things, however some substances can be both acid and base. You may have noticed this with water, which can act as both acid or base. This ability of water to do this makes it amphoteric molecule. Water can act as an acid by donating its protons to the base and thus becoming its conjugate acid, OH-. However, water can also act as a base by accepting protons from acid to become its conjugate base, H 3 O +. Water acting as acid: water acting as base: you may have noticed that the degree to which molecule act depends on the medium in which the molecule has been placed in. Water does not act as acid in acid medium and does not act as base in basic medium. Thus, medium which a molecule is placed in has an effect on the properties of that molecule. Other molecules can also act as either acid or base. For example, where Al 3 is acting as Lewis Base. Where Al 3 is acting as Lewis Acid. Note how amphoteric properties of Al 3 depend on what type of environment that molecule has been placed in.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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