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Lewis Structure Generator

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Last Updated: 20 September 2020

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During chemical bonding, it is valence electrons which move amongst different atoms. In order to keep track of the valence of electrons for each atom and how they may be shared in bonding, we use the Lewis Dot Structure for Atoms and molecules. In this approach, we represent valence electrons as dots around the element symbol. For example, oxygen has 6 valence electrons, so we write the symbol O for oxygen and surround it with 6 dots: unpaired electrons are represented as single dots, and paired electrons as double dots. Placement of single or double dots around symbol is not critical. Alternatively, we can represent paired electrons as line. That is, we replace double dots as shown below: let's consider other examples. Sodium atom has 11 electrons, but only one is valence electron. The other 10 are inside close shell with Neon electron configuration. Thus, we draw the Lewis Structure for Sodium atom as symbol Na with a single dot: chlorine atom has 17 electrons, but only 7 of these are valence electrons. Thus, we draw the Lewis Structure as: in Ionic Bonds valence electrons are completely transfer. Thus, we write Lewis Structure for NaCl as: as you can see, Chlorine is now surrounded by 8 electrons in N = 3 shell and Sodium has lost its one valence electron in N = 3 shell. Of course, sodium, is still surrounded by 8 electrons of N = 2 shell, but we do not show electrons in inner close shells. For period 2 elements, where all valence electrons of an atom are in s and p orbitals, we find that the Lewis Dot Structure of molecules will often follow the Octet Rule: Octet Rule - Atoms tend to gain, lose, or share electrons until they are surrounded by eight electrons. Using Lewis Dot structures and Octet Rule, we can predict and represent the electronic structure of covalently bonded molecules. For example, when two Chlorine atoms, each with 7 valence electrons, come together to form a diatomic Chlorine molecule, Lewis Structure shows that there will be sharing of two electrons between two Chlorine atoms, which allows both Chlorine to be surrounded by 8 electrons. Of course, hydrogen is period 1 element, with only 1s Orbital, so it has a maximum of two electrons allowed in its valence shell. When two hydrogen atoms come together into a diatomic H 2 molecule, the Lewis Structure shows that there will be sharing of two electrons between two hydrogen, allowing both hydrogen to be surrounded by a closed N = 1 shell of 2 electrons: we can represent the electronic structure and reaction of hydrogen and Chlorine Atoms to form HCl with Lewis structures: for diatomic oxygen, Lewis Dot Structure predict double bond. While the Lewis diagram correctly predicts that there is a double bond between o atoms, it incorrectly predicts that all valence electrons are pair.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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The 2D Molecule Drawing Module allows students to draw chemical structures or reactions as answers to Smartwork questions. An example of the MDM problem is shown below. Depending on your screen resolution or your browser settings, you may need to adjust Zoom in order to see the entire MDM. The figure below shows the top portion of the MDM window, and the bottom can be accessed by scrolling down the page. The figure below shows the entire MDM, which consists of a white workspace surrounded by a dark - gray border that contains several toolbars. The Figure above presents MDM with a blank Module workspace. Students may also see MDM show with chemical drawing prompt, such as atom, molecule, chemical reaction, or chemical scheme. The figure below provides an example of what MDM may look like when prompt is show. Depending on the nature of the question being ask, prompts can vary widely. There are three primary Toolbar areas within the MDM border. Toolbar areas are highlighted in the figure below as follow: formatting tools, drawing tools, and Elemental Symbols. Here is a video introduction to 2D Molecular Drawing Module: table below gives the name and general function of each of five tools in the formatting Toolbar. Drawing Toolbar: Drawing Toolbar on the left side of MDM contains eight tool options. The Zoom - in view of Toolbar is shown here: following table lists and gives the name of each tool along with brief discussion of its function. Elemental Symbol Toolbar: Elemental Symbol Toolbar on the right side of MDM contains an option to access any element of periodic table, as well as ten of the most commonly used Elemental symbols. To add a specific symbol to workspace, click element on right and then click on unused area of workspace. If an element needed is not on the list, click the periodic table button, to see the entire periodic table. The figure below shows a periodic table that will display when a button is click. Clicking on any element in displayed periodic table returns you back to workspace. The element that was clicked is now active and can be used as stated above. Here is a video introduction of Elemental Symbol Toolbar: next few figures will show you how to use MDM to draw some chemical figures. The first molecule is methane, CH 4. Once complete, your molecule should look similar to this: in the MDM workspace, click on C icon in the Elemental Symbols Toolbar. In figure below, note that C has been highlighted in gray, denoting that it has been select. With C now active, click on the white workspace area. This will put carbon atom where you click. Activate H by clicking on H icon in the Elemental Symbols Toolbar. Now, mouse over C in the workspace.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Representation

Table

N5
O (x 3)18
charge1
24

Lewis symbols use dots to visually represent Valence Electrons of atom. Lewis symbols are diagrams that represent Valence Electrons of atom. Lewis structures are diagrams that represent Valence Electrons of atoms within molecule. These Lewis symbols and Lewis structures help visualize Valence Electrons of atoms and molecules, whether they exist as lone pairs or within bonds. Atom consists of a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons. Electrostatic attraction between them keeps electrons bound to the nucleus so they stay within a certain distance of it. Careful investigations have shown that not all electrons within the atom have the same average position or energy. We say electrons reside at different principal energy levels, and these levels exist at different radii from nucleus and have rules regarding how many electrons they can accommodate. As example, neutral atom of gold contains 79 protons in its nucleus and 79 electrons. The first principal energy level, which is one closest to the nucleus, can hold a maximum of two electrons. The second principal energy level can have 8, third can have 18, and so on, until all 79 electrons have been distribute. Outermost principal energy level is of great interest in chemistry because the electrons it holds are furthest away from the nucleus, and therefore are ones most loosely held by its attractive force; larger distance between two charged objects, smaller force they exert on each other. Chemical reactivity of all of the different elements in the Periodic Table depends on the number of Electrons in that last, outermost level, called Valence level or Valence shell. In the case of gold, there is only one Valence electron at its Valence level. Atoms gain, lose, or share electrons in their valence level in order to achieve greater stability, or lower energy state. From this perspective, bonds between atoms form so that bond atoms are in a lower energy state compared to when they were by themselves. Atoms can achieve this more stable state by having a valence level which contains as many electrons as they can hold. For the first principal energy level, having two electrons in it is the most stable arrangement, while for all other levels outside of the first, eight electrons are necessary to achieve the most stable state. In Lewis symbol for atom, chemical symbol of an element is write, and Valence Electrons are represented as dots surrounding them. Only Electrons at Valence level are shown using this notation. For example, Lewis symbol of Carbon depicts C surrounded by 4 Valence Electrons because Carbon has an electron configuration of 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2. Electrons that are not at Valence level do not show in Lewis symbol. The reason for this is that chemical reactivity of an atom of element is solely determined by the number of its Valence Electrons, and not its inner electrons.


Lewis Structures for Polyatomic Ions

Lewis structure of ion is placed in brackets and its charge is written as superscript outside of the brackets, on upper right. The total number of electrons represented in the Lewis structure is equal to the sum of the number of valence electrons in each individual atom. Non - valence electrons are not represented in Lewis structures. After the total number of available electrons has been determine, electrons must be placed into structure. Lewis structures for polyatomic ions are drawn by the same methods that we have already learned. When counting electrons, negative ions should have extra electrons place in their Lewis structures; positive ions should have fewer electrons than uncharged molecule. When Lewis structure of ion is write, entire structure is placed in brackets, and charge is written as superscript on upper right, outside of brackets. For example, consider the ammonium ion, NH 4 +, which contains 9 - 1 = 8 electrons. One electron is subtracted because the entire molecule has + 1 charge. Negative ions follow the same procedure. The chlorite ion, ClO 2 -, contains 19 + 1 = 20 electrons. One electron is added because the entire molecule has - 1 charge.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Engines

Nasa's Cassini - Huygens mission detected a large cloud of toxic hydrogen cyanide on Titan, one of Saturn's moons. Titan also contains ethane, acetylene, and ammonia. What are Lewis structures of these molecules? Hcn: + = 10 H 3 CCH 3: + = 14 HCCH: + = 10 NH 3: + = 8 Draw skeleton and connect atoms with single bonds. Remember that H is never central atom: HCN: six electrons located on N H 3 CCH 3: no electrons remain HCCH: no terminal atoms capable of accepting electrons. Nh 3: no terminal atoms capable of accepting electrons. Hcn: no electrons remain H 3 CCH 3: no electrons remain HCCH: four electrons placed on carbon NH 3: two electrons placed on nitrogen where needed to rearrange electrons to form multiple bonds in order to obtain octets on each atom: HCN: form two more C - N bonds H 3 CCH 3: all atoms have correct number of electrons HCCH: form triple bond between two carbon atoms NH 3: all atoms have correct number of electrons carbon soot has been know to man since prehistoric times, but it was not until fairly recently that molecular structure of main component of soot was discover. In 1996, Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Richard Smalley, Robert Curl, and Harold Kroto for their work in discovering a new form of carbon, C 60 buckminsterfullerene molecule. Entire classes of compounds, including spheres and tubes of various shapes, were discovered based on C 60. This type of molecule, called fullerene, consists of a complex network of single - and double - bond carbon atoms arranged in such a way that each carbon atom obtains full octet of electrons. Because of their size and shape, fullerenes can encapsulate other molecules, so they have shown potential in various applications from hydrogen storage to target drug delivery systems. They also possess unique electronic and optical properties that have been put to good use in solar powered devices and chemical sensors. Xenon is a noble gas, but it forms a number of stable compounds. We examined {matheq}{XeF4}{endmatheq} earlier. What are the Lewis structures of {matheq}{XeF2}{endmatheq} and {matheq}{XeF6}{endmatheq} We can draw the Lewis structure of any covalent molecule by following six steps discussed earlier. In this case, we can condense the last few steps, since not all of them apply. {matheq}{XeF6}{endmatheq} 8 + = 50 step 2: Draw skeleton joining atoms by single bonds. Xenon will be the central atom because fluorine cannot be central atom: XeF 2: We place three lone pairs of electrons around each F atom, accounting for 12 electrons and giving each F atom 8 electrons. Thus, six electrons remain. These lone pairs must be placed on Xe atom. This is acceptable because Xe atoms have empty valence shell d orbitals and can accommodate more than eight electrons.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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