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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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American International School of Costa Rica is a private, nonprofit association founded in 1970. The school serves students from preschool through grade 12. The school year runs from August through June. Organization: Parents of enrolled students are voting members of the Association, which is governed by a board of directors. The board is elected by parents every two years. The school is a member of the following organizations: AASCA, tri-Association, NHS, NCAA, ACEP, and NAESP. AIS is UNESCO Candidate School, which reinforces its commitment to Child Protection and environmental care. Curriculum: English is the official language of instruction; fluency in Spanish is also achieve. Student-center Education is provided through small class sizes. Students at AIS can earn both US and Costa Rican High School Diplomas. The school offers advance Placement Courses for US college credits and MATEM Courses for local university credits. Standardize exams are taken at school. The curriculum is align with SACS, and class programming is Support by AERO. AIS is accredited by AdvancED / Cognia and the Costa Rican Ministry of Education. The school offers a very strong Learning Support Program to service students with unique learning requirements. English-as-Second-Language and Spanish-as-Second-Language programs are also available. Due to Covid-19 restrictions, the entire curriculum is available online for school year 2020-2021, even if school is allowed to open doors and resume operations, online option will still be available. Faculty: in school year 2020-2021, there were 26 full-time teachers Enrollment: Initial Enrollment for the start of school year 2020-2021 is 160 students from 20 different countries. Facilities: School is located on a beautiful campus in Ciudad Cariari, Heredia. Classrooms are equipped with electronic boards and projectors; air conditioning is available in each class; buildings are surrounded by open courtyards and tropical gardens. Sports facilities are available for kickball, basketball, ping-pong, volleyball, and soccer. Fully equipped science labs host students from 4th grade. The computer lab contains state-of-art resources for students in charge of school yearbook and newspaper. Maker-Space provides high-tech equipment and tools including two 3D Printers, circuit soldering stations, green screen, and camera, among others. The Robotics lab serves the student population with AdvancED programs and tools. Students must bring their own tablets or laptops to school every day. The School provides campus-wide access to the Internet and permanent communication with parents via the Seduca platform. The cafeteria and library are open the entire year. Finances: Annual tuition rates for school year 2020-2021 are: PS-PK-K US 6 500; and grades 1-12 US 10 315. School also charge a one-time membership fee of 1 500 per family and a registration fee of 900 per student per year. Learning Support Program fees vary depending on the number of hours required by student. Information and Statistics are current as of September 2020 and provided by the School.

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Relief

In Framework Of 75 United Nations General Assembly, Costa Rican President Carlos Alvarado Quesada presented this Friday a proposal for creating a Fund to Alleviate COVID-19 Economics, A vehicle for International solidarity in light of the economic recession caused by the Pandemic and an instrument to drive sustainable recovery. The proposal was presented by Costa Ricas leader at panel on which participants included the President Of Government Of Spain, Pedro Sanchez; Deputy Secretary-General Of United Nations, Amina Mohammed; Executive Secretary Of Economic Commission for Latin America and Caribbean, Alicia Barcena; professors Joseph Stiglitz From Columbia University and Ian Goldin From University Of Oxford; and Director Of Division on Globalization and Development Strategies Of United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, richard Kozul-Wright. FACE seeks to provide developing countries with funds they need to cope with pandemic socioeconomic effects on the economy and on people, on concessional and solidarity-base terms, Alvarado explained in his remarks. He specified that this is Fund of half a trillion dollars for one-off support, Finance With 0. 7 % Of Gross Domestic Product Of the world's biggest and strongest economies-those that account for 80 % of Global GDP-to be intermediate by one or several multilateral Development Banks, as concessional loans to developing countries. The President of Costa Rica added that funds will be lent for long term and at fixed rates, to provide one-off financing to developing countries that have limited policy tools for responding to crisis and keeping their countries on track to comply with the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda and Sustainable Development Goals. Upon presenting the initiative, Costa Rican leader said that the hope is to strengthen it further and establish discussion about mechanisms and Alliance-building among countries need to achieve implementation of FACE as a viable option to address the social and economic effects that the COVID-19 crisis is having on developing countries. In that vein, President Alvarado referred to the toll that the Pandemic has taken globally, noting that 1. 6 billion informal workers are forecast to be at risk, many of whom do not have access to social protection, and between 40 and 60 million people could be pushed towards extreme poverty, While 195 million jobs are likely to have been lost in the second quarter of 2020 alone. Meanwhile, in his remarks, President Of Government Of Spain, Pedro Sanchez, celebrated the creation of the FACE Fund and expressed his hope that it will become an instrument that supports global recovery. The way in which we respond to this crisis will save the world for future generations. We must act globally. I am especially concerned about countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. We have to be creative, act together and trust in international and regional mechanisms, Spanish leader State.

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Climate

SAN JOSE-Costa Rica's President has launched an economy-wide plan to decarbonize the country by 2050, saying the Central American Nation aims to show other nations what is possible to address Climate Change. Costa Rica's Environment minister, Carlos Manuel Rodriguez, says that if the plan is achieve, his grandchildren in 2035 will have the same carbon footprint as his grandparents did in the 1940s-and by 2050 his grandchildren will have none at all. Not only are we going to reduce that footprint, but we are going to bring many benefits with it, Rodriguez say. But Jairo Quiros, electrical energy researcher at University of Costa Rica, warns the plan would be challenging, and should be viewed with some caution. Under the roadmap launched Sunday, Costa Rica by 2050 would achieve zero net emissions, meaning it would produce no more emissions than it can offset through things such as maintaining and expanding its extensive forests. Such emission cuts-which many countries are expected to try to achieve in the second half of the century-are key to holding increases in global temperature to well under 2 degrees Celsius, goal of the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change. The Costa Rica Plan aims to allow the country to continue growing economically while cutting greenhouse gases. The Countrys economies grew at 3 percent last year, according to World Bank data. Christiana Figueres, Costa Rican former UN Climate chief, calls goal unprecedented in international politics. Only the government of tiny Marshall Islands also has lay out a detailed Plan to achieve that goal, but they still do not have a whole Plan articulate sector by sector, Figueres said in an interview with Thomson Reuters Foundation. President Carlos Alvarado noted that while Costa Rica represents only a tiny share of the world's climate-changing emissions, experiments tried in Plan could be model for other Nations. We can be that example. We have to inspire people, he said at the plans launch, noting the country was doing whats right. But Quiros, of the University of Costa Rica, warns the plan will take hard work to achieve. Some goals, he say, such as ensuring all buses and taxis run on electricity by 2050, may be difficult, not least because changes will be expensive. Although one tends to see that prices are falling over time, there is a lot of uncertainty regarding that, he say.

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Plant and animal life

Costa Rica is a relatively small country in Central America. It is only 19 700 square miles in area, comparable to the size of West Virginia in the USA or Denmark in Europe. Within that area, though, there are a dozen different ecosystems, ranging from Tropical lowland rainforest to coral reef, and 25 % of the land and water of those ecosystems are protected as wildlife reserves, refuges, and National parks. Costa Rica is on the top 20 list of most biodiverse countries in the world. Heres lowdown on its 12 ecosystems. Costa Rica is probably most recognized for its beautifully dense, verdant, and life-rich Tropical rainforests. Consistent rainfall and warm temperatures fuel abundant growth of plants and fungi, which provide perfect habitat for a wide range of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, insects, and birds. Rainforest is a multi-layer habitat and specific plants and animals live and thrive at different levels, from forest-floor dwellers all way up to canopy-top creatures. Corcovado National Park, Manuel Antonio National Park, and Tortuguero National Park are all home to this ecosystem, as well as several others. Tropical dry forests are found in the province of Guanacaste. Compared to tropical rainforests, these areas receive far less annual rainfall. The dry season typically extends from November through the end of April and during this time there is likely to be zero rainfall. For this reason, deciduous trees of dry forest shed their leaves during months where there is no rain. However, in the dry season some trees actually blossom. Corteza amarilla burst out bright yellow flowers between March and May; magnificent Guanacaste tree blooms cream-colored flowers, and at the end of the dry season, malenchi explodes with vibrant red flowers. The contrast between the dry golden landscape and bright tree flowers is truly exquisite. This ecosystem is only found in the southern part of the Talamanca mountain range. This is a rough and tough ecosystem for plants and animals to live in, but they do. This area is a combination of grass and scrubland. It is more arid here, so plants are bit more dull and many have waxy exterior. Small rodents, lizards, snakes, and some birds thrive in this environment. While it might not seem like an appealing place to visit, it is actually quite beautiful in a dramatic way. Cerro de La Muerte and Chirripo both have paramos. Moving down a bit in elevation, we find semi-deciduous forests. These evergreen forests sit at elevations between 1 600 and 4 900 feet. The forest floor is covered by mosses and ferns and the understory is densely packed with plant life. Trees shoot up 80-130 feet in battle for sunlight at the canopy top. Part of Rincon de La Vieja, Arenal National Park, and Turrialba National Park are made up of this type of rainforest.

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COSTA RICA

Table

CountryNewspapersRadiosTV Sets aCable subscribers aMobile Phones aFax Machines aComputers Personal aInternet Hosts bInternet Users b
199619971998199819981998199819991999
Costa Rica9427138713.8282.339.110.41150
United States2152,146847244.325678.4458.61,508.7774,100
Mexico9732526115.7353.047.023.021,822
Nicaragua3028519040.24N/A7.82.2120

Costa Rica differs from other Spanish colonies in that it never developed a system of large land holdings. Agricultural production was limited to the size of families, and distribution of land and other resources was relatively equal. Independence from Spain came without violence in 1821. After joining the Mexican Empire briefly in 1822, Central American colonies Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica created a federated republic in 1823, which collapsed in 1829. Costa Rica is a democratic republic organized under the 1949 constitution. The President, 2 vice-presidents, and the single-Chamber Congress are directly elected for 4-Year terms. Supreme Court justices are elected by the Legislative Assembly for 8-Year terms. Liberal political reforms in the late 1800s facilitated the expansion of democratic institutions and processes. The middle class of Costa Rica flourished along with the development of commerce, services, and manufacturing. As economic conditions worsen the Great Depression of 1930s, role of the State increase, and citizens of Costa Rica demand economic reform. Much of the country's character was defined in the 1950s through abolition of the army, nationalization of main industries, and construction of the Social welfare System. The main political forces in the country since the introduction of the Social welfare System have been the Social Democrats and Christian Democrats. Both Social and Christian Democrats have pursued active involvement of the State in Economic Affairs. As a result, Costa Rica is a country in which the public sector plays a major role. The wave of privatization that has shaken most Latin American countries has not been significant in Costa Rica. The State continues to control key industries such as electricity, telecommunications, banking, Insurance, health, oil refinery, and alcohol distillation. This situation has resulted more from public opposition to privatization than from government policy. As a result, State has focused on administrative reforms that attempt to improve the efficiency of public companies. Although there has been an increase in the level of participation of the private sector, state is still in control. Banking is no longer a State monopoly, but the 3 largest banks are State own. Medicine is also practiced privately, but the largest and most modern hospitals are owned and operated by the government's Social Security System. A law passed in 2000 allows handling of oldage pensions by private companies, but the majority of pensions are still under State control. The Central government has a significant impact on the economy with its expenditures totaling over 30 percent of GDP in 1998. This is much higher than the level of expenditures in Canada, United States or East Asian countries, but is lower than the level in France, Italy, UK, Spain, or Germany. According to Central Bank figures, main sources of government revenue were import duties, income taxes, sales taxes, and consumption taxes.


GOVERNMENT

Costa Rica is a democratic Republic with a strong system of Constitutional checks and balances. Executive responsibilities are vest in the president, who is the country's center of power. There are also are two vice presidents and a 15-member cabinet. The President and 57 Legislative Assembly deputies are elected for 4-year terms. In April 2003, Costa Rican Constitutional Court annul Constitutional reform enacted by the Legislative Assembly in 1969 barring presidents from running for reelection. The law reverts back to the 1949 Constitution, which states that ex-presidents may run for reelection after they have been out of office for two presidential terms, or eight years. Deputies may run for reelection after sitting out one term, or four years. The electoral process is supervised by an independent Supreme Electoral Tribunala commission of three principal magistrates and six alternates selected by the Supreme Court of Justice. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Justice, composed of 22 magistrates selected for renewable 8-year terms by the Legislative Assembly, and subsidiary courts. The Constitutional Chamber of Supreme Court, established in 1989, reviews the constitutionality of legislation and executive decrees and all habeas corpus warrants. The offices of Comptroller General of the Republic, Solicitor General, and Ombudsman exercise oversight of government. The Comptroller General's office has statutory responsibility to scrutinize all but the smallest public sector contracts and strictly enforce procedural requirements. There are provincial boundaries for administrative purposes, but no elected provincial officials. Costa Rica held its first mayoral elections in December 2002 whereby mayors were elected by popular vote through general elections. Prior to 2002, office of mayor did not exist and the president of the municipal council was responsible for administration of each municipality. The most significant change has been to transfer governing authority from a position filled via indirect popular vote to one filled by direct popular vote. Municipal council presidents are elected through internal elections conducted by council members each year, but mayors are elected directly by the populace through general elections. All council members are elected in a general election process. Autonomous state agencies enjoy considerable operational independence; they include the telecommunications and electrical power monopoly, state petroleum refinery, nationalized commercial banks, state insurance monopoly, and social security agency. Costa Rica has no military and maintains only domestic police and security forces for internal security. The Professional Coast Guard was established in 2000. There are provincial boundaries for administrative purposes, but no elected provincial officials. Costa Rica held its first mayoral elections in December 2002, whereby mayors were elected by popular vote through general elections. Prior to 2002, office of mayor did not exist and the president of the municipal council was responsible for administration of each municipality. The most significant change has been to transfer governing authority from a position filled via indirect popular vote to one filled by direct popular vote.

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Table3

2001318.95
2000308.19
1999285.68
1998257.23
1997232.60
1996207.69

Table4

Country19751980198519901998
Costa Rica2,2312,4822,1762,4032,800
United States19,36421,52923,20025,36329,683
Mexico3,3804,1674,1064,0464,459
Nicaragua999690611460452

Table5

Lowest 10%1.3
Lowest 20%4.0
Second 20%8.8
Third 20%13.7
Fourth 20%21.7
Highest 20%51.8
Highest 10%34.7

Basic Data

Official Country Name:Republic of Costa Rica
Region (Map name):North Central America
Population:3,773,057
Language(s):Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon
Literacy rate:94.8%
Area:51,100 sq km
GDP :15,851 (US$ millions)
Number of Daily Newspapers:6
Total Circulation:275,000
Circulation per 1,000:99
Number of Nondaily Newspapers:27
Total Circulation:149,000
Circulation per 1,000:54
Total Newspaper Ad Receipts:18,408 (Colones millions)
As % of All Ad Expenditures:36.00
Number of Television Stations:6
Number of Television Sets:525,000
Television Sets per 1,000:139.1
Number of Cable Subscribers:72,580
Cable Subscribers per 1,000:19.1
Number of Radio Stations:112
Number of Radio Receivers:980,000
Radio Receivers per 1,000:259.7

Table6

Number of Individuals with Computers:600,000
Computers per 1,000:159.0
Number of Individuals with Internet Access:250,000
Internet Access per 1,000:66.3

Table7

DCM:Douglas Barnes
CG:Robin J. Morritz
POL:Frederick Kaplan
MGT:Scott D. McAdoo
AGR:Katherine Nishura
APHIS:John Stewart
CLO:Gwendolynne Simmos
DEA:Dirk Lamagno
ECO:Whitney J. Witteman
FCS:James McCarthy
FMO:Carmen Castro
GSO:Panfilo Marquez
IMO:Jasper R. Daniels
IPO:Larry Helmich
PAO:Laurie Wietzenkorn
RSO:Michael E. Wilkins

Table8

AMB:Mark Langdale
AMB OMS:Michelle Nichols
DCM:Russell L. Frisbie
DCM OMS:Dominique Emery
CG:David Dreher
POL:Frederick Kaplan
MGT:Scott D. McAdoo
AGR:Katherine Nishiura
APHIS:John Stewart
CLO:Gwendolynne Simmons
DEA:Paul Knierim
ECO:Whitney J. Witteman
FCS:James McCarthy
FMO:Carmen Castro
GSO:Panfilo Marquez
IMO:Jasper R. Daniels
IPO:Richard Johnson
PAO:Laurie Weitzenkorn
RSO:Michael E. Wilkins

Table9

AMB:John J. Danilovich
AMB OMS:Linda R. Ren
DCM:Douglas M. Barnes
MGT:Joseph B. Schreiber
APHIS:Mark Dulin, Acting
CON:Robin J. Morritz
DEA:Dirk A. Lamagno
ENVIR HUB:David A. Alarid
FAS:Alan Hrapsky
FCS:Margaret Hanson-Muse
IMO:Jose M. Ortiz
ODR:CMDR Howard White
OFDA:Timothy Callaghan, Acting
PAO:Peter M. Brennan
PC:James Criste
POL/ECO:Frederick J. Kaplan
RSO:Stephen P. Brunette
SSA:Roberto Santis

Table10

AMB:Mark Langdale
CM OMS:Viviana Guerrero
DCM:Russell L. Frisbie
DCM OMS:Jean m. Smith
CG:David Dreher
POL:David E. Henifin
MGT:Scott D. McAdoo
AGR:Katherine Nishiura
APHIS:John Stewart
CLO:Barbara Dreher
DEA:Paul Knierim
ECO:Whitney J. Witteman
FCS:James McCarthy
FMO:Carmen Castro
GSO:Panfilo Marquez
ICASS Chair:McCarthy, James
IMO:Jasper R. Daniels
IPO:Richard Johnson
PAO:Laurie Weitzenkorn
RSO:Michael E. Wilkins
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Citation styles

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1 Introduction

A book published by the National Geographic Society identified the region of Nicoya in Costa Rica as one of a very small number of locations in the world with exceptional longevityregions that were referred to as blue zones. Other locations noted as having high longevity were the islands of Sardinia in Italy and Okinawa in Japan. Although the selection of Nicoya was mostly based on unpublished evidence, more than a century earlier, a Swiss geographer and botanist had observe: in no other place people are blessed with such long lives. Recently, this high longevity has been examined in a Population-base sample of elderly Costa Ricans, finding that Nicoya indeed has a significantly lower death rate ratio of 0. 71 compared to the rest of the country, which is an extraordinary result given the already high life expectancy of elderly Costa Ricans in general. This article helps fill gap of scientific evidence regarding life expectancy and health among elderly Nicoyans by: better quantifying their survival advantage, if any; and singling out biomarkers, diet consumption patterns and other health indicators in which Nicoyans are different from all other elderly Costa Ricans. Thus, questions that this article will seek to address are whether Nicoya is truly an Island of longevity; what extent of this longevity advantage in terms of relative mortality, life expectancy and survival probabilities; and finally, in what aspects of health elderly Nicoyans are different from those living in rest of Costa Rica. The key scientific rationale for looking after hot spots of longevity is identification of clues to healthy or successful ageing. However, this quest for longevity islands has proven to be problematic. Claims of exceptional longevity in little-developed communities in the Andes and in the Caucasus do not stand up to Systematic scrutiny of the true age of supposed centenarians or supercentenarians. Demographers are also aware that age exaggeration among oldest old in censuses leads to substantial age inflation in very old-age populations, and consequently, to underestimated mortality rates at old ages when computed using census-base denominators, especially in populations with low levels of literacy. In part motivated by these prior instances of bias data, recent studies have been especially careful about using only reliable and well-document information on the age of elderly people, such as those conducted in Okinawa and Sardinia. The current study described here similarly uses only well-document information on birth dates from the civil registration system that has existed in Costa Rica since 1883, instead of self-report ages. Costa Rica, context for this study, is known as a country with outstanding health indicators in spite of its limited level of economic development. It was include, for example, as one of four study cases in the Rockefeller Foundation report on Good Health at Low Cost. 4. 5 million Costa Ricans have the second-highest life expectancy in the Americas, higher than wealthier countries like the United States, Chile, or Brazil.

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2 Data and methods

Validity Of Mortality estimates for Costa Rica and Nicoya rest on the accuracy of information on age and on complete registration of all Deaths in two Longitudinal Databases We Study. The age of individuals in three databases of this article does not come from self-reports but was computed from the date of birth record on the National Birth Registry, which also appear on identification card. The National Electoral Tribunal institution since 1949 has been in charge of the civil registration system of births, Deaths and naturalisations, as well as of preparing voting listsprovided data from these registries. Linking between different registries was possible using unique identification number that all Costa Ricans acquire when their Birth is entered into corresponding ledgers. This identification is sequential number impossible to tamper with 2 unless there is impersonation. Moreover, those individuals registered years after they were born, because of naturalisation or missing birth record, are identifiable and were excluded from analyses. Since our two Mortality analyses cover the period 1990-2011, all individuals were born after the establishment of the registration system in 1883: oldest individuals included in the extinct-cohort analysis were: one born in 1886 and another in 1887, and the oldest in sample For Longitudinal follow-up were three born in 1889. The proportion excluded because of late registration in extinct-cohort analyses were 100 % of eight supposedly born in 1883-85, 29 % of 91 born in 1886-90, 17 % of 728 born in 1891-95 and 8 % of about 80 000 born in 1996-1919. The majority of these exclusions are immigrants. Exclude individuals had significantly lower mortality. Recent demographic evaluations conclude that the Costa Rican Death registration system is essentially free of under-registration errors. Since 1961, United Nations has graded the Costa Rican vital Statistics system as complete. The country is also one of eleven developing countries whose vital registration statistics in 1995 were characterise by Hill et al. As both complete and accurate. Evidence from the CRELES survey confirms the completeness of registration of deaths of elderly people. In subsample of 566 Deaths found independently during household visits in the CRELES survey, only five were not found in the Death Registry, which gives reasonable assurance that registration of Deaths in Costa Rica is essentially complete.

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3 Results

The World Bank and the Government of Costa Rica established the Country Partnership Framework to strengthen the World Bank-Costa Rica relationship. This CPF reflects analytical underpinnings from Systematic Country Diagnostic, and is the fourth prepared for Costa Rica. Preceding CPFs establish Framework For closer Partnership between World Bank Group and Costa Rica based on mutual learning and knowledge sharing. The current CPF features a highly selective Program that is organized around the following two strategic pillars: Based on this CPF, WBG is supporting Governments efforts to bolster Fiscal Sustainability, increase efficiency of its Fiscal Management, and strengthen its capacity. The active portfolio in Costa Rica includes four projects totaling US 952 million in net commitments. Cooperation includes a health loan in the amount of US 420 million to support efforts of the Government to improve the availability and quality of the Universal Health Insurance system. Other projects, approved in March 2020, will support Governments in their policy response during health crisis and After to ensure Fiscal Sustainability. Sustainable Fisheries Development Project in amount of US 75. 1 million will help fishermen increase productivity and sustainability, while the Fiscal Management Improvement Project in amount of US 156. 64 million will ease tax compliance and border-closing costs and improve Expenditure Management. Furthermore, last June US 300 million loan was approved to support Costa Rica's Government Program to protect people's income and jobs from the impact of COVID-19, benefit small and medium enterprises, reinforce Fiscal Sustainability in the aftermath of this health crisis, and to lay out foundations for strong post Pandemic recovery by promoting green Growth and Low-Carbon Development. WBG is also working toward green and inclusive growth of rural territories through mainstreaming Sustainable Management practices and decision-making support systems in productive landscapes; in other words, those territories that are productive both for their natural beauty AND, also for activities develop in them. Support also aims to improve the competitiveness of rural supply chains. Environmental and climate change interventions continue to be supported through trust funds, such as Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, Costa Ricas REDD + Strategy, and Partnership For Carbon Market Readiness. In addition, support is provided to enforce the Sustainability Protocol at Reventazon Hydroelectric Plant of Costa Rican Institute of Electricity, International example that proves it is possible to develop Hydroelectric projects applying industrys best environmental and social practices. Support is also given to country through the Disaster Risk Management Financial Strategy, which is expected to be approved in next months. Regarding energy and transportation electrification, World Bank supports initiatives to transition towards an energy model that optimizes use of native resources. Decarbonization of industrial and transport sectors is sought through progressive electrification and diversification of energy matrix, in an environment of greater regional integration and opening of international energy markets.

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4 Discussion

For several years, International Development agencies, including the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, have Promote role of for-profit health care facilities and programs in delivery of health care services in developing countries while narrowing the role of the not-For-profit sector in disease control. 1 Using as example the experience of Costa Rica, we question the privatization of health care policy Promote by international aid agencies. During a 2001 Press conference, former World Bank President James D. Wolfensohn recognized Cuba for having a terrific job in the area of Health. 2 His laudatory comments were remarkable given that Cuba is well known for evading World Bank and International Monetary Fund recommendations. Jo Ritzen, World Banks vice President For Development policy at the time, provides clue to Wolfensohns lack of hesitation in acknowledging Cuba by suggesting that the Cuban experience might not be replicable in other countries. 3 We would say that Cuban policy was not exportable, at least not without its authoritarian regime. What would World Bank senior officers say about Costa Rica, which is a benchmark democracy by international standards? 4 Its health policies also differ radically from the health policies of international loaning agencies. Despite resisting recommendations from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, Costa Rica has accomplished a great deal in the health arena; For example, compared with ALL countries in the Americas, Costa Rica's life expectancy is second only to Canadas. 5 Although the countrys per capita income is approximately same as that of Mexico and one fourth that of the United States, total health expenditures in Costa Rica are one ninth those of the United States. Moreover, other health and equity indicators in Costa Rica rank close to the United States and well above Mexico. Certainly, Costa Rica's achievements are not simply the product of good health services. Indeed, countries maintain annual growth rates of 1. 2 % between 1975 and 2001 and 2. 8 % between 1995 and 2001, even though it never rose to the high-income category. 5 Since 1995, Costa Rica has occupied stable position among countries with high scores on the Human Development Index. 5 despite potential contributions of economic development to health outcomes, it would be unfair to credit health achievements in Costa Rica mainly to rapid income growth, as the World Development Report did in Its spotlight on Costa Rica and Cuba in 2004. 7 Such attribution overlooks sensitivity to health service performance of indicators such as infant and maternal mortality. In case of both indicators, Costa Rica has shown equal or better performance than its Latin American neighbors Chile, Venezuela, Panama, Colombia, and Mexico, countries in the same income group and with comparable health care expenditures. From 1970 on, Costa Rica needed less than one third of the Chilean economic growth rate to achieve reductions in infant mortality similar to those achieved in Chile.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Program Types

There are a multitude of Spanish institutes, immersion programs, and homestay opportunities throughout Costa Rica. Students can live at school or with host family, join surfing or yoga Program, and participate in cultural activities such as salsa lessons and cookery classes. You can also find courses that range in length, from weekend to several months. Here are the very best places to learn Spanish in Costa Rica. AIFS Study Abroad has programs all over the world, including one in San Jose, Costa Rica. What makes this Spanish Learning opportunity so unique is that their packages include everything at one set price. Not only will you spend your semester or summer studying Spanish, you will also embark on a variety of amazing cultural and adventure activities such as dancing lessons, sporting events, museum visits, and trips to Arenal, and Monteverde. IPED Language Plus has two locations, Heredia and Puerto Viejo, and has been a successful and highly respected Spanish Language Institute since 1984. The Puerto Viejo location offers students the chance to also surf, do yoga, volunteer, and choose from a number of activities and excursions. There are multiple different types of programs as well, such as classes for families, classes for 50 +, total immersion, which includes homestay, and even group programs for high school or college students.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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