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Liver Cancer Stages

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

The liver is the largest organ inside the body and is located under the right ribs and beneath the right lung. Liver has several functions. It secretes bile into intestines to absorb fats, breaks down and stores nutrients, manufactures clotting factors needed to stop bleeding, and breaks down toxic agents, like alcohol and drugs. Once toxic agents are broken down, they can be eliminated from the body through urine or stool. One of the causes of cirrhosis, scarring of the liver, is alcoholism. A person cannot live without a liver, so the liver shuts down or liver failure is fatal. Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which can progress to scarring or Liver Cancer. Hepatitis can be caused by toxic substances, infection, or autoimmune diseases. Common viruses that cause hepatitis are referred to as types, B, C, D, and E. It's possible to prevent hepatitis with vaccines available for types, B, and E. Metastatic Cancer is cancer that has spread from the place where it first starts to another place in the body. Metastatic Cancer in the liver is a condition in which cancer from other organs has spread through the bloodstream to the liver. Here, liver cells are not what have become cancerous. Livers have become the site to which cancer that starts elsewhere has spread. Metastatic Cancer has the same name and same type of cancer cells as the original Cancer. The most common cancers that spread to the liver are the breast, colon, bladder, kidney, ovary, pancreas, stomach, uterus, and lungs. Metastatic Liver Cancer is a rare condition that occurs when cancer originates in the liver and spreads to other organs in the body. Some people with metastatic tumors do not have symptoms. Their metastases are found by X - rays, CT scans, ultrasounds, or other tests. Enlargement of the liver or jaundice can indicate cancer has spread to the liver. Most people who get Liver Cancer get it in the setting of chronic liver disease, which scars the liver and increases the risk for Liver Cancer. Conditions that cause cirrhosis are alcohol use / abuse, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Causes of Liver Cancer may be linked to environmental, dietary, or lifestyle factors. For example, in November 2014, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, found that long - term exposure to triclosan, common ingredient in soaps and detergents, causes Liver fibrosis and Cancer in laboratory mice. Although triclosan has not been proven to cause human Liver Cancer, it is currently under scrutiny by FDA to determine whether it has negative health impacts. Incidence rates of hepatocellular cancer are rising in the United States due to the increasing prevalence of cirrhosis caused by chronic hepatitis C and steatohepatitis. Cirrhosis of the liver due to any cause is a risk factor for Liver Cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Liver Cancer Staging

The liver is the largest solid organ of the body. Itis located on the right side of the abdomen just beneath the right diaphragm. Surrounding organs include the gall bladder, small intestine, part of colon, right kidney, and head of pancreas. The liver is triangular in shape and is divided into right and left lobe,s right lobe being the larger of two. It provides several important functions for the body, including: filtering blood to remove and processing toxins. Synthesizing and excreting bile, which is important in processing fat from our diet. Helping regulate blood sugar levels. Producing factors that play an important role in blood clotting. The liver has a very vascular structure, containing a large number of blood vessels, and receives blood through two separate systems: hepatic artery and portal vein. Blood from the abdomen and lower body flows through the liver where it is process. It then proceeds to inferior vena cava and ultimately empties into the heart. In large part, due to the vascular nature of the liver, it is a very common site to which cancers from other areas of the body spread.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

CT Scan vs. MRI

Liver tumors can be diagnosed using a combination of blood tests and other diagnostic tests. Blood tests look at liver function and levels of tumor markers. Liver tumors will often show on ultrasound scan but full assessment requires CT scan or MRI scan. If results from blood tests and CT or MRI scans are not obvious, needle biopsy using ultrasound guidance will usually confirm diagnosis. The following sections provide more detailed information on the following tests and procedures which may be used to detect and diagnose Liver Cancer.


Imaging tests

Your doctor may draw blood to determine whether you have high levels of alpha - fetoprotein, which can be a sign of liver cancer. High levels of this protein can indicate if other forms of liver disease are present. For this reason, your doctor may also perform imaging tests, such ultrasound or CT or MRI scan, to see whether you have a tumor. Your doctor may test your blood for presence of tumor markers. If you have a history of other cancers, particularly colon cancer, your doctor may test your blood for CEA, substance that is made by cancer and therefore a tumor marker. Ct or MRI scans may be performed to check the liver for cancer. Doctors may also use blood tests to measure liver function. These tests can reveal elevated levels of enzymes, such as alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, as well as high levels of bilirubina substance found in bile that is produced by the liver. Results of these tests can help doctors diagnose fatty liver disease, hepatitis B or C, or cirrhosis and determine how severe they are. These conditions may need to be managed in addition to cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

TNM stages

There are 4 main T stages - T1 to T4. The main factors that doctors take into account are the size of liver tumour or tumours, and whether cancer has grown into any blood vessels in the liver. This may mean that scans have show cancer growing into blood vessels. Or that there is microscopic growth of cancer cells in the vein or artery, which is picked up after surgery - liver tissue removed is looked at under microscope. T1a means that there is a single tumour in the liver that is 2 cm or less, and it may or may not have grown into blood vessels of liver. T1b means that there is a single tumour that is more than 2cm and it has not grown into any blood vessels. There is a single tumour that is more than 2cm and it has grown into blood vessels or there are several tumours in the liver, and they are all less than 5cm T3 means there are several tumours in liver, and at least one of them is more than 5cm into major branch of one of main blood vessels or into organs close to liver or through lining that wrap around internal organs of abdomen

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Other staging systems

Staging looks at the size of cancer and whether it has spread anywhere else in the body. There are different staging systems doctors can use for Liver Cancer. The TNM staging system is one of these. Size of primary tumour, whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes, whether cancer has spread to another part of the body. The TNM system is used for cancer staging all over the world. It is important for doctors to use the same staging system because then they can be sure they are all talking about the same situation when they are comparing notes or carrying out research.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

Liver cancer is cancer that begins in the liver. If cancer has metastasize, that means it has spread outside of the liver. The most common form of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma. This cancer starts in liver cells called hepatocytes. Less common liver cancers include angiosarcomas and hemangiosarcomas. These cancers start in cells that line liver blood vessels. Another type of liver cancer called hepatoblastoma usually affects children under 4 years of age. When cancer starts in the liver, it is considered primary liver cancer. Other types of cancer can spread to the liver, but theyre not liver cancer. These are called secondary liver cancers. Secondary liver cancer is more common than primary liver cancer in the United States and Europe.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes

Table

SEER stage5-year relative survival rate
Localized33%
Regional11%
Distant2%
All SEER stages combined18%

Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive for a certain length of time after they were diagnose. They ca tell you how long you will live, but they may help give you a better understanding of how likely it is that your treatment will be successful. Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had specific cancer, but they ca predict what will happen in any particular persons case. These statistics can be confusing and may lead you to have more questions. Talk with your doctor about how these numbers may apply to you, as he or she is familiar with your situation.


What Is Liver Cancer?

Systemic cancer therapies treat the whole body through the bloodstream. These therapies include: chemotherapy is a form of treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. It targets cells that grow and multiply quickly, including some healthy cells. Brm therapy is a treatment that uses antibodies, growth factors, and vaccines to boost or restore the immune system. This helps your immune systems ability to fight cancer. Brm therapy does not have the usual side effects of other cancer therapies and, in most cases, is well tolerate. Target therapy also kills cancer cells, but it is more precise. Unlike chemotherapy drugs, target treatments can differentiate between cancer and healthy cells. These drugs can kill cancer cells and leave healthy cells intact. Target therapies have different side effects than some other cancer treatments. Side effects, which can be severe, include fatigue and diarrhea. Hormonal therapy can slow or stop growth of certain types of tumors that rely on hormones to grow, such as breast and prostate cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk factors

What are the main causes of primary liver cancer? Scarring of the liver caused by too much alcohol or infection with hepatitis B or C infection are largely to blame. Up to 80 percent of primary liver cancers around the world are caused by infection with hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Infection with this virus can affect you for many years and result in Cirrhosis in your liver. People get infected through physical contact with blood or bodily fluids of person who has virus in their body. You can get infected with hepatitis B or C virus through: because primary liver cancer caused by viral hepatitis tends to develop slowly over the course of two to three decades, there are steps you can take to get screened for infection and prevent it from becoming advance.


General

Race and ethnicity: in the United States, liver cancer rates are highest in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders. White Americans have the lowest risk of liver cancer. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus is the most common liver cancer risk factor. These infections lead to cirrhosis of the liver. Both hepatitis B and C viruses may spread from person to person through sharing of contaminated needles, unprotected sex or childbirth. Viruses may also be passed on through blood transfusion, though this risk has been greatly reduced in the United States since the start of blood testing for these viruses.


What Is Liver Cancer?

The liver continuously filters blood that circulates through the body, converting nutrients and drugs absorbed from the digestive tract into ready - to - use chemicals. Liver performs many other important functions, such as removing toxins and other chemical waste products from blood and readying them for excretion. Because all blood in the body must pass through it, liver is unusually accessible to cancer cells traveling in the bloodstream. Livers can be affected by primary liver cancer, which arises in the liver, or by cancer which forms in other parts of the body and then spreads to the liver. Most liver cancer is secondary or metastatic, meaning it starts elsewhere in the body. Primary liver cancer, which starts in the liver, accounts for about 2% of cancers in the US, but up to half of all cancers in some undeveloped countries. This is mainly due to the prevalence of hepatitis, caused by contagious viruses, that predispose people to liver cancer. In the US, primary liver cancer strikes twice as many men as women, at an average age of 67. Because the liver is made up of several different types of cells, several types of tumors can form there. Some of these are benign, and some are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body. These tumors have different causes and are treated differently. The outlook for health or recovery depends on what type of tumor you have. Hemangioma Hepatic adenoma Focal nodular hyperplasia Cysts Lipoma Fibroma Leiomyoma None of these tumors are treated like liver cancer. They may need to be removed surgically if they cause pain or bleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma cholangiocarcinoma This article discusses hepatocellular carcinoma. It's important to know what type of liver tumor you have. Be sure to get that information from your healthcare provider.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prevention

Table

SEER stage5-year relative survival rate
Localized33%
Regional11%
Distant2%
All SEER stages combined18%

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver, and it increases the risk of liver cancer. You can reduce your risk of cirrhosis if you: drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, limit the amount you drink. For women, this means no more than one drink a day. For men, this means no more than two drinks a day. Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, reduce the number of calories you eat each day and increase the amount of exercise you do. Aim to lose weight slowly, 1 or 2 pounds each week.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Outlook

Table

SEER stage5-year relative survival rate
Localized33%
Regional11%
Distant2%
All SEER stages combined18%

Prognosis means expected outcome of disease. You may wish to discuss your prognosis with your doctor, but it is not possible for anyone to predict the exact course of disease. Test results type of liver cancer stage of cancer and how fast it is growing, whether you have cirrhosis and how well your liver is working, how well you respond to treatment other factors such as your age, fitness and overall health. Prognosis tends to be better when liver cancer is still in early stages, but liver cancer is often found later. Doctors often use statistics when considering someoneas prognosis. Statistics reflect typical outcome of disease in large numbers of people. While statistics give doctors a general idea about disease, they wonat necessarily reflect your situation. Liver transplant or surgery to remove cancer may be an option to treat some people with primary liver cancer. Other treatments for primary liver cancer can significantly improve survival and can relieve symptoms to improve quality of life.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosis

Table

SEER stage5-year relative survival rate
Localized33%
Regional11%
Distant2%
All SEER stages combined18%

Early diagnosis drastically improves the chances of survival for people with liver cancer. The doctor will start by asking about persons medical history to rule out any potential risk factors. They will then do physical exam, focusing on abdominal swelling and any yellow in the whites of eyes. These are both reliable indicators of liver problems. If doctor suspect liver cancer, they will request further tests. These may include: blood tests: These include tests for blood clotting, levels of other substances in blood, and proportions of red and white blood cells and platelets. Viral hepatitis tests: doctor will check for hepatitis B and C. Imaging scans: MRI or CT scans can provide a clear picture of the size and spread of cancer. Biopsy: surgeon removes small sample of tumor tissue for analysis. Results can reveal whether the tumor is cancerous or noncancerous. Laparoscopy: this is an outpatient surgical procedure that takes place under general or local anesthetic. Surgeon inserts a long, flexible tube with a camera attached through a cut in the abdomen. The camera allows doctor to see the liver and surrounding area. Once a doctor has assessed stage, location, and type of liver cancer, they can decide the likelihood of safely and effectively treating it.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Research and clinical trials

Table

SEER stage5-year relative survival rate
Localized33%
Regional11%
Distant2%
All SEER stages combined18%

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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