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Liver Issues

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Liver Disease is any disturbance of liver function that causes illness. The liver is responsible for many critical functions within the body and should it become diseased or injured, loss of those functions can cause significant damage to the body. Liver disease is also referred to as hepatic Disease. Liver Disease is a broad term that covers all potential problems that cause the liver to fail to perform its designated functions. Usually, more than 75% or three quarters of liver tissue needs to be affected before a decrease in function occurs. The liver is the largest solid organ in the body; and is also considered a gland because, among its many functions, it makes and secretes bile. The liver is located in the upper right portion of the abdomen protected by a rib cage. It has two main lobes that are made up of tiny lobules. Liver cells have two different sources of blood supply. The Hepatic artery supplies oxygen rich blood that is pumped from the heart, while portal vein supplies nutrients from the intestine and spleen. Normally, veins return blood from body to heart, but portal veins allow nutrients and chemicals from the digestive tract to enter the liver for processing and filtering prior to entering general circulation. Portal vein also efficiently delivers chemicals and proteins that liver cells need to produce proteins, cholesterol, and glycogen required for normal body activities. As part of its function, liver makes bile, fluid that contains, among other substances, water, chemicals, and bile acids. Bile is stored in the gallbladder and when food enters the duodenum, bile is secreted into the duodenum, to aid in digestion of food. The liver is the only organ in the body that can easily replace damaged cells, but if enough cells are lose, liver may not be able to meet the needs of the body. Liver can be considered a factory; and among its many functions include: production of bile that is required in digestion of food, in particular fats Storing of extra glucose or sugar as glycogen, and then converting it back into glucose when the body needs it for energy Production of blood clotting factors Production of amino acids, including those use to help fight infection processing and storage of Iron necessary for red blood cell Production manufacture of cholesterol and other chemicals require for fat transport conversion of waste products of body metabolism into urea that is excrete in urine Metabolizing medications into their active ingredient in body Cirrhosis is term that describe permanent scarring of Liver. In Cirrhosis, normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue that cannot perform any liver function. Acute Liver failure may or may not be reversible, meaning that on occasion, there is a treatable cause and the liver may be able to recover and resume its normal functions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What causes liver disease?

Since the liver is responsible for functions that affect so many other organs in the body, liver disease and failure may cause complications. Examples include: hepatic encephalopathy: increased ammonia levels due to the liver's inability to process and metabolize proteins in diet can cause confusion, lethargy, and coma. Abnormal bleeding: liver is responsible for manufacturing blood clotting factors. Decrease liver function can cause increased risk of bleeding in the body. Protein synthesis or manufacture: proteins made in the liver are building blocks for body function. Lack of protein affects many bodily functions. Portal hypertension: Because the liver has such a great blood supply, damage to liver tissue can increase pressure within blood vessels in the liver and adversely affect blood flow to other organs. This can cause spleen swelling, and development of varices or swollen veins in the gastrointestinal tract, from esophagus and stomach to anus.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How are they treated?

Liver failure is a life - threatening condition that demands urgent medical care. Most often, liver failure happens gradually, over many years. Itas final stage of many liver diseases. But rarer condition know as acute liver failure happens rapidly and can be difficult to detect at first. Liver failure happens when large parts of liver become damaged beyond repair and liver ca work anymore. Acute: this is when your liver stops working within a matter of days or weeks. Most people who get this do have any type of liver disease or problem before this event. Chronic: Damage to your liver builds up over time and causes it to stop working.


Treatment for Cirrhosis

Doctors most often treat causes of cirrhosis with medicines Your doctor will recommend that you stop activities such as drinking alcohol and taking certain medicines that may have caused cirrhosis or may make cirrhosis worse. If you have alcoholic liver disease, your doctor will recommend that you completely stop drinking alcohol. He or she may refer you for alcohol treatment. If you have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, your doctor may recommend losing weight. Weight loss through healthy eating and regular physical activity can reduce fat in the liver, inflammation, and scarring. If you have chronic hepatitis C, your doctor may prescribe one or more medicines that have been approved to treat hepatitis C since 2013. Studies have shown that these medicines can cure chronic hepatitis C in 80 to 95 percent of people with this disease. 5 for chronic hepatitis B, your doctor may prescribe antiviral medicines that slow or stop the virus from further damaging your liver. Doctors treat autoimmune hepatitis with medicines that suppress, or decrease activity of, your immune system. Doctors usually treat diseases that damage, destroy, or block bile ducts with medicines such as ursodiol. Doctors may use surgical procedures to open bile ducts that are narrow or block. Diseases that damage, destroy, or block bile ducts include primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Treatment of inherited liver diseases depends on the disease. Treatment most often focuses on managing symptoms and complications. The specific treatment for most cases of cirrhosis caused by certain medicines is to stop taking medicine that causes problem. Talk with your doctor before you stop taking any medicine

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Hepatitis symptoms

Acute viral Hepatitis can cause anything from minor flu - like illnesses to fatal liver failure. Sometimes there are no symptoms. Severity of symptoms and speed of recovery vary considerably, depending on the particular virus and on the person's response to infection. Hepatitis and C often cause very mild symptoms or none at all and may be unnoticed. Hepatitis B and E are more likely to produce severe symptoms. Infection with both Hepatitis B and D may make symptoms of Hepatitis B even more severe. Sometimes, after 3 to 10 days, urine becomes dark, and stool becomes pale. Jaundice may develop. It is sometimes accompanied by itching. These symptoms occur because the damaged liver cannot remove bilirubin from the blood as it normally does. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment produced when hemoglobin is breaks down as part of the normal process of recycling old or damaged red blood cells. Bilirubin then builds up in blood and is deposited in skin and whites of eyes. Bilirubin is normally secreted into the intestine as a component of bile and excreted in stool, giving the stool its typical brown color. In people with Hepatitis, stools are pale because bilirubin does not enter the intestine to be eliminated in stool. Instead, bilirubin is eliminated in urine, making urine dark. Rarely, fulminant Hepatitis develop. Fulminant Hepatitis is severe hepatitis with signs of liver failure. Fulminant Hepatitis can occur in people with Hepatitis but is more likely to develop in people with Hepatitis B, particularly if they also have Hepatitis D. Fulminant Hepatitis can progress very quickly. The liver can no longer synthesize enough of proteins that help blood clot. However, even though blood does not clot normally, people are not more likely to bruise or to bleed easily or without cause. The liver cannot remove toxic substances as it normally does, so these toxic substances build up in blood and reach the brain, causing hepatic encephalopathy. People may lapse into coma within days to weeks. Fulminant Hepatitis may be fatal, especially in adults. Sometimes, liver transplantation must be done immediately to save a person's life. People with acute viral Hepatitis usually recover in 4 to 8 weeks, even without treatment. However, people infected with Hepatitis C may become carriers of the virus. Adults infected with Hepatitis B are less likely to become carriers. Carriers have no symptoms but are still infected and can transmit viruses to others. Carriers may develop chronic Hepatitis even though the disease is not apparent. Carriers may eventually develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. If people who have not been vaccinated are exposed to the Hepatitis virus, they are given a single dose of Hepatitis vaccine or injection of standard immune globulin, depending on their age and health. Standard immune globulin contains antibodies obtained from blood collected from large groups of people who have a normal immune system. Immune globulin prevents infection or decreases its severity.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Autoimmune symptoms

Autoimmune Disease is a condition that involves your immune system attacking healthy tissue in your body. Those that cause your immune system to attack your liver can cause inflammation and scarring. Both PBC and PSC often develop slowly, but early symptoms sometimes include fatigue and itchy skin. Pain in your right abdomen, jaundice leg abdominal swelling enlarge liver, spleen, or abdomen. Unexplained weight loss, unlike PBC and PSC, Autoimmune Hepatitis can develop suddenly. Some people notice mild flu - like symptoms. Eventually, it can cause symptoms similar to those of viral hepatitis, including: jaundice decreases energy, fatigue, abdominal and joint pain, itchy skin, dark urine and pale stool, nausea and decreased appetite.


Causes

At this time, exact cause of autoimmune hepatitis is unknown. It is believed to be due to a combination of environmental, genetic, and immunologic factors. Few environmental triggers, such as prescribed medications and infections, have been associated with the development of AIH. Some of medications thought to play a role in those with drug - induced AIH include nitrofurantoin, minocycline, and hydralazine. Infections such as viral hepatitis, herpes simplex virus, and cytomegalovirus have also been linked to disease onset. Aih is considered an autoimmune disease, which means something somehow triggers the immune system to think cells in your liver are dangerous. This causes cells in your body that usually attack foreign invaders to start attacking your liver. This leads to inflammation and liver damage.


How is autoimmune hepatitis treated?

Autoimmune Hepatitis is a non - contagious, chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease in which one's own immune system attacks healthy, normal liver cells. The cause of liver cell destruction in this disease is unclear, but may be related to imbalance in some immune system cells. Persistent inflammation within the liver observed in AIH can result in scarring, ultimately leading to cirrhosis, liver failure requiring liver transplant, and even death. Aih is about 4 times more common in females than males and is commonly associated with other Autoimmune conditions including type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and celiac disease. In fact, 25 - 50% of AIH patients will develop another concurrent Autoimmune disease in their lifetime. There are two clinically relevant types of AIH, including type 1and type 2. Type 1 AIH, also referred to as the classic type, is typically diagnosed in adulthood, whereas type 2 is diagnosed during childhood. Both types are treated similarly; However, type 2 AIH can be more severe and more difficult to control. Symptoms associated with AIH include fatigue, itching, yellowing of skin and whites of eyes, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, weight loss, light colored stools, dark colored urine, joint pain, rashes, and loss of menstruation in women. Aih is commonly diagnosed via a combination of patients ' symptoms, blood work, and liver biopsy. Although there is no cure for AIH, it can often be controlled with medication including steroids and other agents which suppress the immune system. Those with AIH often follow with either a gastroenterologist or hepatologist to manage their condition. In the 1950s, internal medicine doctor named Dr. Waldenstrom, first described this condition after observing cohort of young women with elevated liver tests and elevated component of the immune system called gamma globulin. This was eventually termed lupoid Hepatitis by Dr. Mackay until 1960s when the name was changed to Autoimmune Hepatitis. Aih was the first chronic liver disease to have dedicated treatment. In the 1960s - 1970s, therapy with glucocorticoids and azathioprine revealed successful disease control for many. Since these sentinel observations, there has been limited advancement in novel drug therapies. Early detection of AIH is key, as early and effective treatment is associated with better patient outcomes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Cancer symptoms

Having one or more of the symptoms below does not mean you have Liver Cancer. In fact, many of these symptoms are more likely to be caused by other conditions. Still, if you have any of these symptoms, it is important to have them checked by a doctor so that the cause can be found and treat, if needed. Signs and symptoms of Liver Cancer often do not show up until later stages of the disease, but sometimes they may show up sooner. If you go to your doctor when you first notice symptoms, your cancer might be diagnosed earlier, when treatment is most likely to be helpful. Some of the most common symptoms of Liver Cancer are: weight loss, loss of appetite, feeling very full after small meal, Nausea or vomiting enlarge liver, felt fullness under ribs on right side enlarge spleen, felt fullness under ribs on left side, Pain in the abdomen or near right shoulder blade Swelling or fluid build - up in abdomen itching Yellowing of skin and eyes Other symptoms can include fever, enlarge veins on belly that can be see through skin, and abnormal bruising or bleeding. People who have chronic Hepatitis or cirrhosis might feel worse than usual or might just have changes in lab test results, such as liver function tests or alpha - fetoprotein levels. Some liver tumors make hormones that act on organs other than the liver. These hormones may cause: High blood calcium levels, which can cause nausea, confusion, constipation, weakness, or muscle problems. Low blood sugar levels, which can cause fatigue or fainting Breast enlargement and / or shrinkage of testicles in men. High counts of red blood cells, which can cause someone to look red and flushed High cholesterol levels Weight loss loss of appetite Feeling very full after small meal Nausea or vomiting enlarge Liver, felt as fullness under ribs on right side enlarge spleen, felt as fullness under ribs on left side Pain in abdomen or near right shoulder blade Swelling or fluid build - up in abdomen itching Yellowing of skin and eyes Other symptoms can include fever, enlarge veins on belly that can be see through skin, and abnormal bruising or bleeding. People who have chronic Hepatitis or cirrhosis might feel worse than usual or might just have changes in lab test results, such as liver function tests or alpha - fetoprotein levels. Some liver tumors make hormones that act on organs other than the liver. These hormones may cause: High blood calcium levels, which can cause nausea, confusion, constipation, weakness, or muscle problems. Low blood sugar levels, which can cause fatigue or fainting Breast enlargement and / or shrinkage of testicles in men. High counts of red blood cells, which can cause someone to look red and flushed High cholesterol levels


Causes

The exact cause of liver cancer is unknown, but many cases are linked to problem with the liver called cirrhosis. This is where the tissue of the liver has become scarred and cannot perform many of its usual functions. Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably, producing a lump of tissue known as a tumour. In cases of liver cancer, it is uncertain why and how cells of liver are affect, but it appears that cirrhosis can increase a person's chances of developing the condition. However, most cases of cirrhosis do not lead to liver cancer, and people without cirrhosis can also develop liver cancer.


Early warning signs of liver cancer

The liver continuously filters blood that circulates through the body, converting nutrients and drugs absorbed from the digestive tract into ready - to - use chemicals. Liver performs many other important functions, such as removing toxins and other chemical waste products from blood and readying them for excretion. Because all blood in the body must pass through it, liver is unusually accessible to cancer cells traveling in the bloodstream. Livers can be affected by primary liver cancer, which arises in the liver, or by cancer which forms in other parts of the body and then spreads to the liver. Most Liver Cancer is secondary or metastatic, meaning it starts elsewhere in the body. Primary Liver Cancer, which starts in the liver, accounts for about 2% of cancers in the US, but up to half of all cancers in some undeveloped countries. This is mainly due to the prevalence of hepatitis, caused by contagious viruses, that predispose people to Liver Cancer. In the US, primary Liver Cancer strikes twice as many men as women, at an average age of 67. Because the liver is made up of several different types of cells, several types of tumors can form there. Some of these are benign, and some are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body. These tumors have different causes and are treated differently. The outlook for health or recovery depends on what type of tumor you have. Hemangioma Hepatic adenoma Focal nodular hyperplasia Cysts Lipoma Fibroma Leiomyoma None of these tumors are treated like Liver Cancer. They may need to be removed surgically if they cause pain or bleeding. Hepatocellular carcinoma cholangiocarcinoma This article discusses hepatocellular carcinoma. It's important to know what type of liver tumor you have. Be sure to get that information from your healthcare provider.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Liver failure symptoms

Liver failure can be chronic or acute. It usually occurs after cirrhosis. It typically happens in the final stages of liver disease, after the liver is too damaged to continue functioning. In most cases, it is a gradual process. Appetite loss, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue confusion, coma overdoses, particularly acetaminophen overdoses, can cause acute liver failure. This refers to liver failure that happens over a period of days or weeks, rather than months or years. Pain or swelling in your right abdomen, nausea, vomiting, confusion, jaundice, feeling sleepy, disorient, or generally unwell. It is not as common as chronic liver failure, but acute liver failure is very serious. If you have signs of acute liver failure, seek medical attention right away. Sudden liver failure can lead to fluid buildup in the brain, excessive bleeding, and kidney failure.


Causes of liver failure

Acute liver failure occurs when liver cells are damaged significantly and are no longer able to function. Potential causes include: acetaminophen overdose. Taking too much acetaminophen is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Acute liver failure can occur after one very large dose of acetaminophen, or after higher than recommended doses every day for several days. If you or someone you know has taken an overdose of acetaminophen, seek medical attention as quickly as possible. Don't wait for signs of liver failure. Prescription medications. Some prescription medications, including antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants, can cause acute liver failure. Herbal supplements. Herbal drugs and supplements, including kava, ephedra, skullcap and pennyroyal, have been linked to acute liver failure. Hepatitis and other viruses. Hepatitis, hepatitis B and hepatitis E can cause acute liver failure. Other viruses that can cause acute liver failure include the Epstein - Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus. Toxins. Toxins that can cause acute liver failure include the poisonous wild mushroom Amanita phalloides, which is sometimes mistaken for one that is safe to eat. Carbon tetrachloride is another toxin that can cause acute liver failure. It is an industrial chemical found in refrigerants and solvents for waxes, varnishes and other materials. Autoimmune disease. Liver failure can be caused by autoimmune hepatitis disease in which your immune system attacks liver cells, causing inflammation and injury. Diseases of veins in the liver. Vascular diseases, such as Budd - Chiari syndrome, can cause blockages in the veins of the liver and lead to acute liver failure. Metabolic disease. Rare metabolic diseases, such as Wilson's disease and acute fatty liver of pregnancy, infrequently cause acute liver failure. Cancer. Cancer that either begins in or spreads to your liver can cause your liver to fail. Shock. Overwhelming infection and shock can severely impair blood flow to the liver, causing liver failure. Many cases of acute liver failure have no apparent cause.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Nausea

The liver is the largest internal organ, and a surprisingly powerful one at that. However, certain liver conditions can leave permanent damage, in which case early diagnosis and swift treatment can mean difference between uncomfortable illness and life - threatening emergency. Liver disease can be caused by a variety of different illnesses and conditions, including: hepatitis A, B and C. Cirrhosis. Long - term alcohol abuse. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Adverse Reactions to certain prescription and herbal medications. Acetaminophen overdose. Hemochromatosis. Malnutrition. Ingestion of poisonous wild mushrooms. Like many progressive diseases, you may not notice any signs or symptoms of liver disease in the early stages. But, as liver function begins to decline, you may begin to notice some physical changes in certain areas of your body. A Swollen abdomen can point to condition called ascites, in which liver malfunction leads to imbalance of proteins and other compounds, and fluid build up in tissues. Sometimes swelling occurs in hands, feet and ankles, as gravity draws excess fluid down to these extremities. Damage to the liver produces fewer proteins necessary for blood clotting, which means you may bleed and bruise more easily. It can be easy to dismiss fatigue and lethargy as normal side effect of stressful life, but severe exhaustion could point to low blood - oxygen levels and waste accumulation. Nausea, disinterest in food and weight loss are some early symptoms of liver problems. In fact, initial stages of hepatitis often bring flu - like symptoms, including digestive discomfort. As liver function declines and waste can no longer be eliminated from the body efficiently, bile pigment called bilirubin can build up in the bloodstream. In turn, skin and eyes can take on yellowish color, urine will appear darker, and stools will appear lighter. When cirrhosis begins to cause pain, it typically appears in the upper right abdomen, or just under the lower right ribs. Pain can be throbbing or stabbing, and it may come and go. Cognitive issues can develop when toxins accumulate in the blood and move to the brain. Confusion and problems with concentration are often first signs of toxin overload, but they can lead to forgetfulness, changes in sleeping habits, and unresponsiveness. Nausea and upset stomach are common early symptoms of liver disease, but as your liver's ability to eliminate toxins decreases, your digestive distress will likely increase. Ongoing nausea is a reaction to excess waste products in the body, and unexplained vomiting is often linked to liver problems. Spotting symptoms of liver damage early is vital for effective treatment. If you suspect a problem with your liver, take your concerns to your doctor right away. There are several tests that can quickly and painlessly reveal the extent of your liver damage and that will determine the right course of therapy. Sooner you can halt the progression of liver disease, more healthy tissue you can save, and better your liver's chances of regeneration will be.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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