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Lobe (anatomy)

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Lobe (anatomy)

Identifiers
TA98A13.1.02.002
FMA45728

One particularly fascinating area in the frontal lobe is called the primary motor cortex. This strip running along side the brain is in charge of voluntary movements like waving goodbye, wiggling your eyebrows, and kissing. It is an excellent example of the way that various regions of the brain are highly specialized. Interestingly, each of our various body parts has a unique portion of primary motor cortex devoted to it. Each individual finger has about as much dedicated brain space as your entire leg. Your lips, in turn, require about as much dedicated brain processing as all of your fingers and your hand combine! Because the cerebral cortex in general, and frontal lobe in particular, are associated with such sophisticated functions as planning and being self - aware, they are often thought of as a higher, less primal portion of the brain. Indeed, other animals such as rats and kangaroos, while do have frontal regions of their brain, do not have the same level of development in cerebral cortices. Closer animals to humans on evolutionary treethink chimpanzees and gorillas, more developed this portion of their brain. The brain's parietal lobe is located immediately behind the frontal lobe, and is involved in processing information from body senses. It contains a somatosensory cortex, which is essential for processing sensory information from across the body, such as touch, temperature, and pain. The Somatosensory cortex is organized topographically, which means that spatial relationships that exist in the body are generally maintained on the surface of the somatosensory cortex. For example, portion of the cortex that processes sensory information from the hand is adjacent to the portion that processes information from the wrist. The temporal lobe is located on the side of the head, and is associated with hearing, memory, emotion, and some aspects of language. The auditory cortex, main area responsible for processing auditory information, is located within the temporal lobe. The Wernickes area, important for speech comprehension, is also located here. Whereas individuals with damage to Brocas area have difficulty producing language, those with damage to Wernickes area can produce sensible language, but they are unable to understand it. The occipital lobe is located at the very back of the brain, and contains the primary visual cortex, which is responsible for interpreting incoming visual information. The occipital cortex is organized retinotopically, which means there is a close relationship between the position of an object in person's visual field and the position of that object's representation in the cortex. You will learn much more about how visual information is processed in occipital lobe when you study sensation and perception.

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Examples of lobes

The temporal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex located beneath lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. Temporal lobes are involved in many functions, such as retaining visual memories, processing sensory input, comprehending language, storing new memories, feeling and expressing emotion, and deriving meaning. The temporal lobe contains the hippocampus and plays a key role in the formation of explicit long - term memory, modulated by the amygdala. It is involved in senses of smell and sound as well as in the processing of complex stimuli. Adjacent areas in the superior, posterior, and lateral parts of temporal lobes are involved in high - level auditory processing. The temporal lobe is involved in primary auditory perception such as hearing and primary auditory cortex. Superior temporal gyrus includes an area where auditory signals from ear first reach the cerebral cortex and are processed by the primary auditory cortex in the left temporal lobe. Areas associated with vision in the temporal lobe interpret the meaning of visual stimuli and establish object recognition. Ventral part of temporal cortices appear to be involved in high - level visual processing of complex stimuli such as face and scenes. Anterior parts of this ventral stream for visual processing are involved in object perception and recognition.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Frontal lobe

Frontal lobes are responsible for planning and executing learning and conscious actions. Moreover, frontal lobe is the location of many inhibitory functions. There are at least 4 functionally distinct areas in the frontal lobes: primary Motor cortex in precentral gyrus, medial areas, orbital areas, lateral areas. Medial frontal area is responsible for awareness and motivation. The frontal orbital area helps shape social behavior. The inferolateral area is responsible for linguistic functions, while the dorsolateral area manages freshly acquired information. Therefore, it is functionally called working memory. The primary motor cortex controls all voluntary movements of the contralateral side of the body. Since 90% of fibers from the primary motor cortex cross the medial line in area of the brain stem, damage to the motor cortex of one lobe causes weakness of the contralateral side of the body. Besides, specific parts of the frontal lobe house smell recognition centers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Parietal lobe

The Parietal Lobe is located near the center of the brain, behind the frontal Lobe, in front of the occipital Lobe, and above the temporal Lobe. The Parietal Lobe contains an area known as the primary Sensory Area. This is where impulses from the skin, such as warmth, cold, pain, and touch, are interpret. Just like the primary motor area in the frontal Lobe, more sensory input that comes from area of body, more surface area of the Parietal Lobe is involved in processing of that information. Parietal Lobe is also an essential element of spatial information, which gives us the ability to judge size, distance, and shapes. A specific triangular - shaped area known as the Parietal association Cortex gives us the ability to understand write language and solve mathematical problems. The left hemisphere of Parietal Lobe is often more active in right - hand people. This Lobe is known for handling symbolism of letters and numbers. The right hemisphere tends to be more active in left - hand people and helps with interpretation of images and spatial distances within them, such as those that exist in maps. Regardless of handedness, people are not right brain or left brain; we use both sides of our Parietal Lobe.


Anatomy

Angular gyrus is a small, triangular area in the parietal lobe. It helps the brain associate symbols and meaning and assists with word recognition. This gives the brain the ability to assign meaning and name objects in the environment. It also helps use symbols and language, thus playing a role in abilities such as drawing, reading, and reasoning. This helps people understand write words and mathematical equations. Damage to angular gyrus, on the dominant side, can cause Gerstmanns syndrome. Gerstmanns syndrome is characterized by: inability to write, inability to perform arithmetic, difficulty recognizing which finger is which trouble differentiating right from the left side of the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Clinical Relevance: Cerebrovascular Accident

Anterior cerebral circulation is composed of branches from ICA. There are many such branches, but ACA, middle cerebral artery, and anterior choroidal artery are highly prominent and pathophysiologically significant. Overall, function of anterior division of cerebral circulation is to supply blood to a large proportion of the forebrain, including frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as parts of the diencephalon and internal capsule. The contribution of anterior circulation to total cerebral blood flow has been measured by phase - contrast magnetic resonance imaging at 72%. Aca primarily supplies blood to most medial aspects of the cerebral cortical surface, located along longitudinal fissure that divides the brain's two hemispheres. This area includes portions of frontal lobes, as well as superomedial parietal lobes; because it ends rostral to parieto - occipital sulcus, this artery does not supply medial occipital lobe. Its course is as follow: after arising from the anterior clinoid portion of ICA, it courses anteromedially over superior surface of optic chiasm, toward longitudinal fissure. Shortly after arrival in fissure, it forms anastomosis with contralateral ACA. This anastomosis is called anterior communicating artery. While small, this artery is nevertheless the most common location of cerebral aneurysms and is thus of enormous pathological importance. It also marks the first segmental division of ACA, which is divided regionally into five segments along its course: A1 - A5. Table 1 describes these segments, their major branches, structure they supply, and significance of any anatomical variation associated with them. As ACA proceeds, then, beyond A1, it begins its posterior course toward parieto - occipital sulcus, following contour of callosal sulcus between two cerebral hemispheres. Throughout this whole course, ACA provides deep and cortical branches; these arise from proximal and distal portions of ACA, respectively. Acha is a branch of ICA that typically arises from the supraclinoid portion, just before bifurcation of middle and anterior cerebral arteries. However, many anatomical variations have been find: AChA has also been found to originate from MCA or even from PCoA. Although rare, still other variations have also been observe, including complete absence, as well as duplication, of AChA. As should hardly be surprising given this variety of possible courses, vascular territory of AChA has been a matter of debate in recent years. Whatever its course, however, AChA gives off both deep and superficial branches. Vascular territory of deep branches includes posterior two - thirds of internal capsule, adjacent optic and auditory radiations, medial portion of globus pallidus, and tail of caudate nucleus; territory of superficial branches includes piriform cortex and uncus, hippocampal head, amygdala, and most lateral portion of thalamic lateral geniculate nucleus. Mca is the largest and most complexly distributed of cerebral vessels, supplying many critical cerebral structures along its sinuous course.


Clinical Significance

Incomplete COW is present in 48 - 58% of the population. Pca arising directly from intracranial internal carotid artery is defined as fPCA and most are unilateral. Fpca is either partial or complete depending on whether or not the hypoplastic P1 segment is present and occurs in 10 - 29% of the population. Bilateral fPCAs are associated with small caliber BA, as BA does not contribute to mesencephalic, temporal, or occipital lobe flow. There is no established association between unilateral or bilateral fPCAs and stroke risk. On the other hand, etiologic evaluation of occipital stroke in patients with ipsilateral fPCA should include assessment for carotid artery disease. Moreover, patients with hemodynamically significant carotid occlusive disease and ipsilateral fPCAs lack capacity to develop leptomeningeal anastomoses between the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, and PCA. Patients with ICA occlusion, ipsilateral fPCA, and non - functioning ACOM may be particularly vulnerable to ischemia and infarction due to hemodynamic failure compared to those with adequate contralateral flow through functioning ACOM.


The Posterior Cerebral Circulation

The final posterior circulation contribution to consider is that provided by posterior cerebral arteries. These arteries usually arise bilaterally from terminal bifurcation of basilar arteries but have been found to originate unilaterally at ICA in between 11% and 29% of cases examine. This is a clinically consequential variant: it can mimic cerebrovascular pathology on perfusion MRI due to asymmetric signature. In any case, after splitting from the basilar artery or otherwise, PCA encircles midbrain at pontomesencephalic junction, immediately rostral to the root of the third cranial nerve. Along its posterior passage, it travels over cerebral peduncles, and thence to the ventromedial surface of the cortex, thus through an elaborate pattern of branches constituting major source of blood to the occipital lobe, inferior and medial parts of the temporal lobe, and posterior portion of the inferior parietal lobe. As has been the case in every example mentioned above, cortical symptoms produced by PCA infarcts are consistent with functions of the artery's territory: most commonly, such infarcts produce visual field deficits, but alexia and agnosias can also occur, such as, owing to fusiform gyrus dysfunction, prosopagnosia. Pca also has substantial subcortical territory that covers the thalamus, midbrain, and choroid plexus; deep areas have been found to be involved in almost 30% of pure PCA infarcts. Like ACA and MCA of anterior circulation, PCA has been divided into segments by location along its extent, but we will not discuss these further. Interested readers may refer to our sources.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Structure and Function

In order to fully comprehend Temporal Lobe, it is best to analyze it also through its functional connectivity, not just its gross structure. The idea that certain parts of the brain perform certain functions is called localizationism. Localizationism does not always correspond to predictions of functions. Connections define functions. On the other hand, without understanding function, connections of structures are useless. Hence, in order to see the whole picture, structure, connections, and functions must be correlate. Brodmann's Area has clearly defined 47 areas. However, due to advances in technology and recent studies, Human Connectome Project was able to discover 180 parcellations of the human cortex. Of 47 Brodmann's areas, only 23 were retain. The rest were redefine or subdivided further into more specific areas. Temporal Lobe can be divided through its traditional Broadmann's Area or simply by superior, middle and inferior Temporal gyrus, parahippocampal / entorhinal gyri and fusiform gyrus. However, it has been reorganized into a new scheme due to lack of basis for its functional or organizational anatomy. Base on previous studies, major association fiber tracts have been identify: meanwhile, 8 cognitive domains were identified via functional imaging with their associated part of Temporal Lobe: HCP proposes a new scheme that considers its functional connectivity: HCP categorizes association cortices, Auditory Area 4 and Auditory Area 5, and Temporal region Find in STG in insula and opercular cortex. It is notable that lateral and medial structures do not have connections as the anatomy of White Matter runs anterior - posterior more than medial - lateral. Functionally and structurally, it appears that its parcellations cluster into two: superior cluster, whose fibers end in posterior inferior Frontal gyrus, including STS and TE1a; inferior cluster, whose fibers end in superior parts of Frontal Lobe, including TE1m, TE1p, TE2a, PHT. Superior Temporal sulcus has four parts: STS dorsal anterior, STS dorsal posterior, STS ventral anterior and STS ventral posterior. Four parts of STS have functional connectivity to different parcellations of Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital lobes and insula opercular Area. Teva has additional functional connectivity to the hippocampus. Meanwhile, it has White Matter connections to arcuate / superior longitudinal fasciculus, u fibers of occipitotemporal system and middle longitudinal fasciculus. Stsdp does not have structural connectivity to MdLF. Sts has numerous functions, including motion, speech and facial processing, language comprehension and audiovisual integration. It has also been related to the theory of mind. Each part of STS has different levels of activation depending on particular function. Temporal Area 1 anterior, middle and posterior are found in MTG. All three areas have functional connectivity to different parcellations of Frontal, Temporal and Parietal lobes. Te1a has additional functional connectivity to some STS areas, Temporal gyrus ventral, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus. All three areas have White Matter connections to u fibers of occipitotemporal system and arcuate / SLF. Te1a has additional White Matter connection to inferior longitudinal fasciculus.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Embryology

Sensorimotor Cortex Timeline

Gestational Age GA weeksFertilization Age FA weeksEvent
18-1916-17appearance of the inferior part of the central cerebral sulcus
20-2218-20development of the pericentral lateral regions and the beginning of opercularization
24-2622-24development of parietal and temporal cortices and the covering of the postcentral insular region
27-2825-26maturation of the central cerebral regions

The occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex derives from the telencephalon. Thus, its embryologic development is associated with the development of telencephalon. At two weeks of conception, embryo has a two - layered structure. During the third week, gastrulation divides embryo into three layers - endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Ectodermal stem cells give rise to the brain and central nervous system. Neuroectodermal cells become arranged in midline, forming a neural plate. At the end of the third developmental week, neural plate ends approximate and fuse to form a neural tube. By week 4, neural tube expand to form three characteristic cavities called brain vesicles. This stage is know as the three vesicle stage. Anterior - most cavity is prosencephalon, middle cavity is mesencephalon, and caudal cavity is rhombencephalon. By week 5, prosencephalon further divided to form telencephalon and diencephalon, and rhombencephalon further divided to form metencephalon and myelencephalon. This stage is know as the five vesicle stage. Telencephalon undergoes growth and infoldings to form two cavities. Cavities give rise to cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles. At five months, hemispheres have expanded to occupy most of the brain cavity. At eight months, gyri and sulci became prominent.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Blood Supply and Lymphatics

Key facts about the lungs

SurfacesCostal and medial (mediastinal)
BordersAnterior, posterior, and inferior
Parts of the lungApex and base
LobesLeft lung - superior and inferior Right lung - superior, middle, and inferior
FissuresLeft lung - oblique Right lung - oblique and horizontal
Blood supplyPulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries (right and left) -> superior and inferior pulmonary arteries (right and left) Intercostobronchial trunk and thoracic aorta -> bronchial arteries (right and left)
InnervationPulmonary plexus (vagus nerve, cervical cardiac nerves)
EmbryologyFour stages of development - pseudoglandular, canalicular, terminal sac, alveolar stages

The occipital lobe receives vascular supply from cortical branches of the posterior cerebral artery. Parieto - occipital Artery originates from the distal segment of PCA in calcarine sulcus. It supplies parieto - occipital sulcus and some areas of cuneus. Calcarine Artery also originates from the distal segment of PCA. It supplies calcarine sulcus and most of the cuneus. Lingual gyrus Artery arises near the origin of calcarine Artery. As the name suggest, it supplies lingual gyrus. Posterior - temporal Artery supplies lingual gyrus and caudal portion of fusiform gyrus. Common temporal Artery is also know as lateral occipital Artery or temporooccipital Artery. It supplies fusiform gyrus and sometimes lingual gyrus. Various neurologic deficits can occur as result of occlusion of these branches, because of the variability of regions supplied by tributaries of PCA.


Arterial supply

Right ventricle pumps deoxygenate blood to lungs through pulmonary arteries. These vessels arise from pulmonary trunk as it bifurcates behind superior vena cava to give one vessel to each lung. Each pulmonary artery also undergoes second division to produce superior and inferior branches. The inferior right pulmonary artery is larger than the ipsilateral superior artery. It passes between the superior pulmonary vein and intermediate bronchus before supplying middle and inferior lobes. In addition to supplying these lobes, it also sends recurrent branch to augment blood supply to superior lobe. The right superior pulmonary artery bifurcates as it supplies the superior lobe of that lung. At the point of bifurcation, pulmonary artery passes under the aortic arch to enter left oblique fissure. Subsequent divisions of this vessel can vary. The first branch of left pulmonary artery is the largest of all subsequent divisions. It is responsible for supplying the anterior bronchopulmonary segment of the left superior lobe. There are additional branches from this vessel; however, pattern of arborization varies significantly when compared to right counterpart. Leave pulmonary artery also gives off lingular branch within the oblique fissure that supplies lingula. There are many other branches arising from the left pulmonary artery that extend throughout the left lung to supply the rest of the organ. While pulmonary arteries deliver low - pressure deoxygenate blood to the lungs, bronchial arteries deliver oxygenate blood at high pressures to the organ and its supporting elements. The majority of individuals have two vessels on the left, and one on the right. The right bronchial artery arises from intercostobronchial trunk alongside the posterior intercostal artery. Vessels work as vasa vasorum and vasa nervorum for vagus nerve to supply the middle third of the esophagus, and other structures. On the left - hand side, bronchial arteries are direct branches of the thoracic aorta. There is a superior left bronchial artery that supplies part of the aortic arch and an inferior left bronchial artery that supplies bronchi and connective tissue of hilum.


Embryology

Azygos lobe forms during embryological development when the right posterior cardinal vein aberrantly migrates through the upper lobe of right lung rather than over the apex. As a result, two pleural layers are carried through the right upper lobe, creating a fissure known as azygos fissure. While most of posterior cardinal veins regress during embryological development, right - side supracardinal veins form portion of inferior vena cava, intercostal veins, hemiazygos vein, and azygos vein. Interestingly, failure of regression of left - side supracardinal veins has been report. This failure leads to such anomalies as persistence of left superior and inferior vena cava.


Anatomical Position and Relations

There are various ligaments that attach the liver to surrounding structures. These are formed by double layer of peritoneum. Falciform ligament - this sickle - shaped ligament attaches the anterior surface of the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and forms natural anatomical division between the left and right lobes of the liver. The free edge of this ligament contains ligamentum teres, remnants of umbilical vein. Coronary ligament - Attaches superior surface of liver to inferior surface of diaphragm and demarcates bare area of liver anterior and posterior folds unite to form triangular ligaments on right and leave lobes of liver. Triangular ligaments: leaf triangular ligament is formed by union of anterior and posterior layers of coronary ligament at the apex of the liver and attaches leave lobe of liver to the diaphragm. The right triangular ligament is formed in similar fashion adjacent to the bare area and attaches the right lobe of the liver to the diaphragm. Lesser omentum - Attaches liver to the lower curvature of the stomach and first part of the duodenum. It consists of hepatoduodenal ligament and hepatogastric ligament. Hepatoduodenal ligament surrounds portal triad. In addition to these supporting ligaments, posterior surface of the liver is secured to inferior vena cava by hepatic veins and fibrous tissue.

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Table

Left LungRight Lung
Heart Arch of aorta Thoracic aorta OesophagusOesophagus Heart Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Azygous vein
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Clinical Significance

Key facts

Total number of bronchopulmonary segments10 on the right 8-9 on the left
Number of segments in the superior lobe3 on the right 4 on the left
Number of segments in the inferior lobe5 on the right 4 on the left
Total lung volume6000 mL
Lung volumesTidal Volume (500 mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000 mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume (1100 mL) Residual Volume (1200 mL)
Lung capacitiesInspiratory Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
MnemonicsRight Bronchopulmonary Segments: A PALM S eed M akes A nother L ittle P alm Left Bronchopulmonary Segments: ASIA ALPS D-RIPE for reading plain radiographs of the chest

Azygos lobe is not a true accessory lobe as it does not have unique bronchus or blood supply. There are few reports describing bronchial and vascular supply. One report of an autopsy of a 43 - year - old man found that azygos lobe was supplied by apical sub - subsegmental branches of B1b and B1a, and this was accompanied by pulmonary artery of the same sub - subsegments, A1bi and A1ai. Lateral sub - subsegmental branches of B1aii and B1bii are accompanied by Pulmonary artery do not supply azygos lobe. Venous supply was from V1a and V2 but not V1b. Another report describes similar findings with azygos lobe ventilated by the posterior branch of apical segmental bronchus, B1a, and accompanied by two apical sub - segmental arteries, A1ai and A1aii, and apical intersubsegmental vein, V1a. Lymphatic supply to azygos lobe does not differ from that of normal lung. Lymphatic vessels of respiratory bronchioles merge and follow bronchiole tree to hilum.


Bronchopulmonary segments

The superior lobe of the right lung has three bronchopulmonary segments. The pinnacle of superior lobe forms apical segment or segment I. Below and posterior to apical segment is the posterior segment. When viewed from costal surface, this segment is limited inferiorly by the posterosuperior part of right oblique fissure and posterior part of horizontal fissure. As the name suggest, anterior segment is anterior to the posterior segment and anteroinferior to the apical segment. It is limited inferiorly by horizontal fissure. The middle lobe of the right lung lies between the horizontal and anteroinferior part of oblique fissures. It is subdivided into lateral and medial bronchopulmonary segments. The lateral segment is best represented on the costal surface of lung, while the superficial boundary of the medial segment wraps around the anterior border of the lung. It tapers off at hilum and is superiorly related to oblique fissure. The inferior lobe of right lung has five bronchopulmonary segments. The superior segment is represented on both the costal and mediastinal surfaces of right lung; as segment also includes portion of the posterior border of right lung. The medial basal segment is best represented on the mediastinal surface of the lung, as it lies below the hilum. It is anteriorly related to the posterior basal segment, which abuts the lateral basal segment around the posterior border of the lung. The anterior basal segment is limited anteriorly by the caudal part of the oblique fissure and is juxtaposed with the lateral basal segment posteriorly. An easy way to remember all these segments is by using a mnemonic! Just memorise the phrase PALM S eed M akes nother L ittle P alm and the terms it stands for will be much easier to recall: pical P osterior nterior L ateral M edial S uperior M edial basal nterior basal L ateral basal P osterior basal

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Gross anatomy

Key facts

Total number of bronchopulmonary segments10 on the right 8-9 on the left
Number of segments in the superior lobe3 on the right 4 on the left
Number of segments in the inferior lobe5 on the right 4 on the left
Total lung volume6000 mL
Lung volumesTidal Volume (500 mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000 mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume (1100 mL) Residual Volume (1200 mL)
Lung capacitiesInspiratory Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
MnemonicsRight Bronchopulmonary Segments: A PALM S eed M akes A nother L ittle P alm Left Bronchopulmonary Segments: ASIA ALPS D-RIPE for reading plain radiographs of the chest

The Occipital lobe is the smallest lobe, accounting for only 18% of total neocortical volume 10. Boundaries of occipital lobe have been arbitrarily define, giving it triangular shape 1. It is separated from parietal and temporal lobes on the medial surface by parieto - occipital sulcus and on the lateral side by lateral parietotemporal line, near vertical imaginary line extending from the preoccipital notch of temporal lobe superiorly to parieto - occipital sulcus. Medially, it is confined by medial longitudinal fissure which divides both cerebral hemispheres. Tentorium cerebelli form its inferior border and occipital bone its posterior margin.

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Sulci and gyri

Key facts about the gyri

DefinitionRidge of grey matter on the surface of the brain surrounded by sulci (fissures).
FunctionTo increase surface area of the brain and hence the cognitive capabilities
Important gyriFrontal lobe: precentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior paracentral gyrus, orbital gyrus Parietal lobe: postcentral gyrus, superior perietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule Temporal lobe: temporal gyri (superior, middle, inferior, transverse), fusiform gyrus Occipital lobe: occipital gyri (superior, inferior), cuneate gyrus, lingual gyrus Insular lobe: short gyri, long gyri Limbic lobe: cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampal formation, subcallosal gyrus, parolfactory gyrus, preterminal gyrus

In Figure Figure1 1, wealth of gyri and sulci of the human cerebral cortex as distinguished by von Economo and Koskinas Is show. Gyri of cerebral lobes is indicated by classical numbers such as F1 - F3, T1 - T4, and sulci without capitals. Clearly visible are the first and second intermediate parietal sulci of Jensen and Eberstaller as well as the frontomarginal Sulcus of Wernicke with various components. Many of smaller or infrequent sulci were forget, several of which were reintroduced in the recent human brain mapping era and in TNA. Supplementary Table 1 contains a list of synonyms and eponyms for cerebral gyri and Supplementary Table 2 those of main sulci. Terminological differences use in Tzourio - Mazoyer's approach 2 vs. Terminologia Anatomica TA, 1998 concern use of eponyms such as Rolandic operculum, Sylvian fissure and Heschl's gyrus, and use of gyrus instead of lobule for superior and inferior parietal lobules. In the atlas of Mai et al. 2016 and recent pocket atlas by Mai and Majtanik 2017, use of the term fissure is advocated for lateral, parietooccipital and hippocampal sulci. In BNA 1895, terms fissurae cerebri lateralis, collateralis, parietooccipitalis, calcarina, and hippocampi were used in JNA 1936, only lateral, Sylvian fissure remains as fissure. This was correct in PNA 1955 and later editions, and for cerebrum, term fissure is in use only for interhemispheric fissure. Therefore, term fissure should not be advocated anymore. Minor differences in Mai et al. 2016 are use of terms central operculum for subcentral gyrus, anterior intermediate parietal Sulcus for first intermediate parietal Sulcus of Jensen see also Zlatkina and Petrides, 2014, medial occipitotemporal gyrus as common term for lingual gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus, periinsular Sulcus for circular Sulcus of insula, and rather extensive terminology for opercula, including frontal, frontoparietal, and temporal opercula Figure. 3. Their frontoparietal operculum includes anterior central precentral operculum, subcentral gyrus, posterior central postcentral operculum, and parietal operculum. The first three collectively may belong to subcentral gyrus. In their atlas of the human brain in MNI space, Mai et al. 2016 presents photographs of cell - stained sections of the right hemisphere of a 24 - year - old male from Vogt - collection in Dusseldorf Vogt and Vogt, 1919. Schematic drawings show delineations of the cortex, which are based on original maps of Brodmann in 1909. Surface - base maps by Van Essen 2005; Van Essen et al. 2012 were modified by manually estimating areal boundaries on atlas drawing and transforming them on the surface of 3D reconstruction. Nieuwenhuys et al. 2015 adapted standard brain, generated from Colin27 brain http: / www. Bic. Mni. Mcgill. Ca / ServicesAtlases / Colin27. In Figures Figures4 4 5 5, gyri and sulci are shown for lateral and medial aspects, respectively.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Key facts

Total number of bronchopulmonary segments10 on the right 8-9 on the left
Number of segments in the superior lobe3 on the right 4 on the left
Number of segments in the inferior lobe5 on the right 4 on the left
Total lung volume6000 mL
Lung volumesTidal Volume (500 mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000 mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume (1100 mL) Residual Volume (1200 mL)
Lung capacitiesInspiratory Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
MnemonicsRight Bronchopulmonary Segments: A PALM S eed M akes A nother L ittle P alm Left Bronchopulmonary Segments: ASIA ALPS D-RIPE for reading plain radiographs of the chest
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Arterial supply

Key facts

Total number of bronchopulmonary segments10 on the right 8-9 on the left
Number of segments in the superior lobe3 on the right 4 on the left
Number of segments in the inferior lobe5 on the right 4 on the left
Total lung volume6000 mL
Lung volumesTidal Volume (500 mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000 mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume (1100 mL) Residual Volume (1200 mL)
Lung capacitiesInspiratory Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
MnemonicsRight Bronchopulmonary Segments: A PALM S eed M akes A nother L ittle P alm Left Bronchopulmonary Segments: ASIA ALPS D-RIPE for reading plain radiographs of the chest

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Neurological deficits

Key facts

Total number of bronchopulmonary segments10 on the right 8-9 on the left
Number of segments in the superior lobe3 on the right 4 on the left
Number of segments in the inferior lobe5 on the right 4 on the left
Total lung volume6000 mL
Lung volumesTidal Volume (500 mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000 mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume (1100 mL) Residual Volume (1200 mL)
Lung capacitiesInspiratory Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
MnemonicsRight Bronchopulmonary Segments: A PALM S eed M akes A nother L ittle P alm Left Bronchopulmonary Segments: ASIA ALPS D-RIPE for reading plain radiographs of the chest

Following neurological deficits occur with unilateral or bilateral lesions of temporal lob 7: deficits arising from unilateral lesions involving dominant hemisphere: alexia: acquire dyslexia agraphia: inability to write acalculia: inability to calculate Wernicke's dysphasia: receptive dysphasia nominal dysphasia: inability to name objects contralateral homonymous superior quadrantanopia: pie in sky visual field defect deficits arising from unilateral lesions involving non - dominant hemisphere: contralateral homonymous superior quadrantanopia prosopagnosia: failure to recognize face irritative lesions involving either lobe can give rise to following: form visual hallucinations complex - partial seizures memory disturbances

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Relations

Key facts

Total number of bronchopulmonary segments10 on the right 8-9 on the left
Number of segments in the superior lobe3 on the right 4 on the left
Number of segments in the inferior lobe5 on the right 4 on the left
Total lung volume6000 mL
Lung volumesTidal Volume (500 mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000 mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume (1100 mL) Residual Volume (1200 mL)
Lung capacitiesInspiratory Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
MnemonicsRight Bronchopulmonary Segments: A PALM S eed M akes A nother L ittle P alm Left Bronchopulmonary Segments: ASIA ALPS D-RIPE for reading plain radiographs of the chest

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Lobes of the Brain

Key Facts

Frontal lobeLocation: in front of the parietal lobe (separated by central sulcus) and above and in front of temporal lobe (separated by lateral sulcus-Sylvian fissure) Gyri : superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, precentral gyrus, paracentral lobule Function: control of voluntary movement, involved in attention, short term memory tasks, motivation, planning
Parietal lobeLocation: above the occipital (separated by parieto-occipital sulcus) and behind the central sulcus Gyri: postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules Function: integrates proprioceptive and mechanoceptive stimuli, involved in language processing
Occipital lobeLocation : behind parieto-occipital sulcus and behind temporal lobe (separated by temporo-occipital incisure) Gyri: superior and inferior occipital gyri Function: center for visual processing
Temporal lobeLocation: beneath lateral sulcus Gyri: superior, middle, inferior temporal gyri Function: decoding sensory input into derived meanings for retention of visual memory and language comprehension
Insular lobeLocation: beneath the cortex where temporal, parietal and frontal lobes meet Gyri: long gyrus, short gyri Function: processing and integration of taste sensation, visceral and pain sensation and vestibular functions
Limbic lobeLocation: at the medial surface of each hemisphere and around the corpus calosum Gyri: subcallosal, cingulate, parahippocampal gyri Function: modulation of emotions, modulation of visceral and autonomic functions, learning, memory
Clinical relationsAnterior cerebral artery syndrome, middle cerebral artery syndrome, posterior cerebral artery syndrome, watershed stroke, Gerstmann syndrome, prosopagnosia, herpesvirus encephalitis

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Key facts

Total number of bronchopulmonary segments10 on the right 8-9 on the left
Number of segments in the superior lobe3 on the right 4 on the left
Number of segments in the inferior lobe5 on the right 4 on the left
Total lung volume6000 mL
Lung volumesTidal Volume (500 mL) Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000 mL) Expiratory Reserve Volume (1100 mL) Residual Volume (1200 mL)
Lung capacitiesInspiratory Capacity Functional Residual Capacity Vital Capacity Total Lung Capacity
MnemonicsRight Bronchopulmonary Segments: A PALM S eed M akes A nother L ittle P alm Left Bronchopulmonary Segments: ASIA ALPS D-RIPE for reading plain radiographs of the chest
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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