Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 8 mil and more summaries

Long Did Take For A Polio Vaccine

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 02 July 2021

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Polio Vaccine, preparation of poliovirus given to prevent Polio, infectious disease of the nervous system. The first Polio Vaccine, know as inactivated poliovirus Vaccine or Salk Vaccine, was developed in the early 1950s by American physician Jonas Salk. This vaccine contains kill viruses and is given by injection. Large - scale use of IPV began in February 1954, when it was administered to American schoolchildren. In following years, incidence of Polio in the United States fell from 18 cases per 100 000 people to fewer than 2 per 100 000. In the 1960s, second type of Polio Vaccine, known as oral poliovirus Vaccine or Sabin Vaccine, named for its inventor, American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin, was develop. Opv contains live attenuate virus and is given orally. Vaccines, whether kill or live, may contain strains of all three poliovirus serotypesPV1, PV2, and PV3or of just one or two. For example, trial OPV contains live attenuate virus of all three serotypes and thus is effective against all three serotypes of virus. In contrast, monovalent OPV1 contains live attenuate virus of only PV1 and thus is effective only against serotype 1. In general, for both IPV and OPV, three doses of Vaccine are require, with a fourth given when children reach school age. Because PV2 dropped out of circulation in the 1990s, in countries where disease was endemic, bivalent oral Vaccine, or bOPV, targeting PV1 and PV3 was develop. In the first decade of the 21st century, this vaccine was found to be MORE effective than either mOPV or tOPV in reducing the number of cases in Polio - endemic countries. For detailed information on Polio treatment and immunization, see Polio.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

History of Polio

In the early 20th century, Polio was one of the most feared diseases in industrialized countries, paralysing hundreds of thousands of children every year. Soon after the introduction of effective vaccines in the 1950s and 1960s, however, Polio was brought under control and practically eliminated as a public health problem in these countries. Use this interactive timeline to trace the history of Polio from 1580 BC to the present. It takes somewhat longer for Polio to be recognized as a major problem in developing countries. Lameness surveys during the 1970s revealed that the disease was also prevalent in developing countries. As a result, during the 1970s, routine immunization was introduced worldwide as part of National immunization programmes, helping to control disease in many developing countries. Rotary International launched a global effort to immunize world children against Polio in 1985, followed by the establishment of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. When GPEI start, Polio paralyse more than 1000 children worldwide every day. Since then, more than 2. 5 billion children have been immunized against Polio thanks to the cooperation of more than 200 countries and 20 million volunteers. Today, wild poliovirus continues to circulate in only two countries, and the global incidence of Polio cases has decreased by 99%. There has also been success in eradicating certain strains of virus; of three types of wild polioviruses, last case of type 2 was reported in 1999 and its eradication was declared in September 2015; most recent case of type 3 dates to November 2012 and this strain was declared as globally eradicate in October 2019.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Polio Spreads Across the Globe

It took almost 50 years for another scientific study to detail features of the disease and its connection with the spinal cord. At this point, German doctor Jacob Heine shared his findings in 1840 on Poliomyelitis. This was the First Medical Report Of Disease and acknowledgement that it was an official disease. But little more than 50 years after that breakthrough, US had its first Polio outbreak. Located in Vermont, 1894 epidemic affected 132 people, leading to 18 deaths. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32, president of the US, contracted Polio at the age of 39. Despite being limited to a wheelchair for most of his life after, president's illness was largely kept secret from the public. Polio does n't just affect ordinary people, it affects nearly anyone that comes in contact. With With potentially deadly disease swept nation and world without cure or vaccination to subside neurological and physical traumas it cause. In 1935, Maurice Brodie and John Kolmer attempted to create a vaccination that ended with disastrous results. Brodie tested the vaccine on himself and thousands of children volunteered by their parents. Within one year, trial ended and nine children WHO received Vaccine had die. Lab tests later showed that Kolmers ' experimental vaccine was the cause. Due to the failure trial of Brodie and Kolmers vaccination, hope was not high. However, medical hero step into the stage in 1947.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Jonas Salks Vaccine

Jonas Salk was born in New York City, his parents ' eldest son. His mother was a Russian Jewish immigrant and his father son of Jewish immigrants. Salk was encouraged throughout his youth to succeed academically. He graduated from high school at the age of 15 and then entered City College of New York. Although he originally intended to pursue law, he became interested in Medicine and altered his career path, graduating with a degree in Science in 1933. At 19, Salk enrol at New York University School of Medicine. His intention was not to practice medicine, however; he wanted to be a medical researcher. Toward the end of his medical education, he began to work with Thomas Francis Jr., Who was to be his mentor for many years. Salk received his MD in 1939 and, after completing his internship at Mt. Sinai Hospital, accepted a National Research Council fellowship to work at the University of Michigan. There he rejoined Francis and spent six years researching influenzavirus and developing flu vaccine, work largely supported by the US Army. The vaccine that they ultimately developed in 1943 was the kill - Virus vaccine: it contained formalin - kill strain of influenzavirus that could not cause disease but did induce antibodies able to ward off future viral attacks. Francis and Salk were among the pioneers of kill - Virus vaccines. Up to that time, attenuated live viruses were used to produce vaccines.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Development of the Salk vaccine

Researchers began working on the Polio vaccine in the 1930s, but early attempts were unsuccessful. An Effective vaccine didn't come around until 1953, when Jonas Salk introduced his inactivated Polio vaccine. Salk had studied viruses as a student at New York University in the 1930s and helped develop flu vaccines during World War II, according to history. Com. In 1948, he was awarded a research grant from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later named March of Dimes. Roosevelt had contracted Polio in 1921 at age 39, and the disease left him with both legs permanently paralyze. In 1938, five years into his presidency, Roosevelt helped to create the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to raise money and deliver aid to areas experiencing Polio epidemics. Thanks to the work of researchers before him, Salk was able to grow poliovirus in monkey kidney cells. He then isolated the virus and inactivated it with formalin, organic solution of formaldehyde and water that is commonly used as a disinfectant and embalming agent. A similar procedure had been tested years prior, in 1935, by American scientist Maurice Brodie, in which he extracted poliovirus from live monkey spinal cord tissue and then suspended the virus in a 10% formalin solution, Polio expert Baicus write. Brodie tested his vaccine on 20 monkeys and then on 300 schoolchildren, but results were poor and Brodie didn't test any further. Salk's vaccine was unusual because instead of using a weakened version of live virus, such as what is used for mumps and measles, Salk's vaccine used kill, or inactivate, version of the virus. When dead poliovirus is injected into the bloodstream, it can't cause infection because the virus is inactive; but the immune system can't distinguish activated virus from inactivated one, and it creates antibodies to fight virus. Those antibodies persist and protect person from future poliovirus infection. In 1953, Salk began testing his inactivated Polio vaccine on a small number of former Polio patients in the Pittsburgh area and on himself, his wife and their three sons. Initial results were promising, and he announced his success on CBS National radio network on March 25 1953, according to history. Com. He became an instant celebrity. The first large - scale clinical trial of Salk's vaccine began in 1954 and enrol more than 1 million participants. It was the first vaccine trial to implement a double - blind, placebo - Control design, now a standard requirement in the modern era of vaccine research, according to Arnold S. Monto's 1999 review published in Journal Epidemiological Reviews. The scientist leading the vaccine trial, Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. From University of Michigan, announced positive results at a press conference on April 12 1955. Later that same day, US government declared Salk's vaccine safe and effective for use, according to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia's History of Vaccines. After the press conference, CBS reporter Edward R. Murrow asked Salk WHO own vaccine. Well people, I would say, Salk famously answer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sabin's oral polio vaccine

Children in the United States should get inactivated Polio Vaccine to protect against Polio, or poliomyelitis. They should get four doses total, with one dose at each of the following ages: 2 months old, 4 months old, 6 through 18 months old, 4 through 6 years old children WHO will be traveling to country where the risk of getting Polio is greater, external icon should complete series before leaving for their trip. If a child cannot complete the routine series before leaving, accelerated schedule is recommended as follow: 1 dose at age 6 weeks or older, second dose 4 or more weeks after first dose, third dose 4 or more weeks after the second dose, fourth dose 6 or more months after the third dose if accelerate schedule cannot be complete before leaving, remaining doses should be give in affected country, or upon returning home, at intervals recommend in accelerated schedule. In addition, children completing an accelerated schedule should still receive a dose of IPV at 4 years old or older, as long as it has been at least 6 months after the last dose.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

IPV Immunization Schedule

Children who will be traveling to a country where the risk of getting Polio is greater external icon should complete the series before leaving for their trip. If a child cannot complete the routine series before leaving, accelerated schedule is recommended as follow: 1 dose at age 6 weeks or older, second dose 4 or more weeks after first dose, third dose 4 or more weeks after the second dose, fourth dose 6 or more months after the third dose if accelerate schedule cannot be complete before leaving, remaining doses should be give in affected country, or upon returning home, at intervals recommend in accelerated schedule. In addition, children completing an accelerated schedule should still receive a dose of IPV at 4 years old or older, as long as it has been at least 6 months after the last dose.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Symptoms of polio

The history of Polio dates back about 6 000 years. Egyptian mummies have been found with withered and malformed limbs that likely occur because of Polio infection. In 1789, first description of Polio was record, and in 1834, first documented epidemic occurred on the island. Helena. In 1855, Dr. Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne showed Polio involved anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Landsteiner and Popper discovered the virus in 1908. Iron lung was developed in the late 1920s to help some Polio survivors with Polio breathe. One of the most famous people WHO had Polio was US President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The Polio virus was first cultivated in the tissue culture, and in 1951, three types of poliovirus were isolated and identify. During the mid - 1950's, first large - scale trial of vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk was administered by injection, and in 1958, Dr. Albert Sabin's vaccine was administered as an oral vaccine. In 2000, US switched to using inactivated Polio vaccine by injection. Other countries still use oral poliovirus vaccine. Because Polio viruses survive only in humans and are transmitted only by human contact, World Health Organization is trying to eradicate Polio worldwide. This attempt has been relatively successful with a 99% decrease in Polio infections worldwide. In 2014, WHO announced that Southeast Asia was Polio - free. However, some countries in Africa and the Middle East still have new infections caused by Polio because of areas that cannot be reached by vaccine workers. Unfortunately, when there is war in these regions, Polio make comeback because vaccine efforts are interrupt. Who still believes that Polio Eradication, like smallpox, may happen in the near future. Fortunately, vast majority of patients WHO are infected with polioviruses show little or no symptoms and, in fact, don't know that they actually had infection with polioviruses. Those patients WHO do show symptoms can be placed in one of two groups; non - paralytic Polio and paralytic Polio. Non - paralytic Polio infections develop flu - like symptoms that consist of fever, sore throat, headache, malaise, and muscle stiffness. Some people may get skin rash that resembles measles rash type. These symptoms last about 10 - 20 days and they completely resolve thus term nonparalytic Polio. Although paralytic Polio symptoms mimic nonparalytic Polio symptoms for about week, increasing symptoms of severe muscle aches and spasms, loss of reflexes, and flaccid paralysis begin to develop. In some individuals, paralysis may occur very quickly. Sometimes paralysis is only on one side of the body. Musculature involved with breathing may become inhibited or nonfunctional, and these patients need assistance with breathing. Post - Polio syndrome describes symptoms that develop in patients about 30 to 40 years after acute Polio illness. Cause is unknown. Post - Polio syndrome symptoms include muscle pain, joint pain, and spinal changes such as scoliosis, spondylosis, and / or secondary nerve root and peripheral nerve compression. Slowly progressive muscle weakness, generalized fatigue, and cold intolerance may also occur.


Late effects of polio (including post-polio syndrome)

There is no specific treatment for LEoP or PPS. Symptoms may be controlled or improved if you: avoid physical overexertion or stress, keep comfortably warm and avoid exposure to cold temperatures modify daily activities to conserve energy - for example, sitting rather than standing where possible, using aids and equipment - for example, orthoses, braces, walking sticks and electric scooters ensure that all exercise is pain free and do not cause excessive tiredness. Torn rotator cuff tendon in the shoulder - this can occur after years of using arms to assist with walking or to push up and out of chairs foot deformities that can cause falls replacing worn joints at hip and knee on stronger leg. When undergoing surgery, people should ensure that all treating clinicians are aware of their polio history.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.