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Long Did Take For Polio Vaccine

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Polio Vaccine, preparation of poliovirus given to prevent Polio, infectious disease of the nervous system. The first Polio Vaccine, know as inactivated poliovirus Vaccine or Salk Vaccine, was developed in the early 1950s by American physician Jonas Salk. This Vaccine contains kill viruses and is given by injection. Large-scale use of IPV began in February 1954, when it was administered to American schoolchildren. In following years, incidence of Polio in the United States fell from 18 cases per 100 000 people to fewer than 2 per 100 000. In the 1960s, the second type of Polio Vaccine, know as oral poliovirus Vaccine or Sabin Vaccine, named for its inventor, American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin, was develop. OPV contains live attenuate virus and is given orally. Vaccines, whether kill or live, may contain strains of all three poliovirus serotypesPV1, PV2, and PV3or of just one or two. For example, trial OPV contains live attenuate virus of all three serotypes and thus is effective against all three serotypes of virus. In contrast, monovalent OPV1 contains live attenuate virus of only PV1 and thus is effective only against serotype 1. In general, for both IPV and OPV, three doses of Vaccine are require, with a fourth given when child reaches school age. Because PV2 dropped out of circulation in the 1990s in countries where disease was endemic, bivalent oral Vaccine, or bOPV, targeting PV1 and PV3 was develop. In the first decade of the 21st century, this Vaccine was found to be MORE effective than either mOPV or tOPV in reducing the number of cases in Polio-endemic countries. For detailed information on Polio treatment and immunization, see Polio.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The vaccine

Researchers began working on Polio Vaccine in the 1930s, but early attempts were unsuccessful. Effective Vaccine didn't come around until 1953, when Jonas Salk introduced his inactivated Polio Vaccine. Salk had studied viruses as a student at New York University in the 1930s and helped develop flu vaccines during World War II, according to History. Com. In 1948, he was awarded a research grant from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later named March of Dimes. Roosevelt had contracted Polio in 1921 at age 39, and the disease left him with both legs permanently paralyze. In 1938, five years into his presidency, Roosevelt helped to create the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to raise money and deliver aid to areas experiencing Polio epidemics. Thanks to the work of researchers before him, Salk was able to grow poliovirus in monkey kidney cells. He then isolates the virus and inactivates it with formalin, organic solution of formaldehyde and water that is commonly used as a disinfectant and embalming agent. A similar procedure had been tested years prior, in 1935, by American scientist Maurice Brodie, in which he extracted poliovirus from live monkey spinal cord tissue and then suspended the virus in a 10 % formalin solution, Polio expert Baicus write. Brodie tested his Vaccine on 20 monkeys and then on 300 schoolchildren, but the results were poor and Brodie didn't test any further. Salk's Vaccine was unusual because instead of using weakened version of live virus, such as what is used for mumps and measles, Salk's Vaccine uses kill, or inactivate, version of the virus. When a dead poliovirus is injected into the bloodstream, it can't cause infection because the virus is inactive; but the immune system can't distinguish an activated virus from an inactivated one, and it creates antibodies to fight the virus. Those antibodies persist and protect person from future poliovirus infection. In 1953, Salk began testing his inactivated Polio Vaccine on a small number of former Polio patients in the Pittsburgh area and on himself, his wife and their three sons. Initial results were promising, and he announced his success on CBS National radio network on March 25 1953, according to History. Com. He became an instant celebrity. The first large-scale clinical trial of Salk's Vaccine began in 1954 and enrol more than 1 million participants. It was the first Vaccine trial to implement a double-blind, placebo-control design now standard requirement in the modern era of Vaccine Research, according to Arnold S. Monto's 1999 review published in the journal Epidemiological Reviews. The Scientist leading the Vaccine trial, Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. From University of Michigan, announced positive results at a press conference on April 12 1955. Later that same day, US government declared Salk's Vaccine safe and effective for use, according to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia's History of Vaccines. After the press conference, CBS reporter Edward R. Murrow asked Salk WHO owns Vaccine. Well people, I would say, Salk famously answer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Polio Spreads Across the Globe

Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a crippling and potentially deadly infectious disease caused by a virus that spreads from person to person invading the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to Paralysis. 1 in 200 infections lead to irreversible Paralysis. Of those paralyze, 5 % to 10 % die when their breathing muscles become immobilized. Additionally, even children WHO seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or Paralysis like adults, 15 to 40 years later. This is called post-Polio syndrome. There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines to prevent Polio infection. Polio Vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the Polio virus. Almost all children WHO get all the recommended doses of Vaccine will be protected from Polio. Therefore, strategy to eradicate Polio is based on prevention by immunizing every child to STOP Transmission and ultimately making World Polio-free. Since 1988, more than 18 million people can walk today WHO would otherwise have been paralyze, and 1. 5 million childhood deaths have been averted thanks to Polio Vaccine. Four regions of the world are certify Polio freethe Americas, Europe, South East Asia and Western Pacific. In August 2019, Nigeria will mark three years without wild Polio, opening the door for certification of WHO AFRO region. In October 2019, certification of eradication of Type-three wild Poliovirus signifies that the world has wiped out two of three wild Polio strainsleaving just one more to go. In 2019, cases of wild Polio have increased relative to 2018, and outbreaks of Vaccine-derive Polio continue to spread across parts of Africa and Asia. If the population is seriously under-immunized, Vaccine-derive Poliovirus can begin to circulate in the community. Circulating Vaccine-derive polioviruses are extremely rare forms of Poliovirus, which circulate for prolonged period of time uninterrupted and can mutate over the course of 12-18 months. When you look at where wild Polio cases or Vaccine-derive Poliovirus cases are arising today, they are all in places of unrest and with varying complex scenarios or limited access-Somalia, DRC, Lake Chad region, Syria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Most people WHO get infected with Poliovirus will not have any visible symptoms. The Poliovirus is highly contagious, and people WHO do have symptoms can still pass the virus to others and make them sick. About 1 in 4 people infected with Poliovirus will experience flu-like symptoms, such as sore throat, fever, tiredness, nausea, headache, and stomach pain. A smaller proportion of people with Poliovirus infection will develop other more serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord, such as paresthesia, meningitis, and Paralysis. Polio anywhere is a risk to people everywhere. All countries will be at risk of Polio importation until it is eradicated globally by preventing infection through vaccination. CDC and its international partners have made significant progress over the past 26 years.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

IPV Immunization Schedule

Both orally administer, live attenuate Polio vaccines and inactivated Polio vaccines for intramuscular injection are widely used internationally. OPV has been the vaccine of choice for controlling poliomyelitis in many countries, and for global Polio eradication initiative, because of ease of oral administration, its superiority in conferring intestinal immunity in immunologically naive individuals, and its low cost. The only very rare adverse event associated with OPV use is vaccine-associate paralytic poliomyelitis, which may occur in vaccine recipients or their contacts. The overall risk of VAPP is estimated at 1 case per 2. 4 million doses administer. Outbreaks of Polio due to circulating vaccine-derive polioviruses continue to be detected occasionally, mainly in areas of low immunization coverage. As long as transmission of wild poliovirus has not been interrupted globally, WHO recommends that OPV should remain the vaccine of choice for routine infant immunization in most countries. However, WHO also recommends that all countries currently using only OPV add at least 1 dose of IPV to the schedule. In Polio-endemic countries and in countries at high risk for importation and subsequent spread, WHO also recommends OPV dose at birth, followed by a primary series of 3 OPV doses and at least 1 IPV dose. A primary series consisting of 3 OPV doses plus 1 IPV dose can be initiated from the age of 6 weeks with a minimum interval of 4 weeks between OPV doses. If only 1 dose of IPV is used on schedule, it should be given from 14 weeks of age and can be co-administer with OPV dose. Countries may have alternative schedules based on local epidemiology, including documented risk of VAPP prior to 4 months of age. Routine Vaccination with IPV alone should be used only in countries with high immunization coverage and at low risk of wild poliovirus importation and spread. A primary series of three IPV doses should be administer, beginning at 2 months of age. If the primary series begins earlier, booster dose should be administered after an interval of at least 6 months. Some such countries may use a sequential schedule of IPV followed by OPV. Before travelling to areas with active poliovirus transmission, travellers from Polio-free countries should ensure that they have complete age-appropriate Polio vaccine series, according to their respective national immunization schedule. Adult travellers to Polio-infect areas WHO have previously received three or more doses of OPV or IPV should also be given another one-time booster dose of Polio vaccine. Travellers to Polio-infect areas WHO have not received any Polio vaccine previously should complete the primary schedule of Polio Vaccination before departure. Before travelling abroad, persons of all ages residing in Polio-infected countries and long term visitors to such countries, should have complete full course of Vaccination against Polio in compliance with the national schedule.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

POLIO VACCINATION IN ROMANIA

Raed Arafat announced on Facebook that anti-vaccination movements in Romania have intensify, and diseases that should long have been eradicated could start emerging once again. As a doctor, I'm telling you that the worst thing would be the reappearance of diseases that have been eradicated thanks to vaccination campaigns, he write. He added that he wouldn't know what parents would do if they found out their child had a dangerous disease that they could have been protected from. Polio is a virus which is unsymptomatic in about 70 % of cases, but it can be horrific. Around 1 in 200 people WHO are infected become paralyse. About 2-5 % of children, and 15-30 % of adults WHO experience muscle weakness die. Thanks to effective vaccination program, polio is on the verge of elimination. There were only 96 cases of polio in the entire world in 2015. However, in his post, Arafat claims that polio is starting to make a come-back, and he says that anti-vaccination campaigns are to blame. Polio is a disease eradicated due to vaccination, and which begin to reappear because of parents' refusal to vaccinate their children, he say. He also said that he respects other people's opinions, but public personalities shouldn't stand against vaccinations unless they come with indisputable scientific evidence. At this moment, only indisputable evidence is in favor of vaccination, not against, he write. I ask and urge you to get well informed before condemning your child and other children to death or mutilation for life! There is no evidence of confirmed cases of polio in Romania, but Arafat was likely referring to the disease reappearing over the past few years in countries in Europe and Africa. If vaccination rates for polio drop, then risks of unvaccinated children catching disease from people entering from neighbouring countries are immediately amplify.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

CONCLUSION

With the development and use of vaccines, complete eradication of poliomyelitis has become objective. In 1988, WHO proposed worldwide poliomyelitis Eradication to its member States. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative Strategic Plan establishes activities required for Polio Eradication, certification for regions, OPV cessation phase and post-OPV phase. At the beginning, this Plan was based on maintaining high vaccination coverage among children, application of supplementary Vaccine doses during National vaccination days, mopping up vaccination and implementing effective PV infection surveillance systems and containment activities. Presence of susceptible subgroups with gaps in immunization favors introduction of wild PV strains in vaccinated population. OPV strains have become the main instrument for wild-Type PV Eradication program because they induce both systemic and mucosal immune response. Most countries have switched schedule of vaccination against Polio by using IPV instead of OPV. The advantage of using IPV is that it poses no risk of Vaccine-related disease. Disadvantages to the global introduction of IPV are its cost, intramuscular administration, its inability to produce optimal intestinal immunity and biocontainment required for its production. In 2011, 23 years after the decision of WHO to globally eradicate poliomyelitis, wild PV is still endemic in only four countries: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. Type 2 wild PV strain has been eradicated globally since 1999, while Type 2 circulating Vaccine-derive PV has persisted in northern Nigeria since 2006. A Plan for cessation of routine OPV immunization against Type 2 PVs must be devise. In those regions where the virus has been difficult to control, supplementary immunization with monovalent strains of OPV Type 1 or Type 3, or with New bivalent oral Polio Vaccine bOPV has been introduce. In 2008, GPEI Plan was updated in order to overcome barriers to interruption of wild PV transmission. Objectives for 2010-2012 are: interrupting wild PV transmission in Asia and Africa; enhancing PV surveillance and outbreak response; and strengthening immunization systems. In 2010, outbreak of wild PV Type 1 cases genetically related to wild PV circulating in 2009 in India was recorded in Tajikistan, part of WHO European Region certified Polio-free in 2002. This episode demonstrates that if a region is Polio free, risk of wild PV importation from endemic regions remain present until Polio is globally eradicate. Because most VDPV strains implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks worldwide are recombinants between OPV strains and non Polio enterovirus strains of Human enterovirus species C, increasing surveillance of co-circulation and evolution of Polio and non-Polio enteroviruses must be achieve. The risk of VAPP will disappear with cessation of use of OPV. Some research programs are initiated by WHO for obtaining affordable IPV by reduction of necessary antigen dose by intradermal administration, by using adjuvants and by introduction of Sabin strains AS seed. In the first 5 to 10 years after Global cessation of OPV administration, maintenance of immunity to Polio by IPV use must be assure.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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