Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 8 mil and more summaries

Long Did Take To Develop Polio Vaccine

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 02 July 2021

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Polio Vaccine, preparation of poliovirus given to prevent Polio, infectious disease of the nervous system. The first Polio Vaccine, know as inactivated poliovirus Vaccine or Salk Vaccine, was developed in the early 1950s by American physician Jonas Salk. This vaccine contains kill Virus and is given by injection. Large - scale use of IPV began in February 1954, when it was administered to American schoolchildren. In following years, incidence of Polio in the United States fell from 18 cases per 100 000 people to fewer than 2 per 100 000. In the 1960s, second type of Polio Vaccine, known as oral poliovirus Vaccine or Sabin Vaccine, named for its inventor, American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin, was develop. Opv contains live attenuate Virus and is given orally. Vaccines, whether kill or live, may contain strains of all three poliovirus serotypesPV1, PV2, and PV3or of just one or two. For example, trial OPV contains live attenuate virus of all three serotypes and thus is effective against all three serotypes of virus. In contrast, monovalent OPV1 contains live attenuate virus of only PV1 and thus is effective only against serotype 1. In general, for both IPV and OPV, three doses of Vaccine are require, with a fourth given when children reach school age. Because PV2 dropped out of circulation in the 1990s, in countries where disease was endemic, bivalent oral Vaccine, or bOPV, targeting PV1 and PV3 was develop. In the first decade of the 21st Century, this vaccine was found to be MORE effective than either mOPV or tOPV in reducing the number of cases in Polio - endemic countries. For detailed information on Polio treatment and Immunization, see Polio.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What is polio?

Researchers began working on the Polio vaccine in the 1930s, but early attempts were unsuccessful. An Effective vaccine didn't come around until 1953, when Jonas Salk introduced his inactivated Polio vaccine. Salk had studied viruses as a student at New York University in the 1930s and helped develop flu vaccines during World War II, according to history. Com. In 1948, he was awarded a research grant from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later named March of Dimes. Roosevelt had contracted Polio in 1921 at age 39, and the disease left him with both legs permanently paralyze. In 1938, five years into his presidency, Roosevelt helped to create the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to raise money and deliver aid to areas experiencing Polio epidemics. Thanks to the work of researchers before him, Salk was able to grow poliovirus in monkey kidney cells. He then isolated the virus and inactivated it with formalin, organic solution of formaldehyde and water that is commonly used as a disinfectant and embalming agent. A similar procedure had been tested years prior, in 1935, by American scientist Maurice Brodie, in which he extracted poliovirus from live monkey spinal cord tissue and then suspended the virus in a 10% formalin solution, Polio expert Baicus write. Brodie tested his vaccine on 20 monkeys and then on 300 schoolchildren, but results were poor and Brodie didn't test any further. Salk's vaccine was unusual because instead of using a weakened version of live virus, such as what is used for mumps and measles, Salk's vaccine used kill, or inactivate, version of the virus. When dead poliovirus is injected into the bloodstream, it can't cause infection because the virus is inactive; but the immune system can't distinguish activated virus from inactivated one, and it creates antibodies to fight virus. Those antibodies persist and protect person from future poliovirus infection. In 1953, Salk began testing his inactivated Polio vaccine on a small number of former Polio patients in the Pittsburgh area and on himself, his wife and their three sons. Initial results were promising, and he announced his success on CBS National radio network on March 25 1953, according to history. Com. He became an instant celebrity. The first large - scale clinical trial of Salk's vaccine began in 1954 and enrol more than 1 million participants. It was the first vaccine trial to implement a double - blind, placebo - Control design, now a standard requirement in the modern era of vaccine research, according to Arnold S. Monto's 1999 review published in Journal Epidemiological Reviews. The scientist leading the vaccine trial, Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. From University of Michigan, announced positive results at a press conference on April 12 1955. Later that same day, US government declared Salk's vaccine safe and effective for use, according to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia's History of Vaccines. After the press conference, CBS reporter Edward R. Murrow asked Salk WHO own vaccine. Well people, I would say, Salk famously answer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Development of the Salk vaccine

In about 1 of every 2. 4 million recipients, live, weaken viruses contained in the oral Polio vaccine cause paralysis. Shots do not have this same side effect because, unlike the oral version, shot contains kill virus that cannot replicate and, therefore, cannot cause paralysis. Between 1961 and 1996, children in the United States received four doses of oral vaccine. This change began in 1997 and continued throughout 1999 when children typically received two doses of shot followed by two doses of oral vaccine. Since that time, infants have received four doses of shot. Many other countries continue to use oral Polio vaccine because it is more economical and easier to administer, allowing more people to get the vaccine. It also provides better community immunity.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sabin's oral polio vaccine

While Salk was developing his inactivated Polio Vaccine, his professional rival, virologist Dr. Albert Sabin at University of Cincinnati, was working on Vaccine made with active, but weaken, virus. Sabin opposes Salk's vaccine design and considers inactivated virus vaccine to be dangerous. By 1963, Sabin had created an oral live - virus vaccine for all three types of poliovirus that was approved for use by the US government. Sabin's version was cheaper and easier to produce than Salk Vaccine, and it quickly supplanted Salk Vaccine in the US. In 1972, Sabin donated his vaccine strains to the World Health Organization, which greatly increased the vaccine's availability in low - income countries. Sabin's oral Polio Vaccine was critical for helping to decrease the number of Polio cases globally, but unlike Salk Vaccine which carries no risk of paralysis, OPV carries an extremely small risk of causing paralysis. Today, WHO estimates that about 1 in 2. 7 million doses of OPV result in paralytic Polio. Since 2000, Salk's inactivated Polio Vaccine is the only version administered in the US, in order to avoid any risk of Vaccine - induced Polio associated with OPV. Opv is still administered in many parts of the world, but WHO's Global Polio Eradication Initiative aims to cease administration of OPV altogether once wild Polio is completely eradicate. Cdc now recommends children receive four doses of IPV, one each at ages 2 months, 4 months, between 6 and 18 months, and between 4 and 6 years. Thanks to widespread use of Polio Vaccine, US has been Polio - free since 1979. Globally, cases of Polio due to wild poliovirus have decreased by 99% since 1988, according to WHO, from an estimated 350 000 cases per year to just 33 new cases in 2018. Find timeline of Polio Vaccine development from History of Vaccines, created by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Listen to Stanley Plotkin, researcher WHO works on the development of Polio Vaccine, discuss the merits of OPV and IPV, from History of Vaccines. Watch 1991 interview with Jonas Salk from American Academy of Achievement.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

History of Polio

Few diseases frightened parents more in the early part of the 20th century than POLIO do. Polio struck in warm summer months, sweeping through towns in epidemics every few years. Though most people recover quickly from POLIO, some suffer temporary or permanent paralysis and even death. Many POLIO survivors were disabled for life. They were visible, painful reminder to society of the enormous toll this disease takes on young lives. Polio is a common name for poliomyelitis, which comes from Greek words for grey and marrow, referring to spinal cord, and suffix - itis, meaning inflammation. Poliomyelitis, shorten, becomes POLIO. For a time, POLIO was called infantile paralysis, though it does not affect only the young. People Cause POLIO POLIO is caused by one of three types of poliovirus. These viruses spread through contact between people, by nasal and oral secretions, and by contact with contaminated feces. Poliovirus enters the body through the mouth, multiplying along the way to digestive tract, where it further multiplies. In about 98% of cases, POLIO is a mild illness, with no symptoms or with viral - like symptoms. In paralytic POLIO, virus leaves digestive tract, enters the bloodstream, and then attacks nerve cells. Fewer than 1% - 2% of people who contract POLIO become paralyzed. In severe cases, throat and chest may be paralyze. Death may result if patients do not receive artificial breathing support. History of POLIO It is likely that POLIO has plagued humans for thousands of years. An Egyptian carving from around 1400 BCE depicts a young man with leg deformity similar to one caused by POLIO. Polio circulated in human populations at low levels and appeared to be a relatively uncommon disease for most of the 1800s. Polio reached epidemic proportions in the early 1900s in countries with relatively high standards of living, at a time when other diseases such as diphtheria, typhoid, and tuberculosis were declining. Indeed, many scientists think that advances in hygiene paradoxically lead to an increased incidence of POLIO. The theory is that in the past, infants were exposed to POLIO, mainly through contaminated water supplies, at a very young age. Infant immune systems, aided by maternal antibodies still circulating in their blood, could quickly defeat poliovirus and then develop lasting immunity to it. However, better sanitary conditions meant that exposure to POLIO was delayed until later in life, on average, when the child had lost maternal protection and was also more vulnerable to the most severe form of disease. Because of widespread vaccination, POLIO was eliminated from the Western Hemisphere in 1994. In 2016, it continued to circulate in just Afghanistan and Pakistan, with occasional spread to neighboring countries. Vigorous vaccination programs are being conducted to eliminate these last pockets. Polio vaccination is still recommended worldwide because of the risk of import cases. In the United States, children are recommended to receive inactivated POLIO vaccine at 2 months and 4 months of age, and then twice more before entering elementary school.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Polio Spreads Across the Globe

Most people WHO get infected with Poliovirus will not have any visible symptoms. About 1 out of 4 people with Poliovirus infection will have flu - like symptoms that may include: sore throat, fever, tiredness nausea, headache stomach pain. These symptoms usually last 2 to 5 days, then go away on their own. A smaller proportion of people with Poliovirus infection will develop other, more serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord: paresthesia meningitis occurs in about 1 out of 25 people with Poliovirus infection. Paralysis or weakness in arms, legs, or both, occurs in about 1 out of 200 people with Poliovirus infection. Paralysis is the most severe symptom associated with Polio, because it can lead to permanent disability and death. Between 2 and 10 out of 100 people WHO have Paralysis from Poliovirus infection die, because the virus affects muscles that help them breathe. Even children WHO seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or Paralysis like adults, 15 to 40 years later. This is called post - Polio syndrome. Note that poliomyelitis is defined as a paralytic disease. So only people with paralytic infection are considered to have disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Jonas Salks Vaccine

Jonas Salk was born in New York City, his parents ' eldest son. His mother was a Russian Jewish immigrant and his father son of Jewish immigrants. Salk was encouraged throughout his youth to succeed academically. He graduated from high school at the age of 15 and then entered City College of New York. Although he originally intended to pursue law, he became interested in Medicine and altered his career path, graduating with a degree in science in 1933. At 19, Salk enrol at New York University School of Medicine. His intention was not to practice medicine, however; he wanted to be a medical researcher. Toward the end of his medical education, he began to work with Thomas Francis Jr., Who was to be his mentor for many years. Salk received his MD in 1939 and, after completing his internship at Mt. Sinai Hospital, accepted a National Research Council fellowship to work at the University of Michigan. There he rejoined Francis and spent six years researching influenzavirus and developing flu Vaccine,s work largely supported by the US Army. The vaccine that they ultimately developed in 1943 was kill - Virus Vaccine: it contained formalin - kill strain of influenzavirus that could not cause disease but did induce antibodies able to ward off future viral attacks. Francis and Salk were among the pioneers of kill - Virus vaccines. Up to that time, attenuated live viruses were used to produce vaccines.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

INTRODUCTION

Polio is a disease caused by three variants of poliovirus, according to a 2012 review written by microbiologist and polio expert Anda Baicus and published in World Journal of Virology. Virus, which only infects humans, can damage neurons that control movement, resulting in partial or complete paralysis. A person can become infected with the virus by consuming contaminated food or water, or by allowing contaminated items to touch or enter their mouth, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Studies of Egyptian mummies suggest that polio affected children at least as early as ancient times, but the US didn't experience its first polio epidemic until the late 1800s. In the US in 1916, more than 27 000 people were paralyzed by the disease and at least 6 000 people died from it, according to history. Com. For the next several decades, epidemics expanded throughout the US and Europe. In 1952 alone, there were 58 000 new cases of polio and 3 000 deaths from the disease in the US. As medical experts worked to understand the virus, they discovered that it could infect people without causing symptoms. In a 1947 study published in the American Journal of Hygiene, researchers reported that the prevalence of poliovirus in New York City sewage water meant that there were an estimated 100 asymptomatic cases of polio for every symptomatic, or paralytic, case of disease at time. Today, more recent research suggests that 72 out of 100 people who are infected with the virus will never experience symptoms, and about 1 in 4 infected people will only experience only flu - like symptoms that last between 2 and 5 days before going away on their own, according to CDC. In the late 1930s, researchers learned that infected individuals shed viruses in feces for several weeks, whether or not they had symptoms of disease. Researchers have since confirmed that infected, but asymptomatic, people can still shed viruses and make people sick. People who do become sick can shed the virus immediately before they show symptoms and for up to 2 weeks after their symptoms appear, according to the CDC.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

DEVELOPMENT OF PV VACCINES

Children usually get inactivated poliovirus vaccine at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 - 18 months, and 4 - 6 years. Sometimes IPV is given in combination vaccine along with other vaccines. In this case, child might receive five doses of IPV. This is safe. The oral poliovirus vaccine is still in used in many parts of the world, but hasn't been used in the United States since 2000. Using IPV eliminates small risk of developing polio after receiving live oral polio vaccine. Opv doses given before April 2016 can count toward children's US polio vaccination requirements. Doses given after that will not count.


What Is Polio?

Opv consists of a mixture of live attenuated poliovirus strains of each of three serotypes, selected by their ability to mimic immune response following infection with wild polioviruses, but with significantly reduced incidence of spreading to the central nervous system. Three or more spaced doses of OPV are required to generate adequate levels of seroconversion. The action of the oral polio vaccine is two - pronged. Opv produces antibodies in blood to all three types of poliovirus, and in the event of infection, this protects individual against polio paralysis by preventing spread of poliovirus to the nervous system. Opv strains also produce local immune response in the lining of intestines - primary site for poliovirus multiplication. Antibodies produced there inhibit multiplication of subsequent infections of wild viruses. This intestinal immune response to OPV is probably the reason why mass campaigns with OPV have been shown to stop person - to - person transmission of wild poliovirus. In very rare cases, administration of OPV results in vaccine - associate paralysis associated with reversion of vaccine strains to more neurovirulent profile of wild poliovirus. In few instances, such vaccine strains have become both neurovirulent and transmissible and have resulted in infectious poliomyelitis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

IPV

The Inactivate polio vaccine was developed in 1955 by Dr Jonas Salk. Also called Salk vaccine, IPV consists of inactivated poliovirus strains of all three poliovirus types. Ipv is given by intramuscular or intradermal injection and needs to be administered by a trained health worker. Ivp produces antibodies in blood to all three types of poliovirus. In the event of infection, these antibodies prevent spread of the virus to the central nervous system and protect against paralysis. As IPV is not a live vaccine, it carries no risk of VAPP. Ipv triggers excellent protective immune response in most people. Ipv induces very low levels of immunity in the intestine. As a result, when a person immunized with IPV is infected with wild poliovirus, virus can still multiply inside intestines and be shed in faeces, risking continued circulation. Ipv is over five times more expensive than OPV. Administering vaccine requires trained health workers, as well as sterile injection equipment and procedures. Ipv is one of the safest vaccines in use. No serious systemic adverse reactions have been shown following vaccination. Ipv is highly effective in preventing paralytic disease caused by all three types of poliovirus. An increasing number of industrialized, polio - free countries are using IPV as their vaccine of choice. This is because the risk of paralytic polio associated with continued routine use of OPV is deemed greater than the risk of importing wild viruses. However, as IPV does not stop transmission of virus, OPV is used wherever polio outbreak needs to be contain, even in countries which rely exclusively on IPV for their routine immunization programme. Once polio has been eradicate, use of all OPV will need to be stopped to prevent re - establishment of transmission due to VDPVs.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.