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Long Did Take To Develop The Polio Vaccine

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Polio Vaccine, preparation of poliovirus given to prevent Polio, infectious disease of the nervous system. The first Polio Vaccine, know as inactivated poliovirus Vaccine or Salk Vaccine, was developed in the early 1950s by American physician Jonas Salk. This vaccine contains kill Virus and is given by injection. Large - scale use of IPV began in February 1954, when it was administered to American schoolchildren. In following years, incidence of Polio in the United States fell from 18 cases per 100 000 people to fewer than 2 per 100 000. In the 1960s, second type of Polio Vaccine, known as oral poliovirus Vaccine or Sabin Vaccine, named for its inventor, American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin, was develop. Opv contains live attenuate Virus and is given orally. Vaccines, whether kill or live, may contain strains of all three poliovirus serotypesPV1, PV2, and PV3or of just one or two. For example, trial OPV contains live attenuate virus of all three serotypes and thus is effective against all three serotypes of virus. In contrast, monovalent OPV1 contains live attenuate virus of only PV1 and thus is effective only against serotype 1. In general, for both IPV and OPV, three doses of Vaccine are require, with a fourth given when children reach school age. Because PV2 dropped out of circulation in the 1990s, in countries where disease was endemic, bivalent oral Vaccine, or bOPV, targeting PV1 and PV3 was develop. In the first decade of the 21st Century, this vaccine was found to be MORE effective than either mOPV or tOPV in reducing the number of cases in Polio - endemic countries. For detailed information on Polio treatment and Immunization, see Polio.

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What is polio?

Polio is a disease caused by three variants of poliovirus, according to a 2012 review written by microbiologist and Polio expert Anda Baicus and published in World Journal of Virology. Virus,s which only infect humans, can damage neurons that control movement, resulting in partial or complete paralysis. A person can become infected with the virus by consuming contaminated food or water, or by allowing contaminated items to touch or enter their mouth, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Studies of Egyptian mummies suggest that Polio affected children at least as early as ancient times, but the US didn't experience its first Polio epidemic until the late 1800s. In the US in 1916, more than 27 000 people were paralyzed by the disease and at least 6 000 people died from it, according to history. Com. For the next several decades, epidemics expanded throughout the US and Europe. In 1952 alone, there were 58 000 new cases of Polio and 3 000 deaths from the disease in the US, As medical experts worked to understand the virus, they discovered that it could infect people without causing symptoms. In a 1947 study published in the American Journal of Hygiene, researchers reported that the prevalence of poliovirus in New York City sewage water meant that there were an estimated 100 asymptomatic cases of Polio for every symptomatic, or paralytic, case of disease at time. Today, more recent research suggests that 72 out of 100 people WHO are infected with the virus will never experience symptoms, and about 1 in 4 infected people will experience only flu - like symptoms that last between 2 and 5 days before going away on their own, according to the CDC. In the late 1930s, researchers learned that infected individuals shed viruses in feces for several weeks, whether or not they had symptoms of disease. Researchers have since confirmed that infected, but asymptomatic, people can still shed viruses and make people sick. People WHO do become sick can shed the virus immediately before they show symptoms and for up to 2 weeks after their symptoms appear, according to the CDC.

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Development of the Salk vaccine

Researchers began working on the Polio vaccine in the 1930s, but early attempts were unsuccessful. Effective vaccine didn't come around until 1953, when Jonas Salk introduced his inactivated Polio vaccine. Salk had studied viruses as a student at New York University in the 1930s and helped develop flu vaccines during World War II, according to history. Com. In 1948, he was awarded a research grant from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, later named March of Dimes. Roosevelt had contracted Polio in 1921 at age 39, and the disease left him with both legs permanently paralyze. In 1938, five years into his presidency, Roosevelt helped to create the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to raise money and deliver aid to areas experiencing Polio epidemics. Thanks to the work of researchers before him, Salk was able to grow poliovirus in monkey kidney cells. He then isolated the virus and inactivated it with formalin, organic solution of formaldehyde and water that is commonly used as a disinfectant and embalming agent. A similar procedure had been tested years prior, in 1935, by American scientist Maurice Brodie, in which he extracted poliovirus from live monkey spinal cord tissue and then suspended the virus in a 10% formalin solution, Polio expert Baicus write. Brodie tested his vaccine on 20 monkeys and then on 300 schoolchildren, but results were poor and Brodie didn't test any further. Salk's vaccine was unusual because instead of using a weakened version of live virus, such as what is used for mumps and measles, Salk's vaccine used kill, or inactivate, version of the virus. When dead poliovirus is injected into the bloodstream, it can't cause infection because the virus is inactive; but the immune system can't distinguish activated virus from inactivated one, and it creates antibodies to fight virus. Those antibodies persist and protect person from future poliovirus infection. In 1953, Salk began testing his inactivated Polio vaccine on a small number of former Polio patients in the Pittsburgh area and on himself, his wife and their three sons. Initial results were promising, and he announced his success on CBS National radio network on March 25 1953, according to history. Com. He became an instant celebrity. The first large - scale clinical trial of Salk's vaccine began in 1954 and enrol more than 1 million participants. It was the first vaccine trial to implement a double - blind, placebo - control design, now a standard requirement in the modern era of vaccine research, according to Arnold S. Monto's 1999 review published in the journal Epidemiological Reviews. The scientist leading the vaccine trial, Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr. From University of Michigan, announced positive results at a press conference on April 12 1955. Later that same day, US government declared Salk's vaccine safe and effective for use, according to the College of Physicians of Philadelphia's History of Vaccines. After the press conference, CBS reporter Edward R. Murrow asked Salk WHO own vaccine. Well people, I would say, Salk famously answer.

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Sabin's oral polio vaccine

While most scientists believe that effective vaccines can only be developed with live viruses, Salk developed kill - virus Vaccine by growing samples of virus and then deactivating them by adding formaldehyde so that they could no longer reproduce. By injecting benign strains into the bloodstream, vaccine tricks the immune system into manufacturing protective antibodies without the need to introduce weakened form of virus into healthy patients. Many researchers, such as Polish - born virologist Albert Sabin, WHO was developing oral live - virus Polio Vaccine, call the Salks approach dangerous. Sabin even belittled Salk as a mere kitchen chemist. Hard - charging OConnor, however, had grown impatient with the time - consuming process of developing live - virus vaccine and put the resources of March of Dimes behind Salk.

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History of Polio

While Salk was developing his inactivated Polio vaccine, his professional rival, virologist Dr. Albert Sabin at University of Cincinnati, was working on a vaccine made with active, but weaken, virus. Sabin opposes Salk's vaccine design and considers inactivated virus vaccine to be dangerous. By 1963, Sabin had created an oral live - virus vaccine for all three types of poliovirus that was approved for use by the US government. Sabin's version was cheaper and easier to produce than the Salk vaccine, and it quickly supplanted Salk vaccine in the US. In 1972, Sabin donated his vaccine strains to the World Health Organization, which greatly increased the vaccine's availability in low - income countries. Sabin's oral Polio vaccine was critical for helping to decrease the number of Polio cases globally, but unlike the Salk vaccine which carries no risk of paralysis, OPV carries an extremely small risk of causing paralysis. Today, WHO estimates that about 1 in 2. 7 million doses of OPV result in paralytic Polio. Since 2000, Salk's inactivated Polio vaccine is the only version administered in the US, in order to avoid any risk of vaccine - induced Polio associated with OPV. Opv is still administered in many parts of the world, but WHO's Global Polio Eradication Initiative aims to cease administration of OPV altogether once wild Polio is completely eradicate. Cdc now recommends children receive four doses of IPV, one each at ages 2 months, 4 months, between 6 and 18 months, and between 4 and 6 years. Thanks to widespread use of the Polio vaccine, US has been Polio - free since 1979. Globally, cases of Polio due to wild poliovirus have decreased by 99% since 1988, according to WHO, from an estimated 350 000 cases per year to just 33 new cases in 2018. Find timeline of Polio vaccine development from History of Vaccines, created by the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. Listen to Stanley Plotkin, researcher WHO works on the development of the Polio vaccine, discuss the merits of OPV and IPV, from History of Vaccines. Watch 1991 interview with Jonas Salk from American Academy of Achievement.

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Polio Spreads Across the Globe

Polio, or Poliomyelitis, is a crippling and potentially deadly infectious disease caused by a virus that spreads from person to person, invading the brain and spinal cord, which can lead to paralysis. 1 in 200 infections lead to irreversible paralysis. Of those paralyze, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized. Additionally, even children WHO seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or Paralysis like adults, 15 to 40 years later. This is called post - Polio syndrome. There is no cure, but there are safe and effective vaccines to prevent Polio infection. Polio Vaccine protects children by preparing their bodies to fight the Polio Virus. Almost all children WHO get all recommended doses of Vaccine will be protected from Polio. Therefore, strategy to eradicate Polio is based on prevention by immunizing every child to STOP Transmission and ultimately make world Polio - free. Since 1988, more than 18 million people can walk today WHO would otherwise have been paralyze, and 1. 5 million childhood deaths have been averted thanks to Polio Vaccine. Four regions of the world are certified Polio freethe Americas, Europe, South East Asia and Western Pacific. In August 2019, Nigeria will mark three years without wild Polio, opening the door for certification of WHO AFRO Region. In October 2019, certification of eradication of Type - three wild Poliovirus signifies that the world has wiped out two of three wild Polio strainsleaving, just one more to go. In 2019, cases of wild Polio have increased relative to 2018, and outbreaks of Vaccine - derive Polio continue to spread across parts of Africa and Asia. If the population is seriously under - immunized, Vaccine - derive Poliovirus can begin to circulate in the community. Circulating Vaccine - derive Polioviruses are extremely rare forms of Poliovirus, which has circulated for prolonged period of time uninterrupted and can mutate over the course of 12 - 18 months. When you look at where wild Polio cases or Vaccine - derive Poliovirus cases are arising today, they are all in places of unrest and with varying complex scenarios or limited access - Somalia, DRC, Lake Chad Region, Syria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Most people WHO get infected with Poliovirus will not have any visible symptoms. The Poliovirus is highly contagious, and people WHO do have symptoms can still pass the virus to others and make them sick. About 1 in 4 people infected with Poliovirus will experience flu - like symptoms, such as sore throat, fever, tiredness, nausea, headache, and stomach pain. A smaller proportion of people with Poliovirus infection will develop other more serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord, such as paresthesia, meningitis, and Paralysis. Polio anywhere is a risk to people everywhere. All countries will be at risk of Polio importation until it is eradicated globally by preventing infection through vaccination. Cdc and its international partners have made significant progress over the past 26 years.

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Jonas Salks Vaccine

Jonas Salk, in full Jonas Edward Salk, American physician and medical researcher WHO developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio. Salk received an MD in 1939 from New York University College of Medicine, where he worked with Thomas Francis, Jr., Who was conducting kill - Virus immunology studies. Salk joined Francis in 1942 at the University of Michigan School of Public Health and became part of a group that was working to develop immunization against influenza. In 1947, Salk became associate professor of bacteriology and head of the Virus Research Laboratory at University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. At Pittsburgh, he began research on polio, acute viral infectious disease of the nervous system that usually begins with general symptoms such as fever and headache and is sometimes followed by MORE serious and permanent paralysis of muscles in one or MORE limbs, throat, or chest. In the mid - 20th century, hundreds of thousands of children were struck by disease every year. Working with scientists from other universities in a program to classify various strains of poliovirus, Salk corroborate other studies in identifying three separate strains. He then demonstrated that killing the virus of each of three, although incapable of producing disease, could induce antibody formation in monkeys. In 1952, he conducted field tests of his kill - Virus vaccine, first on children WHO had recovered from polio and then on subjects WHO had not had disease; Both tests were successful in that children's antibody levels rose significantly and no subjects contracted polio from the vaccine. His findings were published the following year. In 1954, Francis conducted a mass field trial, and the vaccine, injected by needle, was found to safely reduce the incidence of polio. On April 12 1955, vaccine was released for use in the United States. In following years, incidence of polio in the United States fell from 18 cases per 100 000 people to less than 2 per 100 000. In the 1960s, second type of polio vaccine, known as oral poliovirus vaccine or Sabin vaccine, named for its inventor, American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin, was develop. Opv contains live attenuate Virus and is given orally. Salk served successively as professor of bacteriology, preventive Medicine, and experimental Medicine at Pittsburgh, and in 1963 he became fellow and director of the Institute for Biological Studies in San Diego, California, later called Salk Institute. Among his many honours was the Presidential Medal of Freedom, awarded in 1977.

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IPV Immunization Schedule

Children usually get inactivated poliovirus vaccine at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 - 18 months, and 4 - 6 years. Sometimes IPV is given in combination vaccine along with other vaccines. In this case, child might receive five doses of IPV. This is safe. The oral poliovirus vaccine is still in used in many parts of the world, but hasn't been used in the United States since 2000. Using IPV eliminates small risk of developing polio after receiving live oral polio vaccine. Opv doses given before April 2016 can count toward children's US polio vaccination requirements. Doses given after that will not count.

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Sabin and Salk

Sabin shows that poliovirus first invades the digestive tract and then the nervous system. He was also among those WHO identified three types of poliovirus. He developed a live but attenuated oral vaccine that proved to be superior in administration, but also provide longer lasting immunity than the Salk vaccine. After a clash between rival camps and their principals, by 1962 the Salks vaccine was replaced by the Sabin vaccine. 4 effectiveness was demonstrated in field trials. Albert Bruce Sabin 5 was born on 26 August 1906 in Bialystok, Poland, then part of Russia. He and his family emigrated to the USA in 1921, to escape racial persecution. He graduated from New York University in 1928. A Year at Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine in London furthered his training. In 1935, he joined the staff of Rockefeller University before moving in 1939 to Cincinnati Childrens Hospital to conduct research on viruses. He was a consultant to the army during World War Two, isolated virus of sandfly fever, and helped to develop a vaccine against dengue fever. His studies include toxoplasmosis and viral encephalitis. After the war, Sabin returned to Cincinnati to develop polio vaccine in 1954. In 1970, he became President of Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel, but because of cardiac illness he later resign. He received many honours: election to the National Academy of Sciences, 1951; Bruce Memorial Award of American College of Physicians, 1961; Feltnelli Prize of Academia dei Lincei of Rome, 1964; Lasker Clinical Research Award in 1965; and United States National Medal of Science in 1971. The value of the work of Salk and Sabin is immeasurable. Sabin died on 3 March 1993.


Development of the Salk vaccine

In 1935, Maurice Brodie had attempted to modify virus by exposing it to formaldehyde. This formalin inactivate vaccine was first tried with 20 monkeys, then with 3000 children. Results were poor and Brodies vaccine was never used again. 1 John Kollmer used live attenuate virus that also proved ineffective, and was blamed for causing many cases of polio, some fatal. Attempts to develop polio vaccine progress. In 1955, Salk 2 was developed to inactivate poliovirus vaccine; thus beginning widespread immunisation. This was followed in 1960 by a live, attenuated oral vaccine developed by Sabin. 3 effect was impressive. From 28 000 reported cases of polio in 1955, in 1956, one year after immunisation, there were only 15 000 cases. Salks laboratory in Pittsburgh was established in 1948 for poliovirus typing. Salk was new to polio research. His wartime work on influenza virus used to kill viruses. For polio, he uses this same approach, applying tissue culture methods, recently develop. By 1954, it proved effective against all three strains of poliovirus. Salk reports results in January, 1953. Perhaps because of the worst polio epidemic in history in 1952, National Foundations Committee backed Salks ' work. In the 1954 trials, over a million children were randomly assigned to vaccinated or non - vaccinated groups. Vaccination reduces incidence to less than 50%; when a vaccinated child does contract polio, it is usually non - paralytic.

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Clinical trials

In a public statement on 8 January 1954, Foundation still adhered to the observed control plan; but on 15 February, six days after Francis was formally appointed to head evaluation, OConnor announced that two types of controls would be used in field trials: observe controls in 34 States and placebo controls in 11: combination of two procedures assure valid evaluation of Trial Vaccine. 16, 17, this change in plans was the result of months of manoeuvring on Francis ' part. He had requested an Advisory group meeting on 11 January. This new group was entirely distinct from the foundations ' scientific Advisory Committee, which was excluded from these deliberations. As well as senior staff of Foundation, select list of state Health Officers, paediatricians, clinical polio specialists, statisticians, and virologists attend. Their charge was not to debate the merits of Salks work but to take the vaccine project from the laboratory into the field. Part of January group later became the Advisory Committee for field Trial evaluation, and state Health Officers constituted a separate body to advise on technical aspects of the project. 1 18 19 Because health officers were divide, Francis role was critical. The 11 January meeting begins with briefings from foundation staff on plans to date. Rivers assured the group that the foundation would do its best to guarantee the safety of the vaccine. 18 After general discussion, group subdivided for the afternoon into three groups designated as clinicians, statisticians, and Health Officers. Though each of the groups makes several recommendations, I will focus here only on their statements regarding trial design. Clinicians report assumes use of observed controls, and statisticians group, unsurprisingly, recommend use of blind inject control wherever proper facilities make such design possible. 18, Francis himself joined the Health Officers group. He lists in his notes several Health Departments that would support injected, or placebo, control design: Massachusetts, New York, Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, California. Each was a populous state with a well organised health department headed by a nationally respected physician.S Perhaps, he muse, double study could be done in these states: placebo controls in second grade, observed controls in first and third grades.

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Sources

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