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Long Did Take To Make The Polio Vaccine

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Polio Vaccine, preparation of poliovirus given to prevent Polio, infectious disease of the nervous system. The first Polio Vaccine, know as inactivated poliovirus Vaccine or Salk Vaccine, was developed in the early 1950s by American physician Jonas Salk. This vaccine contains kill viruses and is given by injection. Large - scale use of IPV began in February 1954, when it was administered to American schoolchildren. In following years, incidence of Polio in the United States fell from 18 cases per 100 000 people to fewer than 2 per 100 000. In the 1960s, second type of Polio Vaccine, known as oral poliovirus Vaccine or Sabin Vaccine, named for its inventor, American physician and microbiologist Albert Sabin, was develop. Opv contains live attenuate virus and is given orally. Vaccines, whether kill or live, may contain strains of all three poliovirus serotypesPV1, PV2, and PV3or of just one or two. For example, trial OPV contains live attenuate virus of all three serotypes and thus is effective against all three serotypes of virus. In contrast, monovalent OPV1 contains live attenuate virus of only PV1 and thus is effective only against serotype 1. In general, for both IPV and OPV, three doses of Vaccine are require, with a fourth given when children reach school age. Because PV2 dropped out of circulation in the 1990s, in countries where disease was endemic, bivalent oral Vaccine, or bOPV, targeting PV1 and PV3 was develop. In the first decade of the 21st century, this vaccine was found to be MORE effective than either mOPV or tOPV in reducing the number of cases in Polio - endemic countries. For detailed information on Polio treatment and immunization, see Polio.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

History of Polio

Few diseases frightened parents more in the early part of the 20th century than Polio does. Polio struck in warm summer months, sweeping through towns in epidemics every few years. Though most people recover quickly from Polio, some suffer temporary or permanent paralysis and even death. Many Polio survivors were disabled for life. They were visible, painful reminder to society of the enormous toll this disease takes on young lives. Polio is a common name for poliomyelitis, which comes from Greek words for grey and marrow, referring to spinal cord, and suffix - itis, meaning inflammation. Poliomyelitis, shorten, becomes Polio. For a time, Polio was called infantile paralysis, though it does not affect only the young. People Polio is caused by one of three types of poliovirus. These viruses spread through contact between people, by nasal and oral secretions, and by contact with contaminated feces. Poliovirus enters the body through the mouth, multiplying along the way to digestive tract, where it further multiplies. In about 98% of cases, Polio is a mild illness, with no symptoms or with viral - like symptoms. In paralytic Polio, virus leaves digestive tract, enters the bloodstream, and then attacks nerve cells. Fewer than 1% - 2% of people who contract Polio become paralyzed. In severe cases, throat and chest may be paralyze. Death may result if patients do not receive artificial breathing support. It is likely that Polio has plagued humans for thousands of years. An Egyptian carving from around 1400 BCE depicts a young man with leg deformity similar to one caused by Polio. Polio circulated in human populations at low levels and appeared to be a relatively uncommon disease for most of the 1800s. Polio reached epidemic proportions in the early 1900s in countries with relatively high standards of living, at a time when other diseases such as diphtheria, typhoid, and tuberculosis were declining. Indeed, many scientists think that advances in hygiene paradoxically lead to an increased incidence of Polio. The theory is that in the past, infants were exposed to Polio, mainly through contaminated water supplies, at a very young age. Infant immune systems, aided by maternal antibodies still circulating in their blood, could quickly defeat poliovirus and then develop lasting immunity to it. However, better sanitary conditions meant that exposure to Polio was delayed until later in life, on average, when the child had lost maternal protection and was also more vulnerable to the most severe form of disease. Because of widespread vaccination, Polio was eliminated from the Western Hemisphere in 1994. In 2016, it continued to circulate in just Afghanistan and Pakistan, with occasional spread to neighboring countries. Vigorous vaccination programs are being conducted to eliminate these last pockets. Polio vaccination is still recommended worldwide because of the risk of import cases. In the United States, children are recommended to receive the inactivated Polio vaccine at 2 months and 4 months of age, and then twice more before entering elementary school.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Polio Spreads Across the Globe

Most people WHO get infected with Poliovirus will not have any visible symptoms. About 1 out of 4 people with Poliovirus infection will have flu - like symptoms that may include: sore throat, fever, tiredness nausea, headache stomach pain. These symptoms usually last 2 to 5 days, then go away on their own. A smaller proportion of people with Poliovirus infection will develop other, more serious symptoms that affect the brain and spinal cord: paresthesia meningitis occurs in about 1 out of 25 people with Poliovirus infection. Paralysis or weakness in arms, legs, or both, occurs in about 1 out of 200 people with Poliovirus infection. Paralysis is the most severe symptom associated with Polio, because it can lead to permanent disability and death. Between 2 and 10 out of 100 people WHO have Paralysis from Poliovirus infection die, because the virus affects muscles that help them breathe. Even children WHO seem to fully recover can develop new muscle pain, weakness, or Paralysis like adults, 15 to 40 years later. This is called post - Polio syndrome. Note that Poliomyelitis is defined as a paralytic disease. So only people with paralytic infection are considered to have disease.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Jonas Salks Vaccine

Jonas Salk was born in New York City, his parents ' eldest son. His mother was a Russian Jewish immigrant and his father son of Jewish immigrants. Salk was encouraged throughout his youth to succeed academically. He graduated from high school at the age of 15 and then entered City College of New York. Although he originally intended to pursue law, he became interested in Medicine and altered his career path, graduating with a degree in Science in 1933. At 19, Salk enrol at New York University School of Medicine. His intention was not to practice medicine, however; he wanted to be a medical researcher. Toward the end of his medical education, he began to work with Thomas Francis Jr., Who was to be his mentor for many years. Salk received his MD in 1939 and, after completing his internship at Mt. Sinai Hospital, accepted a National Research Council fellowship to work at the University of Michigan. There he rejoined Francis and spent six years researching influenzavirus and developing flu vaccine, work largely supported by the US Army. The vaccine that they ultimately developed in 1943 was the kill - Virus vaccine: it contained formalin - kill strain of influenzavirus that could not cause disease but did induce antibodies able to ward off future viral attacks. Francis and Salk were among the pioneers of kill - Virus vaccines. Up to that time, attenuated live viruses were used to produce vaccines.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sabin's oral polio vaccine

If person getting the vaccine has any severe, life - threatening allergies. If you ever had life - threatening allergic reaction after dose of IPV, or have severe allergy to any part of this vaccine, you may be advised not to get vaccinate. Ask your health care provider if you want information about vaccine components. If the person getting the vaccine is not feeling well. If you have a mild illness, such as cold, you can probably get a vaccine today. If you are moderately or severely ill, you should probably wait until you recover. Your doctor can advise you. This Information was taken directly from Polio Vaccine Information Statement dated 7 / 20 / 2016.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

IPV Immunization Schedule

Children WHO will be traveling to country where the risk of getting Polio is greater external icon should complete the series before leaving for their trip. If a child cannot complete the routine series before leaving, accelerated schedule is recommended as follow: 1 dose at age 6 weeks or older, second dose 4 or more weeks after first dose, third dose 4 or more weeks after the second dose, fourth dose 6 or more months after the third dose if accelerated schedule cannot be complete before leaving, remaining doses should be give in affected country, or upon returning home, at intervals recommend in accelerated schedule. In addition, children completing an accelerated schedule should still receive a dose of IPV at 4 years old or older, as long as it has been at least 6 months after the last dose.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

DEVELOPMENT OF PV VACCINES

In 1935, Brodie tried Inactivated Vaccine with 10% formalin suspension of PV taken from infected monkey spinal cord; He tried it first on 20 monkeys, then on 3000 Californian children. Results were poor and additional human studies were never perform. In same year, Kollmer tried live attenuate virus consisting of 4% suspension of PV from infected monkey spinal cord, treated with sodium ricinoleate. He uses it on monkeys and then on several thousand children. Acute paralysis occurs in about 1 / 1000 vaccines shortly after administration and in some cases is fatal. Discovery that various antigenic strains of PVs could be grouped into three distinct viral types and propagation of PV in vitro led to development of Vaccines against Poliomyelitis: formalin - inactivate Vaccine by Jonas Salk and live - attenuate Vaccines by Albert Sabin.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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