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Long Sea Lions Hold Breath

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Sea lions are swift swimmers, adept deep - water divers, exceptional aquatic hunters, and excellent surfers. On tips of waves that surge onto the shores of the Galapagos Islands, their dark torpedo shapes can be seen gliding until the wave breaks. Then, they race back to find the next big wave. The life of sea lion retains a constant rhythm: swim out of danger, chase, eat, frolic, sleep, breed and repeat. Few sources espouse idea that sea lions get their name because they have whiskers and they rule the sea. Another source claims name sea lion caught on because they are agile carnivorous underwater hunters. However, sea lions are not top predators of the sea. The most plausible explanation for the sea lion name comes from one of the first written descriptions of Stellar sea lion. The description states that the sea lion had shaggy mane which imparted resemblance to the king of beasts. Course, hair around the neck of the Stellar sea lion gives the impression that it has mane. They have scary canine teeth, primarily used to catch fish. Sea lions ' flexible pelvic girdle allows them to move easily on land because by rotating their back flippers underneath their body, they can walk like other land mammals, almost. In water, sea lions use their front flippers to propel themselves and their hind flippers for steering. They usually cruise the ocean at eleven miles per hour, but they can have bursts of speed up to twenty - five miles per hour. The Sea lion diet consists of fifty species of seafood. Sea lion with camera mounted on its back reveals one sea lion hunting technique. During the chase, sea lion kept biting off the legs of the octopus until the octopus could not swim; what was left was an easy meal. Bulls eat between thirty and forty - five pounds of fish daily. Cows eat between fifteen and twenty - five pounds of fish daily. When ashore, approximately thirty females and one dominating bull form a social group called colony. Sea lions work cooperatively both in and out of water. Cows give birth to single pup during warm summer months. Birth must be on shore as newborn pups do not know how to swim. Within a few weeks of birth, seal pup will learn to swim in shallow waters near shore under the watchful eye of its mother. Single females will watch over group of pups when mothers go fishing. These guardians will make sure pups stay in shallow water to keep them from being eaten by sharks or other predators. Bulls provide some security by giving sharp barks when they spot nearby sharks. When the mother returns from fishing, she uses vocalizations and scent to recognize her pup. Interestingly, they are absent in the Atlantic ocean; scientists have no explanation for this absence. Sea lions prefer flat beaches that are either sandy or have flat rocks.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sea Lion Info

There are 33 species of Pinnipeds which include 18 true Seals, 14 eared Seals, and 1 Walrus. California Sea Lions belong to the family Otariidae, which means little ears. In scientific community, there are many debates concerning ancestry of eared and true Seals. Some scientists believe that eared Seals and Walruses May evolved 30 million years ago from bear - like creatures in the North Pacific, and that Seals evolved from Otter - like carnivores in the North Atlantic. Seals and Sea Lions have several visible differences. Sea Lions have external ear flaps, whereas the majority of Seals have small opening for the ear and lack external ear flap. Flexible pelvic girdles enable Sea Lions to move more easily on land by rotating their hind flippers underneath their bodies and walking like other four - legged animals. To move on land, Seals propel their streamlined bodies in a way similar to caterpillar.S Both Seals and Sea Lions are professionals in the water environment. Sea Lions use their large front flippers to propel themselves through water. Seals use their hind flippers in side - to - side motion. Sea Lions can swim at burst speeds up to 25 mph, but generally cruise at approximately 11 mph. Sea Lions gain speed by porpoising, gliding on water's surface to minimize resistance. Surfing in front of waves or large whales seems to be a fun activity for Sea Lions. Sea Lions have often been called Angels of the Sea due to the unique way that they swim. Sea Lions will use their hind flippers to steer and swim using their front flippers. True Seals usually swim at about 6 mph and can reach speeds as fast as 18 mph. Walruses tend to take a relaxing approach to water, averaging speeds of 6 mph or less. The average life span of Sea Lion is around 20 years, although some have been recorded to be living into their 30s. Age is determined by counting growth layers in their teeth, similar to counting rings in tree trunk. Scientists have noticed that males tend to live shorter lives than females. Sea Lions feed on a variety of organisms, including various fish, squid and octopus. Sea Lions at Dolphin Research Center eat herring, smelt, and capelin. Wild Sea Lions often feed cooperatively, eating 5 - 8% of their body weight each day, which is between 15 - 35 pounds of food. Sea Lions have 34 to 38 teeth, specially designed for grasping and tearing their food; however, their food is swallowed whole. Most of their water intake comes directly from fish they eat, although they may occasionally drink small amounts of water while fasting throughout the breeding season. Rocks, sometimes found in the stomachs of Sea Lions, may create a false sensation of fullness during the fasting period. On land, Sea Lions will sleep in a variety of positions, often on top of their friends.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diving

California sea lions usually do not need to dive very deeply, since most of their food is found in shallow waters, about 26 to 74 m deep. They can, however, dive to depths of about 274 m. California sea lions usually stay submerge three minutes or less; however, they can remain submerged for as long as 10 minutes. Foraging trips for Galapagos sea lions have been estimated to last an average of 15. 7 hours and entails 85 to 198 dives. All marine mammals have special physiological adaptations for diving. These adaptations enable the California sea lion to conserve oxygen while it is under water. California sea lions, like marine mammals, have a slower heart rate while diving. A sea lion's heart rate can slow from about 95 to about 20 beats per minute. Sea lions have higher blood volume than nondiving animals of comparable size. Increase volume allows greater oxygen - binding capacity. When diving, blood is shunted away from tissues tolerant of low oxygen levels to the heart and central nervous system. The muscle of California sea lions has a high content of oxygen - binding protein myoglobin to help prevent muscle oxygen deficiency.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diffusion vs. Breathing

Table2

ProblemInterventionEffect
BubbleRecompression with HBOReduce bubble size 1. Washout inert gas. 2. Change bubble composition by diffusion.
Stasis and dehydrationHydration: oral fluids if alert, IV fluids otherwise.Improve blood flow.
InflammationCell Ischemia? Anti-inflammatory medicationsHBOReduce interaction between bubble and blood vessel endothelium. Improve oxygen availability to hypoxic tissues, reduce edema and also reduces the interaction between bubble and blood vessel endothelium.

Point when collapse alveoli open up and gas exchange resumes. Ventilatory Flow through lung parenchyma through alternative flow pathways, such as pores of Kohn. The volume of air in the respiratory system does not participate in gas exchange, eg air in trachea. Also called bends or caisson disease; collection of symptoms observed following reduction in ambient pressure, which causes bubbles to form in blood and tissues. In humans, symptoms include dizziness, numbness, fatigue and, in more severe cases, paralysis, problems breathing and death. Cause by the anesthetic effect of lipid - soluble gases at high pressure. In air - breathing divers, symptoms may ultimately lead to loss of consciousness as pressure increases. Pulmonary edema is caused by intrathoracic pressures that are lower than environmental pressures during breath - hold diving. Often used in human lung - function testing to assess maximal capacity of lung function such as VC, PEF, PIF and airway obstruction. The individual is asked to expire maximum followed by inspiration. The volume of air exhaled or inhaled during normal breath. Maximal volume of air that can be exchanged in one breath. In marine mammals, VC is close to TLC. Effect of pressure on lung volume and diffusion rate. The graph shows how compression of the respiratory system affects when compliance of upper and lower airways is accounted for. The figure assumes Weddell seal with diving lung volume of 11 liters, alveolar volume of 10 liters and dead space volume of 1 liter. Black lines represent the volume of the respiratory system in relation to depth For Scholander's original balloon - pipe model, with stiff dead space that does not compress, and red lines represent the volume of lung based on the lung compression model present in Bostrom et al. The schematic below provides a qualitative explanation of two models. The balloon - pipe model, where conducting airways do not compress, is shown in black, and the model where airways begin to compress at a depth determined by specific compliances of upper and lower airways is shown in red. Radiographs of trachea of Weddell seal submerge at 1 ATA, surface and during dive to 31. 6 ATA. Arrowheads show tracheal margins. The circular object is an electrocardiogram electrode. Reproduce with permission from Bostrom et al. The graph shows the effect of Alveolar compression on diffusion rate, assuming Scholander's original balloon - pipe model or lung compression model present in A. Pressure - volume relationship for lung and chest for three individual California sea lions. Values for lung are represented by closed symbols, and those for chest are represented by open symbols. Each of the different shapes represent different individual sea lion. Figure modified from Fahlman et al., With permission. Tlc est is estimated lung capacity. Much higher compliance of chest indicates that the chest does not resist compression, which minimizes the risk of lung squeeze.

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Table3

SyndromePressure
Hyperoxia/oxygen seizures>152 kPa (5 msw)
HypoxiaHypercapnia
Nitrogen narcosis>354 kPa (25 msw)
High pressure nervous syndrome>1.6 MPa (150 msw)
Neurological decompression sickness
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INTRODUCTION

Diving physiology and capabilities of breath - hold divers are crucial to their ability to exploit prey resources, thereby influencing their role in the ecosystem. The dive capacity of breath - hold divers is dependent on both available O 2 stores and the rate at which O 2 stores are deplete. Cardiovascular regulation is critical during diving because changes in heart rate and cardiac output affect not only blood O 2 uptake from lungs but also the rate and magnitude of blood O 2 delivery to tissues. Therefore, decrease f H has long been considered central to the decreased rate of O 2 consumption in breath - hold divers, and, ultimately, to their dive capacity. During forced submersion, severe bradycardia results in isolation of muscle and peripheral organs from blood flow, thereby conserving blood oxygen for the heart and brain. However, more recent studies on trained and free diving animals indicate that this dive response is variable and often more moderate, with declines in f H dependent on dive duration and activity. Although cardiovascular responses of phocid seals have been extensively study, there have been relatively few investigations of cardiac responses in otariids. Severe bradycardia do occur during force submersion and simulated dives, but during trained submersions, decline in f H was much less. And during relatively short, shallow train dives of both California and Steller sea lions, f H decline moderately, but could reach values of less than 10 - 20 beats min 1. However, in wild, shallow - diving fur seals, although f H during diving decline below surface rates, it was rarely less than 80 beats min 1. In this study, we measure f H in freely diving wild California sea lions, which, for the first time, documents level of bradycardia in deep - diving otariid. The California sea lion is an excellent model species because its diving behaviour and physiology have been extensively study. Although often considered shallow diver,ss current research shows that they routinely perform long deep dives, often exceeding their calculated aerobic dive limit of 3 - 5 min. This diving behaviour provides a broad range of dive durations and depths in which to examine cardiac response in natural diving animal. We investigate dive f H response in naturally diving adult California sea lions on maternal foraging trips using a self - contain electrocardiogram recorder and time depth recorder.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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