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Low Red Blood Cell Count Cancer

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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When you do have enough healthy Red Blood cells, you have a condition called Anemia. This means your blood has lower than normal hemoglobin levels. Hemoglobin is part of the Red Blood cell that carries oxygen to all cells in your body. Anemia is a common side effect in patients with Cancer. What causes Anemia? There are many different reasons person with cancer might have Anemia. Some common causes are: Cancer itself Cancer treatment, such as radiation or chemotherapy Blood loss missing certain vitamins or minerals in diet because of not eating enough Low Iron levels in Blood Major organ problems Red Blood cells being destroyed by the body before theyre replace body making fewer RBCs Having Chronic Kidney disease Having Conditions like sickle cell disease or thalassemia combination of any of these factors Some risk factors may make person with Cancer more likely to have Anemia. These include: Certain chemotherapy drugs such as platinum-base chemotherapy, Certain Tumor types Having Low hemoglobin level before you had Cancer Symptoms of Anemia Anemia often start slowly, so you may not notice symptoms at first. As your hemoglobin level gets lower, you may have one or more of these symptoms: Fast heartbeat Fast breathing rate Shortness of breath trouble breathing when doing things like walking, climbing stairs, or even talking Dizziness or lightheadedness Chest pain Swelling in hands and / or feet Color of skin, nail beds, mouth, and gums looking more pale than usual Extreme tiredness Anemia can range from mild to life-threatening, Depending on Your hemoglobin level and Symptoms you are experiencing. Some of these symptoms are more serious than others. Your doctor will explain your hemoglobin level and severity of your Anemia. If you have any of these symptoms, tell your doctor or nurse right away. If you ca reach your cancer care team right away, you may need to get immediate care in the emergency room. Let your cancer care team know if you have any other medical problems such as heart or lung disease, as this may make your symptoms of Anemia worse. It is important to watch for Anemia and its symptoms throughout your treatment. Tell your cancer care team if youre having any of the symptoms described here. Be sure to mention how symptoms affect your day-to-day life. Doing so will help you get treatment you need when you need it. Tests for causes of Anemia complete Blood count is a blood test that measures your hemoglobin level and other characteristics of your Red Blood cells. This test not only shows if you have Anemia, but it can also help your doctor figure out what might be causing it. You might also need other tests to help to find what is causing it.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Normally low hemoglobin counts

Low hemoglobin count can be associated with disease or condition that cause your body to have too few red blood cells. This can occur if: Your body produces fewer red blood cells than usual. Your body destroys red blood cells faster than they can be produced. You have blood loss diseases and conditions that cause your body to produce fewer red blood cells than normal, include: diseases and conditions that cause Your body to destroy red blood cells faster than they can be make include: low Hemoglobin count can also be due to blood loss, which can occur because of: bleeding in Your digestive tract, such as from ulcers, cancers or hemorrhoids Frequent blood donation Menorrhagia

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

About red blood cells

Also called RBC's, these cells carry oxygen to your body's tissues. Hemoglobin is a substance found inside your red blood cells. Hemoglobin gives red blood cells their red color. Oxygen in your lungs from air that you breathe attaches to hemoglobin in red blood cells. This oxygen is then carried to tissues. Hemoglobin also takes away carbon dioxide from tissue to the lungs where it is then breathed out of your body. Anemia is a disease of red blood cells where there are not enough cells or hemoglobin to do the job that your body need. This is why when you are anemic you are short of breath and feel very tired. The normal level of red blood cells is 4-6. The normal level of hemoglobin is 12-18.

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Causes of anemia

Table

TestResultFlagUnitsReference Interval
White Blood Count7.2x 10-3/mL4.0-10.5
Red Blood Count3.40 Lx 10-6/mL4.70-6.10
Hemoglobin10.6 Lg/dL14.0-18.0
Hematocrit31.1 L%42.0-52.0
Platelets297x 10-3/mL140-415
Polys43 L%45-76
Lymphs48 H%17-44
monocytes7%3-10
Eos2%0-4
Basos>%0.2
Polys (absolute)3.1x 10-3/mL1.8-7.8
Lymphs (absolute)3.5x 10-3/mL0.7-4.5
Monocytes (absolute)0.5x 10-3/mL0.1-1.0
Eos (absolute)0.1x 10-3/mL0.0-0.4
Basos (absolute)0.0x 10-3/mL0.0-0.2

Anemia is a medical condition in which the red blood cell count or hemoglobin is less than normal. The normal level of hemoglobin is generally different in males and females. For men, normal hemoglobin level is typically defined as a level of more than 13. 5 grams / 100 ml, and in women as hemoglobin of more than 12. 0 gram / 100 ml. These definitions may vary slightly depending on source and laboratory reference used Any process that can disrupt the normal life span of red blood cells may cause anemia. The normal life span of red blood cells is typically around 120 days. Red blood cells are made in bone marrow. Anemia is caused essentially through two basic pathways. Anemia is caused by either: decrease in production of Red blood cells or Hemoglobin, or an increase in loss or destruction of Red blood cells. The more common classification of anemia is based on mean corpuscular volume, which signifies the average volume of individual Red blood cells. If MCV is low, anemia is categorized as microcytic anemia. If MCV is in the normal range, it is called normocytic anemia. If MCV is high, then it is called macrocytic anemia. Looking at each of the components of complete blood count, especially MCV, physician can gather clues as to what could be the most common reason for anemia in each patient. Iron deficiency is a very common cause of anemia. This is because iron is a major component of hemoglobin and essential for its proper function. Chronic blood loss due to any reason is the main cause of low iron level in the body As it depletes the body's iron stores to compensate for ongoing loss of iron. Anemia that is due to low iron levels is called iron deficiency anemia. Young women are likely to have low-grade iron deficiency anemia because of loss of blood each month through normal menstruation. This is generally without any major symptoms as blood loss is relatively small and temporary. Another common reason for iron deficiency anemia can be recurring or small ongoing bleeding, for instance from colon Cancer or from stomach ulcers. Stomach ulcer bleeding may be induced by medications, even very common over-counter drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen. Slow and chronic oozing from these ulcers can lead to loss of iron. Crohns disease can lead to iron deficiency anemia. In infants and young children, iron deficiency anemia is most often due to a diet lacking iron. Interpretation of complete blood count test may lead to clues to suggest this type of anemia. For instance, iron deficiency anemia usually presents with low mean corpuscular volume in addition to low hemoglobin. Aplastic anemia is a life-threatening form of complete bone marrow failure. As a result, blood contains inadequate numbers of red blood cells as well as insufficient white blood cells and platelets.


Why is anemia linked to cancer?

Iron-deficiency anemia is caused by lack of healthy red blood cells in the body. Your body makes red blood cells in bone marrow, spongy material inside your body's largest bones. Red blood cells are important for fighting infections, clotting blood, and carrying oxygen throughout your body. This can happen when your body doesnt make enough red blood cells, when youve had severe bleeding, or when your body starts to destroy its red blood cells. When red blood cells are damaged or not numerous enough, they cannot carry oxygen efficiently throughout your body. This leads to weakness and fatigue, and can harm your body if left untreated. Iron-deficiency anemia is most commonly caused by poor diet, digestive disorders, menstruation, pregnancy, bleeding disorders, and advanced age. Also, it appears there are several types of cancers closely linked to anemia. Heres rundown on how anemia is linked to these cancers:


Effective treatments can make a difference

Diet: If your anemia is mild, simply eating Iron-rich foods may suffice. It takes some time to restore your red blood cell count through this method alone. Iron-rich foods that may make good choices include liver, red meat, Iron-fortified cereals, and legumes. Iron supplements: Iron supplements may be prescribe, but only take these under the advice of your physician. Studies suggest intravenous iron can be very helpful for some people with anemia due to cancer. These can be constipating, so your physician may recommend stool softener as well. Blood transfusion: blood transfusion is a way to rapidly increase your red blood cell count and is usually used if your anemia is causing significant symptoms. Medications: These stimulate production of red blood cells in your bone marrow. Drugs Procrit or Epogen or Aranesp are similar to compounds made by our own bodies to stimulate red blood cell production. Steroids: Steroids are sometimes used for treatment of hemolytic anemia with lymphomas.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Normal Blood Counts

Table

TestResultFlagUnitsReference Interval
White Blood Count1.5 Lx 10-3/mL4.0-10.5
Red Blood Count3.50 Lx 10-6/mL4.70-6.10
Hemoglobin10.8 Lg/dL14.0-18.0
Hematocrit31.1 L%42.0-52.0
Platelets302x 10-3/mL140-415
Polys23 L%45-76
Lymphs68 H%17-44
Monocytes7%3-10
Eos2%0-4
Basos>%0.2
Polys (absolute).34 Lx 10-3/mL1.8-7.8
Lymphs (absolute)1.0x 10-3/mL0.7-4.5
Monocytes (absolute)0.1x 10-3/mL0.1-1.0
Eos (absolute)0.1x 10-3/mL0.0-0.4
Basos (absolute)0.0x 10-3/mL0.0-0.2

It is important to monitor for low blood cell count because this condition may: increase your risk of unpleasant and sometimes life-threatening side effects, such as fatigue, infection, and / or bleeding. Disrupt delivery of your cancer treatment, resulting in change to plan dose and time. How are low blood counts diagnose? A test called complete blood count is used to determine whether your blood counts is low. CBC measures levels of three basic blood cells: Red, White, and platelets. In the United States, CBC is typically reported in the format shown below. If your blood counts fall outside of the normal range, which is shown in the Reference interval column, their values will be reported in the Flag column with L for low and H for high. Example CBC below shows that white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets are all low. Result column: result column show counts that fall within the normal range. Flag column: Flag column shows counts that are lower or higher than the normal range. Reference interval column: Reference interval shows normal range for each measurement for lab performing test. Different labs may use different reference intervals. White blood cells: White blood cells help protect individuals from infections. The above CBC report shows that patients ' total white cell count is 1. 5, which is lower than the normal range of 4. 0-10. 5 low white cell count increases the risk of infection. Absolute neutrophil count: Neutrophils are the main white blood cells for fighting or preventing bacterial or fungal infections. In the CBC report, Neutrophils may be referred to as polymorphonuclear cells or Neutrophils. Absolute neutrophil count is a measure of the total number of neutrophils present in the blood. When ANC is less than 1 000, risk of infection increases. ANC can be calculated by multiplying total WBC by percent of polymorphonuclear cells. For example, this patient's ANC is 0. 34, which equals 1. 5 x 23 %. Red blood cells: Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. The above CBC report indicates that the patient has a red cell count of 3. 5, which is lower than the normal range of 4. 70-6. 10, and therefore, show in the Flag column. Hemoglobin: Hemoglobin is a protein in red cells that carries oxygen. The above CBC report indicates that patients Hb count is 10. 8, which is below the normal range of 14. 0-18. 0 Hematocrit, another way of measuring the amount of Hb, is also low. This means that patient has mild anemia and may be starting to notice symptoms. These three ranges will vary depending on age and gender. For women, they will be lower than those show here. For example, Hb Reference interval for woman is 12. 0-16.


What are low blood counts?

The best treatment for low blood counts is to prevent them before they occur. This can be accomplished with administration of blood cell growth factors. Blood cell growth factors are substances produced by the body that stimulate cells in bone marrow to produce more red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. These factors have also been produced in laboratory and are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of cancer patients with low blood counts. Low red blood cell counts: Erythropoietin is a blood cell growth factor that selectively increases production of red blood cells. Clinical trials have demonstrated that Erythropoietin is safe and effective in reversing anemia in cancer patients. 1 2 Erythropoietin has been proven to effectively: increase hematocrit Decrease need for blood transfusions Reverse fatigue Improve overall sense of well-being Erythropoietin is FDA-approve for treatment of anemia in patients with nonmyeloid cancers, whose anemia is result of chemotherapy. Treatment with Erythropoietin causes a gradual increase in red blood cell production. The body uses iron in red blood cell production. Thus, supplemental iron may be required to adequately support Erythropoietin-stimulate erythropoiesis. Virtually all patients receiving Erythropoietin therapy will eventually require supplemental iron therapy. Currently, there are two commercially available forms of Erythropoietin for use in patients, epoetin alfa and darbepoetin alfa. Both are manufactured in the same facility in the same manner. Epogen and Procrit have been in use for many years. Aranesp is a unique, longer-acting form of Erythropoietin and is more convenient because it allows patients to receive fewer injections than with Epogen or Procrit. The most common side effects seen in clinical trials with Aranesp were fatigue, edema, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever and shortness of breath. No important differences in side effects were seen between groups treated with Aranesp and groups treated with existing anemia treatment, Epogen. Low white blood cell count: blood cell growth factors approved by FDA for prevention of chemotherapy-induce neutropenia are Neupogen and Neulasta. 3 4 Multiple clinical trials have shown that Neulasta and Neupogen reduce severity and duration of low white blood cell counts associated with many kinds of chemotherapy regimens. By increasing white blood cell counts, Neupogen has been shown to decrease patients ' risk of fever and admission to hospital. The drawback of Neupogen, however, is that it must be administered daily. In two clinical trials, single dose of Neulasta has been proved to be as effective as an average of 11 daily injections of Neupogen for management of neutropenia. The most common side effect you may experience with Neulasta is aching in bones. If this happen, it can usually be relieved with non-aspirin pain reliever, such as acetaminophen. It is also possible to have allergic reaction to Neulasta. Low platelet count: blood cell growth factor approved by FDA for prevention of low platelet count is called Neumega.

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Table2

Low red blood cellsLow white blood cellsLow platelets
Fatigue or tirednessInfectionExcessive bruising
Trouble breathingFeverExcessive bleeding
Rapid heartrateNosebleeds
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Early warning signs of leukemia

In the early stages of Myeloma, some patients have no signs or symptoms of disease. It is sometimes detected before symptoms appear, when results of laboratory tests done as part of routine medical examination show abnormalities in blood and / or urine. When symptoms are present, most common ones are bone pain and fatigue. Doctors sometimes refer to the acronym, CRAB, to describe signs of Myeloma. Letters stand for c-Calcium elevation r-Renal insufficiency-Anemia b-Bone abnormalities. Patients with one or more of these CRAB criteria are considered to have disease that require therapy. Those who do not exhibit any of these criteria are said to have smoldering or asymptomatic Myeloma, and these patients may be followed with a watch-and-wait approach. Bone pain and / or skeletal fractures. Bone pain is the most common early symptom of Myeloma. Bones are constantly in the process of remodeling, maintaining a balance between bone destruction and formation. Myeloma causes imbalance, with greater bone destruction and less new bone formation. This may result in bone thinning or holes in bones. Bones may break easily from activities as simple as coughing. Damage is most commonly found in the back or ribs, but it can occur in any bone. Pain is usually constant and made worse by movement. Bone lesions are present in about 80 percent of Myeloma patients, most commonly in the spine and pelvis, but could affect any bone. Bone lesions are not usually found in joints. Fatigue and weakness as result of low red blood cell counts. Myeloma patients may fatigue more easily and feel weak. They may also have Pale complexion from Anemia. Frequent Infections due to weakened immune system. Myeloma patients may experience repeated infections because antibodies they need to fight invading viruses, bacteria or other disease agents are not made efficiently or in in adequate numbers. Urinary tract, bronchial, lung, skin or other type of infection may be the first sign of disease. In addition, recurrent infections may complicate the course of disease. Damage to kidneys from high levels of antibodies. The patient's urine may look foamy and the patient's legs may swell. Numbness, tingling, burning or pain in hands or feet. Some patients have high levels of Calcium, which can cause increased confusion, increased blood pressure, nausea / Vomiting, constipation and excessive thirst. In rare cases, patients can have hyperviscosity Syndrome, when blood thickens. Symptoms of hyperviscosity Syndrome are abnormal bleeding, headaches, chest pain, decreased alertness or shortness of breath. Some patients can have amyloidosis, condition in which abnormal Myeloma protein is deposited in various tissues in the body, causing damage. If you experience any of the above symptoms, see your doctor. Sometimes, you may have no symptoms. In this case, your doctor may first detect disease as result of lab test or X-ray take for another reason.


Symptoms

Cancer cells in AML are bigger than normal white blood cells and have more trouble going through tiny blood vessels. If blast count gets very high, these cells can clog up blood vessels and make it hard for normal red blood cells to get to tissues. This is called leukostasis. Leukostasis is rare, but it is a medical emergency that needs to be treated right away. Some of the symptoms are like those seen with stroke, and include: headache Weakness on one side of body slur speech Confusion Sleepiness when blood vessels in lungs are affect, people can have shortness of breath. Blood vessels in the eye can be affected as well, leading to blurry vision or even loss of vision.

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What is anemia?

Anemia is decrease in number of Red Blood cells. Most cancer therapies destroy cells that grow at a fast rate. Red blood cells grow at a fast rate and are often affect. An important part of RBC is hemoglobin. It is a protein that carries oxygen throughout your body. When your hemoglobin is low, oxygen levels decrease. Your body has to work harder in order to compensate. The end result is that your body becomes tired. Normal hemoglobin levels for women are usually in the range of 12-16 gm / dL; for men, normal level is from 14-18 gm / dL. While receiving treatment, your hemoglobin level may drop to lower than these normal levels. Your hemoglobin level will be checked during treatment. Any time that your hemoglobin level drops below 10. 0 gm / dL you are considered to be anemic.


The signs and symptoms of anemia include:

Anemia is defined as low number of red blood cells. In routine blood test, anemia is reported as low hemoglobin or hematocrit. Hemoglobin is the main protein in your red blood cells. It carries oxygen, and delivers it throughout your body. If you have anemia, your hemoglobin level will be low too. If it is low enough, your tissues or organs may not get enough oxygen. Symptoms of anemia-like fatigue or shortness of breathA-happen because your organs aren't getting what they need to work the way they should. Anemia is the most common blood condition in the US. It affects almost 6 % of the population. Women, young children, and people with long-term diseases are more likely to have anemia. Important things to remember are: certain forms of anemia are passed down through your genes, and infants may have it from birth. Women are at risk of iron-deficiency anemia because of blood loss from their periods and higher blood supply demands during pregnancy. Older adults have a greater risk of anemia becauseA they are more likely to have kidney disease or other chronic medical conditions. There are many types of anemia. All have different causes and treatments. Some forms-like mild anemia that happen during pregnancy-arenat major concern. But some types of anemia maymay reflect serious underlying medical condition

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Why is Anemia Important?

Anemia happens when you either dont have enough healthy red blood cells or cells you have dont function properly. Red blood cells carry hemoglobin, iron-rich protein that transports oxygen around your body. Anemia may start slowly. So you might not notice symptoms at first. But as your hemoglobin levels drop, you may experience one or more of these signs and symptoms: fast or irregular heartbeat Shortness of breath Dizziness Headache or pounding in ears Chest pain Swelling of hands or feet, or both pale skin, nail beds, mouth and gums Extreme tiredness even with variety of possible symptoms, identifying Anemia can be tricky. And people who have cancer are often fatigued by the disease and its treatment. When in doubt, blood, fecal, or bone marrow tests can determine if you have Anemia and help pinpoint what is causing it.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How is Anemia Treated?

Anemia can be treated by increasing hemoglobin level with blood transfusions or with erythropoietin, blood cell growth factor that increases Red Blood Cell Production. Two objectives for treating anemia are to first correct the underlying cause of anemia and second to treat symptoms of anemia. Successful management of Anemia may require erythropoietin, transfusions or both. Erythropoietin is FDA-approve for treatment of Anemia in patients with nonmyeloid cancers whose Anemia is the result of Chemotherapy. Treatment With erythropoietin causes gradual increase in Red Blood Cell Production. The Body uses Iron in Red Blood Cell Production. Thus, supplemental Iron may be required to adequately support erythropoietin-stimulate erythropoiesis. Virtually all patients receiving erythropoietin therapy will eventually require supplemental Iron therapy. Two commercially available forms of erythropoietin are darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa. Aranesp is a longer-acting form of erythropoietin that allows patients to receive fewer injections. Although erythropoietin has been shown to reduce the need for blood transfusions in patients with Chemotherapy-induced Anemia, some studies have reported serious adverse effects of erythropoietin in certain groups of patients. In response to these reports, and based on advice of two Advisory committees, FDA released an updated Advisory on use of erythropoietin in November 2007. Patients should discuss risks and benefits of Anemia treatment with their doctor. More information about FDA Advisory can be found at https: / www. FDA. Gov / cder / drug / infopage / RHE / default. Htm. Blood Transfusion: Blood transfusions rapidly replace the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. The goal of Blood Transfusion is to increase oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange between tissues and reduce symptoms of Anemia. However, transfusions are associated with complications. Patients should carefully consider whether to undergo transfusion and benefits should outweigh risk or complications of procedure. Although improvements have lower risk of Transfusion-transmitted Complications, only way to effectively eliminate risk is to avoid exposure to allogeneic or bank blood. Despite the risks, Red Blood Cell transfusions are common treatments for severe Anemia associated with cancer and Chemotherapy. Patients receiving Red Blood Cell transfusions are at risk for several noninfectious reactions that range from mild allergic reactions to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Clinically, most significant complications involve impact on the immune system. However, these conditions are rare. Infectious Complications: Patients receiving allogeneic blood are at risk for bacterial, parasitic and viral infections. Bacterial infections are estimated to occur in 1 of every 2500 blood transfusions and viral infections occur in approximately 1 in every 3000. Fear of infection with human immunodeficiency virus has caused most concern, although the risk per unit of blood transfuse is relatively low. All blood components are tested for HIV antibodies; however, there is a period of time after HIV exposure before antibodies can be detected in blood. To address this issue, intense donor screening is being used and more sensitive tests are being develop. Patients receiving allogeneic transfusion are at greater risk for lethal infection with hepatitis viruses than from HIV.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What's measured in a blood cell count?

Table

What's being countedWhat's normalWhat's concerning
White blood cells3,500 to 10,500Below 1,000
Hemoglobin13.5 to 17.5 for men 12 to 15.5 for womenBelow 8
Platelets150,000 to 450,000Below 20,000

If you're undergoing certain cancer treatments that could cause low blood cell counts, your doctor will likely monitor your blood cell count regularly using a test called complete blood count. Low blood cell counts are detected by examining blood sample taken from a vein in your arm. When checking your blood cell count, your doctor is looking at numbers and types of following: white blood cells. These cells help your body fight infection. Low white blood cell count leave your body more open to infection. And if an infection does develop, your body may be unable to fight it off. Red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout your body. Your red blood cells' ability to carry oxygen is measured by the amount of hemoglobin in your blood. If your level of hemoglobin is low, you're anemic and your body works much harder to supply oxygen to your tissues. This can make you feel fatigued and short of breath. Platelets. Platelets help your blood to clot. A low platelet count means your body can't stop itself from bleeding.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What are low blood counts

Glaspy JA, Jadeja J, Justice G. Optimizing management of anemia in patients with cancer: randomize, active-control study investigating dosing of darbepoetin alfa. Proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology 38 annual meeting; May 18-21 2002. Abstract 1446. Kotasek D, Albertson M, Mackey J. Randomize, double-blind, placebo-control, dose-finding study of darbepoetin alfa administered once every 3 or 4 weeks in patients with solid tumors. Proceedings of American Society of Clinical Oncology 38 annual meeting; May 18-21 2002. Abstract 1421. Vose J, Crump M, Lazarus H. Randomize, multicenter, open-label study of pegfilgrastim compared with daily filgrastim after chemotherapy for lymphoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2003; 21: 514-519. Green M, Koelbl H, Baselga J. Randomize double-blind multicenter phase III study of fix-dose single-Administration pegfilgrastim versus daily filgrastim in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Annals of Oncology.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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