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Lung Cancer Causes

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the lungs, it is called Lung Cancer. Lung Cancer is the leading cause of Cancer death and the second most diagnosed cancer in both men and women in the United States. After increasing for decades, Lung Cancer rates are decreasing nationally, as fewer people cigarette cigarettes. Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of Lung Cancer. Lung Cancer can also be caused by using other types of tobacco, breathing secondhand - smoke, being exposed to substances such as asbestos or radon at home or work, and having a family history of Lung Cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Smoking

Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for Lung Cancer. In the United States, cigarette smoking is linked to about 80% to 90% of Lung Cancer deaths. Using other tobacco products such as cigars or pipes also increases the risk of Lung Cancer. Tobacco smoke is a toxic mix of more than 7 000 chemicals. Many are poisons. At least 70 are known to cause cancer in people or animals. People who smoke cigarettes are 15 to 30 times more likely to get Lung Cancer or die from Lung Cancer than people who do not smoke. Even smoking a few cigarettes a day or smoking occasionally increases the risk of Lung Cancer. The more years people smoke and the more cigarettes smoked each day, more risk go up. People who Quit Smoking have a lower risk of Lung Cancer than if they had continued to smoke, but their risk is higher than the risk of people who never smoke. Quitting smoking at any age can lower the risk of Lung Cancer. Cigarette smoking can cause cancer almost anywhere in the body. Cigarette smoking causes cancer of the mouth and throat, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, voicebox, trachea, bronchus, kidney and renal pelvis, urinary bladder, and cervix, and causes acute myeloid leukemia.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes in non-smokers

Not all people WHO get Lung Cancer are smokers. Many people with Lung Cancer are former smokers, but many others never smoke at all. And it is rare for someone WHO has never smoked to be diagnosed with small cell Lung Cancer, but it CAN happen. Lung Cancer in non - smokers CAN be caused by exposure to Radon, secondhand smoke, air pollution, or other factors. Workplace exposures to asbestos, diesel exhaust or certain other chemicals CAN also cause lung cancer in some people WHO do smoke. A small portion of lung cancers occur in people with no known risk factors for disease. Some of these might just be random events that do have outside cause, but others might be due to factors that we dont yet know about. Lung cancers in non - smokers are often different from those that occur in smokers. They tend to occur in younger people and often have certain gene changes that are different from those in tumors found in smokers. In some cases, these gene changes CAN be used to guide treatment.


Q. What causes lung cancer in non-smokers?

Warning signs and symptoms of lung cancer are generally the same for smokers and non - smokers. However, unless you know that you have risk factors and exposures noted above, non - smokers are more likely to be caught off guard or dismiss warning signs. Lung cancer typically grows subtly for years without causing any symptoms. Because of this, cancer is often undetected until advanced stages, when treatment is more difficult. Ask your doctor to check out any of the following symptoms: chest discomfort or pain, persistent cough, repeated upper respiratory infections, Trouble breathing or wheezing Blood in sputum Hoarseness Loss of appetite Unexplained weight Loss Fatigue Swelling of face and / or neck veins One broad but important rule of thumb is to know your body and watch for unusual changes and subtle warning signals. Be sure to tell your doctor about any risk factors or exposures, and if you live or work in a smoke - fill environment, or work in a factory.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Continued

Asbestos fibers Asbestos fibers are silicate fibers that can persist for a lifetime in lung tissue following exposure to asbestos. The workplace is a common source of exposure to asbestos fibers, As asbestos was widely used in the past for both thermal and acoustic insulation materials. Today, asbestos use is limited or banned in many countries, including the United States. Both Lung Cancer and mesothelioma are associated with exposure to Asbestos. Cigarette smoking drastically increases the chance of developing Asbestos - related Lung Cancer in exposed workers. Asbesto workers who do not smoke have a fivefold greater risk of developing Lung Cancer than non - smokers, and those Asbestos workers who smoke have a risk that is 50 to 90 times greater than non - smokers. Radon gas Radon gas is a natural, chemically inert gas that is a natural decay product of uranium. It decays to form products that emit type of ionizing radiation. Radon gas is a known cause of Lung Cancer, with an estimated 12% of Lung Cancer deaths attributable to radon gas, or 15 000 to 22 000 Lung Cancer - related deaths annually in the US. As with Asbestos exposure, concomitant smoking greatly increases the risk of Lung Cancer with Radon exposure. Radon gas can travel up through soil and enter homes through gaps in foundation,s pipes, drains, or other openings. The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that one out of every 15 homes in the US contain dangerous levels of Radon gas. Radon gas is invisible and odorless, but can be detected with simple test kits. Familial predisposition While the majority of lung cancers are associated with tobacco smoking, fact that not all smokers eventually develop Lung Cancer suggests that other factors, such as individual genetic susceptibility, may play a role in the causation of Lung Cancer. Numerous studies have shown that Lung Cancer is more likely to occur in both smoking and nonsmoking relatives of those who have had Lung Cancer than in the general population. Lung Disease presence of certain diseases of lung, notably chronic obstructive pulmonary Disease, is associated with slightly increased risk for development of Lung Cancer even after effects of concomitant cigarette smoking are exclude. This is possibly related to inflammation and scarring that is part of the development of COPD. Prior history of Lung Cancer Survivors of Lung Cancer have greater risk than the general population of developing second Lung Cancer. Survivors of non - small cell lung cancers have an added risk of 1% - 2% per year for developing second Lung Cancer. In survivors of small cell lung cancers, risk for development of second cancers approaches 6% per year. Air pollution Air pollution, from vehicles, industry, and power plants, can raise the likelihood of developing Lung Cancer. Up to 1% of Lung Cancer deaths are attributable to breathing polluted air, and experts believe that prolonged exposure to highly polluted air can carry risk similar to that of passive smoking for development of Lung Cancer.


What are the symptoms of lung cancer?

After physical examination, your doctor will tell you how to prepare for specific tests, such as: imaging tests: abnormal mass can be seen on X - ray, MRI, CT, and PET scans. These scans produce more detail and find smaller lesions. Sputum cytology: If you produce phlegm when you cough, microscopic examination can determine if cancer cells are present. Biopsy can determine if tumor cells are cancerous. Tissue samples can be obtained by: bronchoscopy: While under sedation, light tube is passed down your throat and into your lungs, allowing closer examination. Mediastinoscopy: doctor makes an incision at the base of the neck. A light instrument is inserted and surgical tools are used to take samples from lymph nodes. It is usually done in hospital under general anesthesia. Needle: Using imaging tests as guide, needle is inserted through the chest wall and into suspicious lung tissue. Needle biopsy can also be used to test lymph nodes. Tissue samples are sent to a pathologist for analysis. If the result is positive for cancer, further testing, such as bone scan, can help determine if cancer has spread and to help with staging. For this test, youll be injected with radioactive chemical. Abnormal areas of bone will then be highlighted in images. Mri, CT, and PET scans are also used for staging.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Leading causes of lung cancer

Risk by age: About two out of three lung cancers are diagnosed in people over age 65, and most people are older than 45. The average age at diagnosis is 71. Family history: Genetics may predispose certain people to Lung Cancer. Individuals with immediate family members who have or had Lung Cancer may be more prone to developing the disease. Smoking and secondhand smoke: Smoking is widely considered the leading cause of Lung Cancer. For those who do smoke but are exposed to smoking at home or work, secondhand smoking may significantly increase their risk of Lung Cancer. The National Cancer Institute reports that tobacco smoking causes about nine in 10 cases of Lung Cancer in men and eight in 10 in women. Exposure To Asbestos or Other pollutants: Carcinogenic chemicals in the workplace increase Lung Cancer Risk, especially if you smoke. Exposure To Radon: Radon is a colorless, scent - less radioactive gas that is found in some houses and is a leading cause of Lung Cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Lung cancer prevention

A risk factor is anything that increases persons chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be change. Others, like people's age or family history, ca change. But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. And some people who get disease may have few or no known risk factors. Several risk factors can make you more likely to develop Lung Cancer. These factors are related to the risk of Lung Cancer in general. Its possible that some of these might not apply to small cell Lung Cancer.


Risk factors you can change

Smoking is by far the leading risk factor for Lung Cancer. About 80% of Lung Cancer deaths are thought to result from smoking and this number is probably even higher for small cell Lung Cancer. It is very rare for someone who has never smoked to have SCLC. The risk of Lung Cancer for smokers is many times higher than for non - smokers. The longer you smoke and the more packs you smoke, greater your risk. Cigar smoking and pipe smoking are almost as likely to cause Lung Cancer as cigarette smoking. Smoking low - tar or light cigarettes increases Lung Cancer Risk as much as regular cigarettes. Smoking menthol cigarettes might increase the risk even more since menthol may allow smokers to inhale more deeply.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Environmental factors

T obacco smoking at concert. Pollution from factories around the corner. Radiation from routine X - ray. When it comes to environmental factors that raise the risk of cancer, it may seem like avoiding exposure is as impossible as avoiding air you breathe. In reality, though, you have more control than you think. Experts say you can lower your cancer risk simply by making strategic lifestyle changes or taking conscious measures to reduce your exposure. Environmental risk factors account for at least two - thirds of all cancer cases in the United States, so knowing more about what to look out for, and what to avoid, may go a long way in protecting your health. Cancer develops when changes, or mutations, in cells ' DNA cause cell to grow out of control. Sometimes, mutations are caused by chemicals and other toxic substances in the environmentclassified as carcinogens because of their cancer - causing potential. While such chemicals are toxic, they do always cause cancer. Your risk for developing disease depends on several factorsincluding, how long and how often youre expose, your genetic makeup, your diet and lifestyle, your overall health, and your age and gender. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and US National Toxicology Program group carcinogens into categories based on how likely they are to cause cancer. While most people think environmental cancer risks are strictly external toxins like air and water pollution and chemicals like Radon, IARC, NTP and others, they also count lifestyle factors like nutrition and tobacco use and natural exposures like ultraviolet light in the mix. Know Environmental Risk factors include:


Asbestos

Asbestos occurs in rock and soil, and is often found in building construction materials for insulation. Mineral fiber increases the risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma, laryngeal cancer and ovarian cancer. Asbestos exposure accounts for the largest percentage of occupational cancer risks, with the highest risk among affected workers who also smoke. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulates asbestos levels in workplaces, but because fiber is present in air, water and soil, avoiding asbestos is nearly impossible. Most people who are exposed to fiber do develop disease, but the greater exposure, greater the risk. If you are planning to remodel your home, which may disturb building materials, or if your home contains damaged materials, such as crumbling drywall or insulation, you may consider hiring someone to inspect it for asbestos - containing materials. If your home does contain asbestos, inspector can give you recommendations for correction or prevention. And make sure to wear a mask and other protective gear while doing any of your own remodeling.


Cause: Air pollution

In the United States, air pollution is believed to contribute to around 5% of lung cancers in men and 3% in women. In parts of Europe, as many as 10% of cases are directly associated with atmospheric pollutants. In China and parts of East Asia, rate may be as high as 50%. Among some of carcinogens commonly found in air pollution are benzene, sulfur dioxide, diesel engine exhaust, formaldehyde, and coal ash. If you live in a high - density urban area, keep an eye out for air quality warnings on the news. Stay indoors if a warning has been issue, shutting all doors and windows. If you need to go outside, consider wearing a face mask.


Occupational Exposure

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are complex and important group of chemicals form during combustion of organic material. An increased risk of lung cancer has been reported in several industries and occupations involving exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as aluminium production, coal gasification, coke production, iron and steel founding, tar distillation, roofing and chimney sweeping. Increase has also been suggested in a few other industries, including shale oil extraction, wood impregnation, roofing and carbon electrode manufacture, with suggestion of exposure - response relationship. Motor vehicles and other engine exhausts represent an important group of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, since they contribute significantly to air pollution. Available epidemiological evidence shows excess risk among workers with high occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.


Radiation Therapy

Exposure to ionising radiation increases the risk of lung cancer. This increased risk has been reported in atomic bomb survivors, as well as patients treated with radiotherapy. Underground miners exposed to radioactive radon and its decay products, which emit - particles, have been consistently found to be at increased risk of lung cancer. Pool analysis of 11 cohorts estimate apparently linear, 6% risk increase per working - level year of exposure. There was also evidence that smoking synergistically modifies the carcinogenic effect of radon. Today, main concern about lung cancer risk from radon and its decay products comes from residential rather than occupational exposure. A Pooled analysis of 13 European case - control studies resulted in a relative risk of 1. 084 per 100 Bqm 3 increase in measured indoor radon. After correction for dilution caused by measurement error, relative risk was 1. 16. The exposure - response relationship was linear with no evidence of threshold. A similar analysis of North American studies come to the same conclusion. The US Environment Protection Agency estimates it to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in the USA. Thus, indoor radon exposure might be an important cause of lung cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Facts

Non - small cell lung cancer, which accounts for about 85 percent of all lung cancers. Small cell lung cancer, which makes up about 15 percent of non - small cell lung cancer, is classified into two main subtypes. Squamous cell carcinoma, which tends to be centrally located because it arises from the lining of your airways. Squamous cell carcinomas account for about 25 to 30 percent of all lung cancers. Nonsquamous non - small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. This name covers a variety of cancers. The most common is adenocarcinoma, which begins in glands that line your airways and is often found in the outer area of your lung. About 40 percent of lung cancers are adenocarcinomas. This is the most common type of lung cancer in non - smokers. Small cell lung cancer occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers. It usually starts in bronchi, grows very quickly and creates large tumors. Most small cell lung cancers spread to sites outside the lung, such as bones, liver or brain, before they are discover. Mesothelioma is an uncommon type of cancer related to the lungs. It arises from pleura, tissue that covers your lungs and lines your chest cavity, and is often linked to asbestos exposure.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Symptoms and Complications

People with lung cancer can experience shortness of breath if cancer grows to block major airways. Lung Cancer can also cause fluid to accumulate around lungs, making it harder for affected lung to expand fully when you inhale. Coughing up Blood. Lung Cancer can cause bleeding in the airway, which can cause you to cough up blood. Sometimes bleeding can become severe. Treatments are available to control bleeding. Pain. Advanced lung Cancer that spreads to the lining of the lung or to another area of the body, such as bone, can cause pain. Tell your doctor if you experience pain, as many treatments are available to control pain. Fluid in chest. Lung Cancer can cause fluid to accumulate in space that surrounds the affected lung in the chest cavity. Fluid accumulating in the chest can cause shortness of breath. Treatments are available to drain fluid from your chest and reduce the risk that pleural effusion will occur again. Cancer that spread to other parts of the body. Lung Cancer often spreads to other parts of the body, such as the brain and bones. Cancer that spreads can cause pain, nausea, headaches, or other signs and symptoms depending on what organ is affect. Once lung cancer has spread beyond lungs, it's generally not curable. Treatments are available to decrease signs and symptoms and to help you live longer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Making the Diagnosis

Lung Cancer is usually suspect when chest X - ray show shadow on lung. To confirm diagnosis, doctor will examine phlegm or mucus that is cough up. Lesions found on chest X - ray can be confirmed by CT scan of the chest and a long needle can be placed through the chest under CT guidance to biopsy lesion. Doctors will usually examine lungs through viewing instrument inserted into bronchi. This procedure is called bronchoscopy. Biopsy may also be done during bronchoscopy. During biopsy, sample of abnormal tissue is removed from the lung and later inspected with a microscope. Tissue for biopsy may also be surgically removed by opening the chest.


Imaging Tests

Blood tests are not used to diagnose Lung Cancer, but they can help to get a sense of persons overall health. For example, they can be used to help determine if a person is healthy enough to have surgery. A Complete blood count looks at whether your blood has normal numbers of different types of blood cells. For example, it can show if you are anemic, if you could have trouble with bleeding, or if you are at increased risk for infections. This test could be repeated regularly during treatment, as many cancer drugs can affect blood - forming cells of bone marrow. Blood chemistry tests can help find abnormalities in some of your organs, such as your liver or kidneys. For example, if cancer has spread to bones, it might cause higher than normal levels of calcium and alkaline phosphatase.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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