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Measles Vaccine Covid

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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FRIDAY, Sept. 4 2020-A NEW clinical trial will try to determine whether measles, mumps and rubella Vaccine can protect health care workers from being infected with COVID-19. Hundreds of millions of people have received MMR Vaccine since it was developed nearly 50 years ago. It's usually given to children before age 6. Growing evidence suggests that Vaccine may also prevent COVID-19. We know that MMR Vaccine is safe, and we think there are two main reasons that it could prevent COVID-19, say researcher Dr. Michael Avidan, head of the Department of Anesthesiology at Washington University School of Medicine Louis. First is this Vaccine includes small amounts of live but very weakened measles, mumps and rubella viruses, Avidan explained in a University news release. This type of Vaccine appears to strengthen the body's immune response to infections in general, not just to viruses in that particular vaccine. MMR Vaccine may also work because it protects against viruses that are similar to Coronavirus. Researchers think that antibodies made to MMR Vaccine might also fight SARS-CoV-2. In addition, researchers hope that MMR Vaccine might make cases of COVID-19 milder. The Trial is funded by a $9 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Mastercard, and other public and philanthropic donors. Researchers hope to enroll as many as 30 000 health care workers around the world. Participants will be randomly selected to get MMR Vaccine or placebo. Most of those recruited for trial will receive booster, as they likely received Vaccine as children. But in some countries where MMR Vaccine isn't widely give, health care workers may be receiving vaccine for the first time, researchers note. Countries involved in study include Canada, Ghana, Ireland, South Africa, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Each study participant will be followed for five months, and the entire trial is expected to last about a year, researchers say. Scientists at University College London will compile data from the trial.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Abbreviations

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advisory Committee on Immunization Practices provided a list of standardized abbreviations or acronyms for FDA-approve Vaccines. List includes most single and combination Vaccines but not all. The list was developed by CDC; ACIP Work Groups and members; editors of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report and Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases; and liaison organizations To ACIP. According to CDC, abbreviations and acronyms are intended to provide a uniform approach for referencing Vaccines in ACIP recommendations that are published in MMWR, Pink Book, American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book, and US Immunization schedules for children, adolescents, and Adults. CDC believes this list will promote accuracy, consistency, and convenience, and will reduce errors and ambiguity in Vaccine labeling, medical practice, and Scientific publications. However, preamble to list on the CDC website only suggests that standard abbreviations are intended for use in ACIP recommendations published in various references and Immunization schedules. Healthcare practitioners are not specifically encouraged in preamble to use standard abbreviations when prescribing immunizations or documenting Administration on Immunization record. The CDC site also includes a list of abbreviations that are often used on Immunization records, including abbreviations for Vaccine-target Diseases and Old or Non-standard abbreviations. This resource is helpful to those attempting to translate the myriad of abbreviations often found on patient Immunization records, and there is an open invitation below to contact the web team directly to let the Agency know if it is missing an abbreviation or acronym found on Health record.


What does MMR mean?

The first dose of vaccine is usually given between 12 and 13 months. It is usually given at the same time as the Hib / MenC vaccine-this stands for ' Haemophilus influenzae type b / meningitis C' and pneumoccocal vaccine. The second dose is usually given at age 3 years and 4 months to 5 years at the same time as DTaP / IPV injection. Even if the dose of MMR is delayed for any reason, it can still be given at a later age. If necessary, MMR vaccine can be given at any age.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Training the immune system

Administering measles, mumps, rubella vaccine could serve as a preventive measure to dampen septic inflammation Associate with coronavirus infection, researchers State in the journal of American Society for Microbiology. 'There is mounting evidence that live attenuate vaccines provide nonspecific protection against lethal infections unrelated to the target pathogen of vaccine by inducing trained nonspecific innate immune cells for improved host responses against subsequent infections, State these researchers on June 19 2020. Live attenuated vaccines induce nonspecific effects representing trained innate immunity by training leukocyte precursors in bone marrow to function more effectively against broader infectious insults. Dr. Paul Fidel, Associate Dean for Research at Louisiana State University Health School of Dentistry, commented in a press statement: I don't think it's going to hurt anybody to have MMR vaccine that would protect against measles, mumps, and rubella with this potential add benefit of helping against COVID-19 Disease. Clinical trial with MMR in high-risk populations may provide low-risk-high-reward preventive measure in saving lives during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the laboratory of Dr. Mairi Noverr, Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at Tulane University School of Medicine in New Orleans, in collaboration with Dr. Fidel, vaccination with live attenuate fungal strain-induce trained innate protection against lethal polymicrobial sepsis. Mortality in COVID-19 cases is strongly Associate with progressive lung inflammation and eventual sepsis. Protection was mediated by long-live myeloid-derive suppressor cells previously reported inhibiting septic inflammation and mortality in several experimental models. Researchers say that the MMR vaccine should be able to induce MDSCs that can inhibit or reduce severe lung inflammation / sepsis Associate with COVID-19. Milder symptoms seen in 955 sailors on USS Roosevelt who tested positive for COVID-19 may have been a consequence of the fact that MMR vaccinations are given to all US Navy sailors. In addition, epidemiological data suggest a correlation between people in geographical locations who routinely receive MMR vaccine and reduced COVID-19 Disease fatality rates. COVID-19 has not had a big impact on children, and researchers hypothesize that one reason children are protected against viral infections that induce sepsis is their more recent and more frequent exposures to live attenuated vaccines that can also induce trained suppressive MDSCs that limit inflammation and sepsis, authors write. While MDSCs are long-live, they are not life-long cells. So, booster MMR would enhance antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella and reinitiate MDSCs. We would hope that MDSCs induced by MMR would have a fairly good life-span to get through the critical time of pandemic, concludes Dr. Fidel. Dr. Noverr was recently awarded Fast Grant, part of Emergent Ventures at Mercatus Center, George Mason University, to test the efficacy of MMR directly in nonhuman primate model of COVID-19 infection. In the meantime, these researchers suggest that all adults, especially healthcare workers and individuals in nursing homes, get dose of the MMR vaccine.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Progressing to clinical trial

Table2

DEVELOPER(S)VACCINE METHODEVIDENCESTATUS
Multiple organizations InternationalThe Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for tuberculosis consists of live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis .Lower rates of COVID-19-related deaths in countries with mandatory BCG vaccination prompted the launch of several clinical trials to test whether the immune response triggered by the vaccine may protect against SARS-CoV-2.Several Phase 3 and 4 trials are underway .
Multiple organizations InternationalThe measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine consists of live-attenuated strains of the three viruses.Epidemiological data have revealed that places where the MMR vaccine is given as standard medical care have lower COVID-19 death rates than areas where MMR vaccination is not standard. Additionally, sailors aboard the U . S . S . Roosevelt who tested positive for COVID-19 had mostly mild symptoms, which some researchers suspect may have been due to administration of the MMR vaccine to all US Navy recruits.A Phase 3 trial is underway in Egypt, led by researchers at Kasr El Aini Hospital. Separately, researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine are running an international Phase 3 trial of healthcare workers in the US, Canada, Europe, and Africa.
Immunovative Therapies, Mirror Biologics USAn off-the-shelf living immune cellThe affiliated companies are currently testing the formulation as a therapeutic vaccine for chemotherapy-refractory metastatic cancers .A Phase 1/2 trial for healthy older adults has been approved to begin in New York.
Canadian Cancer Trials Group, others Can adaHeat-killed Mycobacterium obuenseThe vaccine is intended to stimulate nonspecific innate immunity. The company is also testing the vaccine in clinical trials for cancer .A Phase 3 trial has been approved to begin in Canada .
Bandim Health Project Guinea-BissauOral polio vaccine, an attenuated strain of the poliovirusResearchers argue that the vaccine is safer and available in greater quantities than the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis, which is also being tested as a possible COVID-19 preventive.A Phase 4 trial has been approved to begin in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa.
Inmunotek, BioClever Mexi coA mixture of inactivated bacteriaThe vaccine is intended to stimulate nonspecific innate immunity.A Phase 3 trial for healthcare workers has been approved to begin in Mexico.
Pulmotect USAn inhaled combination of two synthetic Toll-like receptor agonistsThe vaccine was originally developed as a potential therapeutic for cancer and has undergone early stage clinical testing. In mice, it provided protection against a range of respiratory pathogens, including MERS and SARS.A Phase 2 trial for people with known SARS-CoV-2 exposure is underway in several US states.

Even if efficacious Vaccine is developed, there are a number of immunological challenges that need to be consider. Furthermore, there is enormous challenge of mass production and rapid and equitable delivery. It is extremely unlikely that any of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines will be 100% effective; while they may not prevent becoming infect, it is hop that they will prevent progression to severe disease. Indeed, seasonal influenza Vaccine is generally about 50% protective against infection but does decrease disease severity and hospitalization rates. A recent study in which macaques were vaccinated with Oxford University and AstraZeneca Adenovirus Vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, found that primates were protected from SARS-CoV-2induced pneumonia. However, macaques still had high levels of Virus replicating in their upper respiratory tract. It is hopped that even if vaccines do not prevent infection in upper airways, they may reduce viral load and disease severity and, in turn, amount of virus vaccinate person transmits to others. Even modestly efficacious SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine could mitigate the severity of this pandemic and be highly beneficial in world struggling to contain this novel Virus and its devastating social and economic effects. Most vaccines are tested in healthy young adult males and non-pregnant women and, if safe, they are then tested in healthy children prior to licensure. This therefore raises the issue that any vaccines may initially have less empiric data available on use in certain key vulnerable populations such as elderly, immunocompromised groups and pregnant women. It is plausible that vaccines may be considerably less immunogenic in older and frail elderly WHO experience the most severe outcomes from COVID-19, hence the importance of adjuvants in many of the Vaccine Candidates, both for dose sparing and enhancing immunogenicity. Efficacy in this population is also likely to vary by type of Vaccine construct and adjuvant use. This has been seen for other diseases such as influenza, where adjuvanted and high dose vaccines are more immunogenic than standard inactivate vaccines for the elderly. Similarly, for herpes zoster, efficacy of live-attenuated Vaccine in the elderly is approximately 60% compared with > 90% for subunit adjuvanted Vaccine. Thus, ensuring studies can be conducted in these priority target groups, either pre-or early-post deployment, will be critical and special formulations may be required to ensure adequate immunogenicity. Throughout life, humans are repeatedly exposed to endemic human seasonal Coronaviruses and develop human CoV Antibody repertoires that can potentially cross-react with SARS-CoV-2specific antigens. This early immune imprinting leads to preferential expansion of cross-reactive Abs when related antigen is encounter, in this case SARS-CoV-2. This long-recognize process is called original antigenic sin and is known to occur with several common viruses, such as influenza and Respiratory syncytial Virus. OAS can either lead to less effective immune response or cause enhanced immunity and immunopathology.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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