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Mmr Covid 19

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Friday, Sept. 4 2020 - New clinical trial will try to determine whether measles, mumps and rubella vaccine can protect health care workers from being infected with COVID - 19. Hundreds of millions of people have received the MMR vaccine since it was developed nearly 50 years ago. It's usually given to children before age 6. Growing evidence suggests that vaccines may also prevent COVID - 19. We know that the MMR vaccine is safe, and we think there are two main reasons that it could prevent COVID - 19, say researcher Dr. Michael Avidan, head of the Department of Anesthesiology at Washington University School of Medicine Louis. First is this vaccine includes small amounts of live but very weakened measles, mumps and rubella viruses, Avidan explains in a University news release. This type of vaccine appears to strengthen the body's immune response to infections in general, not just to viruses in that particular vaccine. Mmr vaccine may also work because it protects against viruses that are similar to the Coronavirus. Researchers think that antibodies made to MMR vaccine might also fight SARS - CoV - 2. In addition, researchers hope that the MMR vaccine might make cases of COVID - 19 milder. The Trial is funded by a 9 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Mastercard, and other public and philanthropic donors. Researchers hope to enroll as many as 30 000 health care workers around the world. Participants will be randomly selected to get the MMR vaccine or placebo. Most of those recruited for trial will receive booster, as they likely received vaccine as children. But in some countries where MMR vaccine isn't widely give, health care workers may be receiving vaccine for the first time, researchers note. Countries involved in study include Canada, Ghana, Ireland, South Africa, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Each study participant will be followed for five months, and the entire trial is expected to last about a year, researchers say. Scientists at University College London will compile data from the trial.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Training the immune system

Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a contagious viral infection of the respiratory system caused by SARS - coronavirus - 2. The outbreak of the disease was first reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The Spread of COVID - 19 is continuous and was declared a pandemic Disease by the World Health Organization on 11 March, 2020. As of 20 May 2020, more than 4. 7 million people have contracted the disease and 318 789 people have die. Detail data of COVID - 19 - infected patients from China, Italy, and South Korea have shown that the disease is less common and milder in children younger than 10 years of age. In China, only 0. 9% of 72 314 infected people were children with 0% mortality. Cascella et al. Also, point out that children are less affected by disease, but they might be carrier,sss transmitting disease to other people. A recent study conducted among 2 143 confirmed and suspected cases in China. It has been observed that infants are vulnerable to disease,. However, symptoms of COVID - 19 are generally milder to medium among children. The Korean Centres for Disease Control & Prevention released data of total of 8 413 COVID - 19 cases on 18 March 2020. Similar to China, only 1. 03% of the total of infected people were children aged below 10 years of age. Moreover, in Italy, 0. 49% of 24 879 people infected with COVID - 19 were children younger than 10 years old. The same pattern was seen in data release about 2 449 know - age COVID - 19 patients in the USA. There was not a single child recorded being admitted to the intensive care unit in the USA. Despite the low incidence of COVID - 19 among children, it appears that the virus mostly affects adults and elderly, particularly those WHO have other health problems. Reasons why children are less susceptible to COVID - 19 remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that MMR vaccination might be the reason why children have protection against disease.


What is a vaccine?

First, despite alarmingly high infection counts in many parts of the United States, were long way from herd immunity, which happens when enough of the population has developed immunity that diseases spread becomes improbable. Herd immunity can happen in two ways: through infection and through vaccination. The Herd - immunity threshold is unknown with coronavirus, but its thought to be somewhere around 43% to 66% of the population. Even if we were to assume 10 times more US infections than nearly 5 million confirmed cases so far, that is less than 15% of the US population. Achieving herd immunity by further infecting more about six times the number of people who have already contracted COVID - 19 would kill tens of thousands and push the health care system to its limits and beyond. The very real prospect of effective vaccines being available in a matter of months renders every coronavirus death even more of avoidable tragedy than has been the case from the beginning of the pandemic. The way forward is to socially distance, clear air, wash hands, and mask up until the vaccine opens up control, safe road to herd immunity.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The evidence behind the theory

Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic has raised long - standing debate about the extent to which common respiratory viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2, are transmitted via respiratory droplets vs aerosols. Droplets are classically described as larger entities that rapidly drop to the ground by force of gravity, typically within 3 to 6 feet of the source person. Aerosols are smaller particles that rapidly evaporate in air, leaving behind droplet nuclei that are small enough and light enough to remain suspended in the air for hours. Determining whether droplets or aerosols predominate in transmission of SARS - CoV - 2 has critical implications. If SARS - CoV - 2 is primarily spread by respiratory droplets, wearing a medical mask, face shield, or keeping 6 feet apart from other individuals should be adequate to prevent transmission. If, however, SARS - CoV - 2 is carried by aerosols that can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods, medical masks would be inadequate, face shields would provide only partial protection, and 6 feet of separation would not provide protection from aerosols that remain suspended in the air or are carried by currents. Experimental data support the possibility that SARS - CoV - 2 may be transmitted by aerosols even in the absence of aerosol - generating procedures. Investigators have demonstrated that speaking and coughing produce mixture of both droplets and aerosols in a range of sizes, that these secretions can travel together for up to 27 feet, that it is feasible for SARS - CoV - 2 to remain suspended in the air and viable for hours, that SARS - CoV - 2 RNA can be recover from air samples in hospitals, and that poor ventilation prolongs amount of time that aerosols remain airborne. 1 many of these same characteristics have previously been demonstrated for influenza and other common respiratory viruses. These data provide a useful theoretical framework for possible aerosol - base transmission for SARS - CoV - 2, but what is less clear is the extent to which these characteristics lead to infections. Demonstrating that speaking and coughing can generate aerosols or that it is possible to recover viral RNA from air does not prove aerosol - base transmission; infection depends as well on route of exposure, size of inoculum, duration of exposure, and host defenses. Notwithstanding experimental data suggesting the possibility of aerosol - base transmission, data on infection rates and transmissions in populations during normal daily life are difficult to reconcile with long - range aerosol - base transmission. First, reproduction number for COVID - 19 before measures were taken to mitigate its spread was estimated to be about 2. 5, meaning that each person with COVID - 19 infected an average of 2 to 3 other people. This reproduction number is similar to influenza and quite different from that of viruses that are well known to spread via aerosols, such as measles, which has a reproduction number closer to 18. Considering that most people with COVID - 19 are contagious for about 1 week, reproduction number of 2 to 3 is quite small given the large number of interactions, crowds, and personal contacts that most people have under normal circumstances within a 7 - day period.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Progressing to clinical trial

Table

DEVELOPER(S)VACCINE METHODEVIDENCESTATUS
Multiple organizations InternationalThe Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine for tuberculosis consists of live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis .Lower rates of COVID-19-related deaths in countries with mandatory BCG vaccination prompted the launch of several clinical trials to test whether the immune response triggered by the vaccine may protect against SARS-CoV-2.Several Phase 3 and 4 trials are underway .
Multiple organizations InternationalThe measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine consists of live-attenuated strains of the three viruses.Epidemiological data have revealed that places where the MMR vaccine is given as standard medical care have lower COVID-19 death rates than areas where MMR vaccination is not standard. Additionally, sailors aboard the U . S . S . Roosevelt who tested positive for COVID-19 had mostly mild symptoms, which some researchers suspect may have been due to administration of the MMR vaccine to all US Navy recruits.A Phase 3 trial is underway in Egypt, led by researchers at Kasr El Aini Hospital. Separately, researchers at the Washington University School of Medicine are running an international Phase 3 trial of healthcare workers in the US, Canada, Europe, and Africa.
Immunovative Therapies, Mirror Biologics USAn off-the-shelf living immune cellThe affiliated companies are currently testing the formulation as a therapeutic vaccine for chemotherapy-refractory metastatic cancers .A Phase 1/2 trial for healthy older adults has been approved to begin in New York.
Canadian Cancer Trials Group, others Can adaHeat-killed Mycobacterium obuenseThe vaccine is intended to stimulate nonspecific innate immunity. The company is also testing the vaccine in clinical trials for cancer .A Phase 3 trial has been approved to begin in Canada .
Bandim Health Project Guinea-BissauOral polio vaccine, an attenuated strain of the poliovirusResearchers argue that the vaccine is safer and available in greater quantities than the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis, which is also being tested as a possible COVID-19 preventive.A Phase 4 trial has been approved to begin in Guinea-Bissau in West Africa.
Inmunotek, BioClever Mexi coA mixture of inactivated bacteriaThe vaccine is intended to stimulate nonspecific innate immunity.A Phase 3 trial for healthcare workers has been approved to begin in Mexico.
Pulmotect USAn inhaled combination of two synthetic Toll-like receptor agonistsThe vaccine was originally developed as a potential therapeutic for cancer and has undergone early stage clinical testing. In mice, it provided protection against a range of respiratory pathogens, including MERS and SARS.A Phase 2 trial for people with known SARS-CoV-2 exposure is underway in several US states.

To identify Measles IgG titre in SARS - COV2 infected patients. Correlate level of Measles IgG titre with clinical severity of COVID - 19 disease. Secondary Objective To find an association of the postulated protective role of Measles vaccine and SARS - COV2 infection. Inclusion criteria: including patients would be divided into 3 groups according to clinical severity of COVID - 19 disease. All patients with confirmed COVID 19 confirmed by positive PCR. Any age or gender. - Any patient refusing to be involved in study. Inform consent will be taken from each subject for full clinical examination. Evaluation of Measles Antibody Titer: Measles virus IgG Antibody Titer will be determined quantitatively by ELISA for quantitative determination of IgG class antibodies against Measles virus in human Serum or plasma. - Anonymous data will be retrieved from admitted patients files, such as: CBC, CRP, AST, ALT, ESR, Serum ferritin & SARS CoV 2 RNA PCR swab results. Chest X ray and / or CT chest.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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