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Na-class Hong Kong Road Transport Articles

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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Air pollution and climate change were recognise as top environmental global threats to human health in 2019 by World Health Organization. Recent refined modelling indicates that prior prediction models have underestimated health burden of air pollution and estimates there are currently approximately 9 million annual deaths from global air pollution with > 99 percentage of deaths due to household air pollution, and nearly 90 percentage of deaths due to ambient air pollution occurring in low-and middle-income countries where burning of solid fuels for cooking and heating is major Health concern. Over 25 percentage of premature deaths associated with air pollution are reported to Respiratory in nature and we focus this review on Respiratory Health, knowing that minimising airway exposure generally protects against cardiovascular effects. Since there is no known level of air pollution exposure that is risk free, strategies to minimise daily exposure can be impactful across wide range of settings and nonlinear nature of exposure-response curves for many health outcomes implies that greatest benefits may occur when relatively low air pollution exposure levels are reduce even further. Urban planning must so that concerns regarding air pollution become central to development, and city centres must become practically designed so as to make living and working in close proximity attractive. This will avoid sprawl and active transport more realistic. Such planning is critical. Other aspects of public policy play primary role in source control and structural approaches to exposure, and individuals should act as broadly as possible to reduce root causes of fossil fuel dependence. Still, impact air pollution can also be reduced by personal choices. Therefore, public must be empowered with strategies to minimise effects of air pollution on respiratory health, but there remains unmet need for providing education and support to communities around ways in which they can limit their exposure to harmful levels of air pollution. Report In 2016 By Royal College Of Physicians In UK Recommended That Healthcare Professionals Should Help Vulnerable Patients Protect Themselves From Effects Of Air Pollution And Yet Subsequent Workshop Convened By European Respiratory Society Highlighted Lack Of Evidence-base Tools Available In This Regard. Accordingly, HCPs should be armed up-to-date scientific evidence in order to prescribe impact-reducing tactics. This will allow HCPs to leverage their position as trusted messengers and embrace their responsibility to educate and advocate for preventive measures rather simply reactive treatment. Our aim, therefore, is to provide recommendations for individuals to minimise their personal exposure to air pollution with advice that can be adapted to local needs in different particularly when relevant to those WHO suffer from respiratory conditions, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or are at risk for these conditions. We design search strategy to uncover evidence surrounding 10 key approaches to reduction of outdoor or indoor air pollution exposure, after which we detail and finally summarise that evidence for reader.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Search strategy and selection criteria

Paper Discusses Marking Of Writing Assignment And Reports Results Of First Step Of Action Research Project Conducted At Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Lecturers mark written assignments first without espouse criteria and second time using criteria reference assessment form. Two sets of marks are compared and correlation and agreement scores are present. Results show that range of marks is greater and distribution of marks is closer to normal distribution when assessment form was used. Difference Between Two Sets Of Marks Was Statistically Significant, Though Correlation Of Scores Was Good. Paper Discusses Possible Reasons For Results And Also Looks At Individual Students' Marks.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Cleaner cooking fuels

Over 3 billion people worldwide use cookstoves that burn wood, animal dung or crop residues to cook food or heat water. This produces very high levels of indoor air pollution of poor combustion efficiency. Replacing biomass fuels with cleaner cooking fuels reduced risk of acute respiratory infection in children under 5 years of age, was associated with shorter hospital stays for acute respiratory infections, lower risk of all-cause mortality versus persistent solid fuel users, and combined with improved kitchen ventilation reduced decline of lung function and COPD incidence. Replacing solid fuels for cooking with cleaner fuels also reduces respiratory symptoms in women, and incidence of bronchitis, phlegm and chest illness in women and children.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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