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National Congress (Pakistan and Bangladesh)

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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National Congress (Pakistan and Bangladesh)

PresidentAssembly members: Basanta Kumar Das Bhupendra Kumar Datta Konteswar Barman Peter Paul Gomez
FounderAs Indian National Congress : Allan Octavian Hume Dadabhai Naoroji Dinshaw Wacha
FoundedAs Indian National Congress : 28 December 1885 (134 years ago) ( 1885-12-28 )
IdeologySocial democracy Democratic socialism Social liberalism Gandhian socialism Secularism Progressivism
Political positionCentre-left
ColoursSky blue
1st Constituent Assembly of Pakistan11 / 69
East Bengal Legislative Assembly (1954)28 / 309

Anand Bhavan in Allahabad, in Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, was ancestral home of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and was site of much political activity in years leading up to India's independence. When Nehru was ten, his father, Motilal Nehru, lawyer and leader of Indian National Congress, acquired lavish 42-room house. Nehru learn to swim in house's indoor swimming pool and enjoyed its expansive garden. In 1917, Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter and Prime Minister of India from 1966-1971 and 1980-1984, was born in house. In 1930, Motilal Nehru renamed House Swaraj Bhavan and donated property to Indian National Congress, which used it as hospital and headquarters for All-Indian Congress Committee. Family moved into smaller but still ornate two-story house nearby, also named Anand Bhavan, which was donated to government in 1970 by Indira Gandhi. As centers of political activity, Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan were often searched by British, and latter was occupied in 1942 by British Government. Today, both houses are part of museum complex with exhibits detailing events relating to India's independence and to prominent members of Nehru family, as well as room in which Mahatma Gandhi frequently stay. Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first Prime Minister, was committed social reformer, skilled orator and Mahatma Gandhi's political heir. Born into wealthy family and educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, Nehru succeeded his father, Motilal Nehru, as leader of Indian National Congress in 1929. Imprison nine times by Britain for his Nationalist campaigns during 1930s and 1940s, Nehru wrote his first book, Discovery of India, History of India, during his prison term. Nehru served as Prime Minister from 1947 to 1964, and first two decades of India's independence might be called Age of Nehru. Social reforms during this period include land redistribution, removal of barriers to inter-caste marriage, and women gaining right to sue for divorce. To advance his economic ideals, Nehru formed and headed National Planning Commission that developed three five-year economic plans focussing on state-directed rural development, agriculture, and industry. In foreign policy, Nehru advocated nonalignment, taking side of neither capitalism nor communism during Cold War. No and peaceful co-existence were his goals with countries in region, including China. However, that stance was untenable after China invaded Tibet in 1959, after which India gave Dalai Lama asylum. Although still controversial, Nehru's legacy is one of faith in democracy, authority, and secularism. His daughter, Indira Gandhi, served as Prime Minister of India 1966 to 1984. India is world's largest democracy, with diverse populationat least 22 different language groups are representedof over one billion people. Federalism is integral to India's government, and capital of New Delhi shares power with 28 States and 7 territories. Country's System Of Parliamentary Democracy Includes Parliament With Two Houses, Lok Sabha And Rajya Sabha.

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Language is important aspect of culture as it communicates and preserves heritage, ideas, and identity. Pakistan and India independent from British rule in August of 1947. British Imperial Government, Indian Muslim League, And Indian National Congress Split Region Based On Religious Lines Of Hinduism And Islam. Large regions that were majority Muslim have become Pakistan, and regions were majority Hindu have become India. Pakistan was geographically separated into Pakistan and West Pakistan. Seventeen hundred miles India separate two regions. Cultural, linguistic, and ethnic differences also present between East and West Pakistan. West Pakistan dominated Pakistani Government, military, and civil services after independence while East Pakistan struggled for power. In 1947, before independence of Pakistan and India, comment made by Dr. Muhammad Shahidullah, respected Bengali linguist and scholar from Dhaka University, is thought to mark beginning of Bengali Language Movement. When Dr. Ziauddin Ahmed, former Vice-Chancellor of Aligarh University in India, made comment that Urdu should become new State Language of future Pakistan, Dr. Shahidullah respond, Urdu or Hindi instead of Bengali use in our law courts and universities would be tantamount to political slavery. Dr. Shahidullah continued his support for Bengali as official language throughout campaign by writing articles that explicitly state his support. Following independence of Pakistan, Abul Kashem, Professor of Physics at University of Dhaka in Dhaka, capital of East Pakistan, organized first meeting of Tamaddun Majilish. This group was collection of scholars, writers, and journalists oriented towards Islamic ideology. They meet to discuss official Language of Pakistan and to defend Bengali Language. Tamaddun Majilish publish weekly newsletters issues of official Language. On 15 September 1947, they published popular booklet called Pakistaner Rashtro Bhasha Bangla na Urdu? In which they outline demands for Bengali to become official Language of Pakistan, recognizing it as Language of Education, court communication, and office communication, and accepting Language of Central Government along with Urdu. In city of Karachi, Government representatives from both West and East Pakistan attended Pakistan Educational Conference called by Minister of Education in November of 1947 to discuss new educational initiatives in Pakistan. At conference, many officials from West Pakistan advocated for resolution to make Urdu only National Language of Pakistan. They call for abolishment of Bengali as medium of Education, and Pakistan Public Service Commision ban Bengali from list of approved subjects of Education. West Pakistani leaders demand that only Urdu be used on stamps, currency, and in media. Though Bengali leaders from East Pakistan and leaders in Tamaddun Majilish opposed resolutions at Conference, Pakistani Government began using exclusively Urdu on all currency, money order forms, postal stamps, official letterheads, and railway tickets. East Pakistanis respond with public outrage and widespread feelings of distrust towards Central Government of Pakistan and regard their actions as cultural domination.

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Partition

It was May 16 1971, when soldiers from Pakistan army rounded up all Hindu men in Jogisu village in Rajshahi district, about 300km from Dhaka, capital of what was then East Pakistan and is now Bangladesh. There were 42 in total. They were all shot and Muslim villagers were ordered to dig hole in which their bodies would be dump. Nine widows in white saris recount scene for show I was filming on atrocities committed during Bangladesh War of Independence, fight between Pakistan, then known as West Pakistan, and East Pakistan and India. Soldiers then urinate on grave, one of widows, 60-year-old Sri Shundar, recall. Jogisu was one of thousands of villages that face such fate. But were events of that year product solely of War of Independence or could they be traced back to 1947 and Partition of British India? In Bangladesh, 1947 is distant memory, erased by much fresher bloody ones of 1971. Partition was experienced by India and Pakistan, but for Bangladesh, it is both Partition and unification-of Punjab in West and Bengal in East to make Pakistan-that haunt its national consciousness. It is birth that hurt us.

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Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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