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Neglected tropical disease research and development

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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Neglected Tropical Diseases refers to a diverse group of parasitic and bacterial diseases that cause significant morbidity and mortality in more than 1 billion people worldwide, which disproportionately affect poor and marginalized populations. These diseases can cause severe disfigurement and disabilities, including blindness, developmental disabilities and malnutrition. These conditions, in turn, can cause both social and economic challenges in regions where they are most common. NTDs coexist with poverty because they thrive where access to clean water and sanitation is limit, and people live without protection from disease vectors. NTDs contribute to poverty as well, since they can: impair intellectual development in children. Reduce school enrollment. Hinder economic productivity by limiting the ability of infected individuals to work. Fortunately, seven of the most prevalent NTDs can be Control through preventive chemotherapy that has been proven to be safe and effective and that can be delivered in an integrated manner through mass drug administration. The US Agency for International Development support for NTDs focuses on scale-up of efficient and sustained preventive chemotherapy in an integrated manner so that the World Health Organization 2020 goals of control and elimination of these diseases can be achieve. USAID Neglected Tropical Diseases Program targets most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases that have prove, cost-effective health interventions. USAID has become the global leader in large-scale implementation of integrated treatment programs for NTDs. Over the past 14 years, US government has leverage $26 billion in donated medicines, resulting in delivery of more than 2. 8 billion treatments to approximately 1. 4 billion people through our integrated programs. In addition to mass drug administration, USAID NTD Program supports complementary investments in operational research and research and development.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

NTD list

Neglected Tropical Diseases Worldwide Burden

DiseaseDALYs (million)Deaths/YrGlobal Prevalence (million)Population at Risk (million)
Schistosomiasis4.5280,000207780
Hookworm22.165,0005763200
Ascariasis10.560,0008074200
Leishmaniasis2.151,00012350
Trypanosomiasis1.548,0000.360
Chagas disease0.714,000825
Trichuriasis6.410,0006043200
Leprosy0.26,0000.4ND
Lymphatic filariasis5.801201300
Trachoma2.3084590
Onchocerciasis0.503790
Cryptococcosis12400,00018

Diseases considered Neglected Tropical Diseases vary. Malaria, HIV, and tuberculosis have received amount of public attention and increased funding to no longer be considered neglect by some researchers. Outside the Big Three, seven most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases in order of their global prevalence are ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and trachoma. These seven are among a larger list of thirteen major NTDs: onchocerciasis, leishmaniasis, Chagas' disease, leprosy, Human African trypanosomiasis, dracunculiasis, and Buruli ulcer. The World Health Organization's 2010 report dedicated to Neglected Tropical Diseases offers an expanded list including dengue, rabies, yaws, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, and foodborne trematode infections.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Policy initiatives

GW has launched a multi-faceted assault on these two groups of neglected infections. First, unique Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine is in place in GW School of Medicine and Health Sciences, with about 10 faculty members conducting fundamental NIH-sponsor Research on hookworm, schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and hookworm Disease and vaccinology, while additional epidemiological investigations take place within relevant departments in GW Milken Institute School of Public Health. Specific to NIPs, GW has a broad program in HIV / AIDS, molecular-and immuno-pathogenesis, clinical translational Research, Epidemiology, and Health policy located in departments of MITM, Pathology, Medicine, and Epidemiology & Biostatistics. Extensive Research is also underway to study lesser-know NIPs including toxoplasmosis, and Chagas Disease. The Health policy Initiative for both NTDs and NIPs is also in progress at GW and we originally hosted the first open-access journal on these conditions, PLoS neglect Tropical Diseases.


Who Funds NTDs?

Leprosy R & D was grossly underfunded in 2008, receiving only 0. 3 percent of total global funding for Neglected Diseases and less than 3 percent of global funding for NTDs. All funding comes from public and philanthropic organizations, with 12 organizations providing 99 percent of funds. As with most other NTDs, NIH was the lead funder; however, India and Brazil contributed 51 percent of global funding, reflecting the local leprosy burden in each of these countries. Investment in new leprosy products was very modest, with well over half of all funding going to basic research. Development of new Drugs to replace current 6–12-month multidrug treatment regimens receive only US $0. 7 million and investment into improved diagnostics was only US $0. 5 million. These very modest investments partly reflect the fact that leprosy is target for eradication, with the numbers of new leprosy patients declining from 763 000 in 2001 to 296 000 in 2005. Although very positive outcome from a public health perspective, this disease trajectory means that investment into leprosy products for new and existing patients can be a far less compelling story for funders than investment into NTDs with large and / or increasing burdens of mortality and morbidity.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Global Situation

NTDs have garnered greater attention from the US government and other global donors over the last decade, spurred on by growing recognition of their potential threat to achievement of Millennium Development Goals and their successor, Sustainable Development Goals. 3 in addition, development and expansion of integrated NTD treatment approach capitalizes on the availability of safe and effective treatments for the most prevalent NTDs. NTDs are among the top 10 major communicable disease causes of ill health globally, behind lower respiratory infections, diarrheal Diseases, HIV, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. 5 NTDs are grouped together due to their often chronic, disfiguring, and stigmatizing impact; their close association with poverty; and their geographic overlap.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

U.S. Government Efforts

Over the past fifteen years, US attention to and funding for NTDs has increased markedly. Historically, US government response to NTDs was relatively limited, focusing largely on research and surveillance conducted by the National Institutes of Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Department of Defense. In 2006, Congress first appropriated funds to the US Agency for International Development for integrated NTD Control, after which the Agency launched its NTD Program. In 2008, USG announced expanded NTD efforts, building on the USAIDs NTD Program. 25 in 2012, US signed onto London Declaration, and more recently, US adopted the longer term Global Health goal of protecting communities from infectious diseases and highlighting the important role of NTD efforts in achieving this goal.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Key Issues for the U.S.

The best available estimates indicate that some 2 billion people are at risk of contracting NTD, of whom more than 1 billion people are afflicted with one or more NTD. Roughly 534 000 are killed by NTD annually. 5, despite the common use of estimates cited above, HEALTH experts do not know exactly how many people are infected with NTDs. Uncertainty regarding the number of people suffering from NTDs is rooted in several issues. The majority of people living with NTDs live in marginalized communities that lack sufficient HEALTH care, possibly obscuring diagnosis. The full extent of the global NTD burden may also be hidden behind symptoms that NTDs cause. Schistosomiasis, for example, can cause anemia and bladder cancer. Additionally, weak HEALTH systems may fail to document the true burden of NTDs. One study estimates that one NTD case is reported for every 40 occurrences. 6 in addition, HEALTH information systems in many developing countries are in poor condition and are not equipped to provide precise data on disease prevalence. As such, disease assessments in developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, are often based on projections extrapolated from household surveys rather than medical records establishing diagnosis. Disease prevalence mapping for NTDs has reportedly been improving, however, as the international community boosted investments in addressing NTDs. According to the US Agency For International Development, by the end of 2009, NTD burden of seven most common NTDs had been identified in most districts throughout countries supported by the United States. Of the 14 most common NTDs, roughly 80% are caused by STHaa Group of Three Parasitic worms that are contracted through contact with tainted soil or ingestion of eggs found on produce grow in tainted soil. More than 1 billion people are afflicted with STH worldwide, of whom children are most vulnerable and tend to carry more than one type of worm at a time. NTDs independently cause high levels of illness and worsen the HEALTH of those plagued with other diseases like HIV / AIDS, Malaria, and tuberculosis. For example, some research indicates that HIV / AIDS and Schistosomiasis co-infection is associated with higher HIV viral loads; people infected with Schistosomiasis are more susceptible to HIV; and HIV-positive pregnant women WHO are co-infect with Schistosomiasis have higher HIV-transmission rates than their counterparts without Schistosomiasis; Malaria and STH co-infection lead to higher incidence of anemia, and People with STH are More susceptible to Malaria; and TB and STH co-infection is link to higher rates of conversion of latent TB into active TB, and TB vaccines are less effective in People co-infect with STH. Of all global regions, sub-Saharan Africa is most affected by NTDs and by co-infection with HIV / AIDS, TB, and Malaria co-infection.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Infectious Diseases thriving on inequities

Neglected Tropical Diseases are historically overlooked diseases that have been neglected at community, national, and international levels and are endemic in many resource-poor populations and developing countries. The majority of individuals and communities in these regions have far less access to resources necessary to address social determinants of NTDs and may live in poor sanitary conditions, have inadequate nutrition, and lack access to necessary public health and health care systems for treatment, despite many of these diseases being preventable and / or treatable through specific low-cost interventions. Efforts to protect the health of these populations have been insufficient, with global focus on identifying and prioritize NTDs by the International Community only reemerging in the last decade following efforts by leading NTD researchers and advocates such as current president of Sabin Vaccine Institute, Peter Hotez. WHO has specifically identified 17 core NTDs: dengue, Rabies, Trachoma, Buruli ulcer, endemic treponematoses, leprosy, Chagas Disease, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, taeniasis / cysticercosis, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, food-borne trematodiases, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases. NTDs comprised primarily of viral, protozoan, helminthial, and bacterial infections. Many NTDs are also zoonotic and / or vector borne. Control of human exposure to vectors and animal reservoirs can protect susceptible populations from NTDs and is a critical component of prevention in the absence of effective therapeutics and vaccines. These efforts can begin with surveillance of vector populations for signs of infection. When it is impossible to accurately monitor distribution of vectors and intermediate hosts, as it is for several insect vectors, educational campaigns to promote avoidance may be an effective means to reduce the incidence of associated NTDs. Additionally, other methods of overall integrated strategy in controlling NTDs include control of intermediate hosts and vectors by use of environmentally safe insecticides, use of insecticide-treat nets and other personal protective measures, alteration of the environment through clearance of vegetation, improved sanitation to disrupt breeding sites, and biological control though introduction of competitor species to vector. In support of raising awareness of vector-borne NTDs, WHO highlighted that more than half of the world's population is at risk from vector-borne Diseases as its main topic for World Health Day 2014 and provide public with information on how to prevent disease transmission. NTDs are well categorized from a socioeconomic perspective. NTDs, according to WHO, impact more than one billion people from almost 150 countries and territories where they are endemic. In addition, NTDs can also have hide burden, as they may also be prevalent in poorer populations living in wealthy countries, such as the United States. Exacerbating the impact of NTDs is inadequate or absent health care capacity, especially since many NTDs are Associate with chronic conditions and are also made worse by ineffective case Detection / Management, poor environmental conditions, rapid urbanization, Public Health deficiencies, and poverty.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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