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Nervous System Diseases

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells know as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring. Structurally, nervous system has two components: central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institutes of Health, central nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, ganglia and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system. Functionally, nervous system has two main subdivisions: somatic, or voluntary, component; and autonomic, or involuntary, component. The autonomic nervous system regulates certain body process, such as blood pressure and rate of breathing, that work without conscious effort, according to Merck Manuals. The somatic system consists of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with muscles and sensory receptors in the skin.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

The Nervous system is a complex, highly specialized network. It organize, explains, and directs interactions between you and the world around you. The nervous system controls: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and feeling. Voluntary and involuntary functions, such as movement, balance, and coordination. Nervous systems also regulate actions of most other body systems, such as blood flow and blood pressure. Ability to think and reason. The nervous system allows you to be conscious and have thoughts, memories, and language. The nervous system is divided into brain and spinal cord and nerve cells that control voluntary and involuntary movements. Symptoms of nervous system problem depend on which area of the nervous system is involved and what is causing the problem. Nervous system problems may occur slowly and cause gradual loss of function. Or they may occur suddenly and cause life - threatening problems. Symptoms may be mild or severe. Some serious conditions, diseases, and injuries that can cause nervous system problems include: blood supply problems. Injuries, especially injuries to the head and spinal cord. Problems that are present at birth. Mental health problems, such as anxiety disorders, depression, or psychosis. Exposure to toxins, such as carbon monoxide, arsenic, or lead. Problems that cause gradual loss of function. Examples include: Parkinson's disease. Multiple sclerosis. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Alzheimer's disease. Huntington's disease. Peripheral neuropathies. Infections. These may occur in: brain. The Membrane surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Overuse of or withdrawal from prescription and non - prescription medicines, illegal drugs, or alcohol. Brain tumour. Organ system failure. Examples include: Respiratory failure. Heart failure. Liver failure. Kidney failure. Other conditions. Some examples include: Thyroid dysfunction. High blood sugar or low blood sugar. Electrolyte problems. Nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B1 or vitamin B12 deficiency. Guillain - Barre syndrome. Sudden nervous system problems can cause many different symptoms, depending on the area of nervous system involve. Strokes and transient ischemic attacks are common examples of acute problems. You may experience sudden onset of one or more symptoms, such as: numbness, tingling, weakness, or inability to move part or all of one side of your body. Dimness, blurring, double vision, or loss of vision in one or both eyes. Loss of speech, trouble talking, or trouble understanding speech. Sudden, severe headache. Dizziness, unsteadiness, or inability to stand or walk, especially if other symptoms are present. Confusion or change in level of consciousness or behaviour. Severe nausea or vomiting. Seizures can also cause sudden changes in consciousness, feeling,s emotion,s or thought.S Abnormal body movements, such as muscle twitching, may or may not be present. How often seizures occur and how severe they are depends on the cause of seizures and the area of the brain involve. For more information, see topic Seizures. Diabetes can cause problems with balance, either as a result of peripheral neuropathy or stroke. Vertigo and Dizziness are problems of balance and coordination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Description of the nervous system

Nerves are cylindrical bundles of fibers that start at the brain and central cord and branch out to every other part of the body, according to University of Michigan Medical School. Neurons send signals to other cells through thin fibers called axons, which cause chemicals know as neurotransmitters to be released at junctions called synapses, NIH note. There are over 100 trillion neural connections in the average human brain, though number and location can vary. For example, new study published in January 2018 in the journal Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences found that out of 160 participants study, brains of highly creative people have more connections among three specific regions of the brain than less creative thinkers. You have these three different systems that are all located in different parts of the brain, but they are all co - activate at once, says lead study author Roger Beaty, postdoctoral fellow studying cognitive neuroscience at Harvard University. People who are better able to co - activate them with more - creative responses. The Synapse gives command to the cell and the entire communication process typically takes only a fraction of a millisecond. Signals travel along alpha motor neuron in the spinal cord 268 mph; fastest transmission in the human body, according to Discover magazine. Sensory neurons react to physical stimuli such as light, sound and touch and send feedback to the central nervous system about the body's surrounding environment, according to the American Psychological Association. Motor neurons, located in the central nervous system or in peripheral ganglia, transmit signals to activate muscles or glands. Glial cells, derive from the Greek word for glue, are specialized cells that support, protect or nourish nerve cells, according to Oregon Institute of Health and Science University. The brain's connections and thinking ability have grown over thousands of years of evolution. For example, virus bind its genetic code to the genome of four - limbed animals, and the code can still be found in human brains today, according to two papers published in the January 2018 journal Cell. This code packages up genetic information and sends it from nerve cells to other nearby nerve cells, very important process in the brain.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosing nervous system conditions

There are a number of tests and procedures to diagnose conditions involving the nervous system. In addition to traditional X - ray, specialized X - ray called fluoroscopy examines the body in motion, such as blood flowing through arteries, according to NIH. Other standard neurological exams include MRI, CT scan, and electroencephalogram, which record the brain's continuous electrical activity. Positron emission tomography is a procedure that measures cell or tissue metabolism and brain activity to detect tumors or diseased tissue or tumors, NIH note. The Spinal tap places a needle into the spinal canal to drain a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid that is tested for infection or other abnormalities, according to NIH.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diseases of the nervous system

Of all diseases of the nervous system, most common difficulty that people have is pain, and much of that is nerve - relate, according to Dr. Shai Gozani, founder and CEO of NeuroMetrix, medical device company. There are 100 million people who live with chronic pain. According to Mayo Clinic, patients with nerve disorders experience functional difficulties, which result in conditions such as: epilepsy, in which abnormal electrical discharges from brain cells cause seizures, Parkinson's disease, which is a progressive nerve disease that affects movement, Multiple sclerosis, in which protective lining of nerves is attacked by the body's immune system Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also know as Lou Gehrig's disease, is motor neuron disease which weaken muscles and progressively hampers physical function Huntington's disease, which is inherit condition that cause nerve cells in brain to degenerate Alzheimer's disease, which cover wide range of disorders that impact mental functions, particularly memory. Mayo Clinic also notes that the nervous system can also be affected by vascular disorders such as: stroke, which occurs when there is bleeding in the brain or blow flow to the brain is obstruct; Transient ischemic attack, which are mini - type strokes that last a shorter period of time but mimic stroke symptoms; and Subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is specifically bleeding in space between your brain and surrounding membrane that can be result of trauma or rupturing of weak blood vessel; infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, polio, and epidural abscess can also affect nervous system, NIH note. Treatments vary from anti - inflammatory medications and pain medications such as opiates, to implanted nerve stimulators and wearable devices, Gozani say. Many people also turn to herbal and holistic methods to reduce pain, such as acupuncture.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Study of the nervous system

The branch of medicine that studies and treats the nervous system is called Neurology, and doctors who practice in this field of medicine are called neurologists. Once they have completed medical training, neurologists complete additional training for their specialty and are certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. There are also physiatrists, who are physicians who work to rehabilitate patients who have experienced disease or injury to their nervous systems that impact their ability to function, according to ABPN. Neurosurgeons perform surgeries involving the nervous system and are certified by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons. You use your eyes to see, your ears to hear and your muscles to do heavy lifting. Well, sort of. In fact, most body parts are far more complicated than that, while some seem to have no business being inside there at all.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

1. Headache

The ability to notice and react to one environment is not an on - off phenomenon but a continuum. From full alertness, person can descend through drowsiness to stupor, condition in which awareness is greatly reduced and the best motor response to stimulation is groaning or other vocal reaction. Deeper levels of unconsciousness pass through light coma, in which strong stimulation produces only clumsy motor response, to deep coma, in which there is only reflex movement or no response at all. Such depression of consciousness occurs when there is impairment of functions of the brainstem or of the cerebral cortex. Brainstem disorders can cause coma if the brainstem is compressed by other parts of the brain swollen because of disease or if it is afflicted by local disease such as encephalitis, stroke, or concussion. Diseases of cerebral cortex causing coma include poisoning by sedative drugs, lack of glucose or oxygen in blood, brain hemorrhage, and certain rare infiltrative disorders in which descent through levels of consciousness occur over weeks or months. Brief periods of unconsciousness, of which patient may not be aware, occur in many forms of epilepsy, narcolepsy, repeat attacks of low blood sugar, and reduction in blood supply to the brainparticularly, brainstem.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

2. Stroke

Hemorrhagic strokes, in which block vessel bleeds, are usually due to small - vessel disease in individuals with high blood pressure. Such intracerebral hemorrhage occurs most often in deep white matter of the brain, brainstem, and cerebellum. The incidence of such strokes has been reduced in part by the introduction of more effective treatments for hypertension. Bleeding also occurs when a defect in the wall of artery, called aneurysm, ruptures. When this occurs at sites of branching of larger arteries inside the head, blood spills into subarachnoid space, causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bleeding may also occur with malformations of arteries and veins, in infarct, and with blood diseases that impair coagulation.


What is Guillain-Barre syndrome?

There is no known cure for Guillain - Barre syndrome. However, some therapies can lessen the severity of illness and shorten recovery time. There are also several ways to treat complications of disease. Because of possible complications of muscle weakness, problems that can affect any paralyzed person and the need for sophisticated medical equipment, individuals with Guillain - Barre syndrome are usually admitted and treated in hospitals ' intensive care unit. There are currently two treatments commonly used to interrupt immune - related nerve damage. One is plasma exchange; other is high - dose immunoglobulin therapy. Both treatments are equally effective if they start within two weeks of onset of GBS symptoms, but immunoglobulin is easier to administer. Using both treatments in the same person has no proven benefit. In the process of plasma exchange, plastic tube called a catheter is inserted into persons veins, through which some blood is remove. Blood cells from the liquid part of blood are extracted and returned to the person. This technique seems to reduce the severity and duration of Guillain - Barre episode.S Plasma contains antibodies and PE removes some plasma; PE may work by removing bad antibodies that have been damaging nerves. Immunoglobulins are proteins that the immune system naturally makes to attack infecting organisms. Ivig therapy involves intravenous injections of these immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins are developed from a pool of thousands of normal donors. When IVIg is given to people with GBS, result can be lessening of immune attack on the nervous system. Ivig can also shorten recovery time. Investigators believe this treatment also lowers the levels or effectiveness of antibodies that attack nerves by both diluting them with non - specific antibodies and providing antibodies that bind to harmful antibodies and take them out of commission. Anti - inflammatory steroid hormones called corticosteroids have also been tried to reduce the severity of Guillain - Barre syndrome. However, control clinical trials have demonstrated that this treatment is not effective. Supportive care is very important to address many complications of paralysis as the body recovers and damaged nerves begin to heal. Respiratory failure can occur in GBS, so close monitoring of persons breathing should be instituted initially. Sometimes a mechanical ventilator is used to help support or control breathing. The Autonomic nervous system can also be disturb, causing changes in heart rate, blood pressure, toileting, or sweating. Therefore, person should be put on heart monitor or equipment that measures and tracks body function. Occasionally, GBS - related nerve damage can lead to difficulty handling secretions in the mouth and throat. In addition to person choking and / or drooling, secretions can fall into the airway and cause pneumonia. As individuals begin to improve, they are usually transferred from acute care hospital to rehabilitation setting. Here, they can regain strength, receive physical rehabilitation and other therapy to resume activities of daily living, and prepare to return to their pre - illness life. Complications in GBS can affect several parts of the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

3. Seizures

The onset of epilepsy is most common in children and older adults, but the condition can occur at any age. Family history. If you have a family history of epilepsy, you may be at increased risk of developing a seizure disorder. Head injuries. Head injuries are responsible for some cases of epilepsy. You can reduce your risk by wearing a seat belt while riding in a car and by wearing a helmet while cycling, skiing, riding motorcycle or engaging in other activities with a high risk of head injury. Stroke and other vascular diseases. Stroke and other blood vessel diseases can lead to brain damage that may trigger epilepsy. You can take a number of steps to reduce your risk of these diseases, including limiting your intake of alcohol and avoiding cigarettes, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly. Dementia. Dementia can increase the risk of epilepsy in older adults. Brain infections. Infections such as meningitis, which cause inflammation in your brain or spinal cord, can increase your risk. Seizures in childhood. High fevers in childhood can sometimes be associated with seizures. Children who have seizures due to high fevers generally won't develop epilepsy. The risk of epilepsy increases if a child has long seizure, another nervous system condition or a family history of epilepsy.


Causes

Cerebral abscesses 6 are usually associated with predisposing factors such as sinusitis, otitis media, dental abscess or congenital heart diseases. Infective agents in about 50% of cases are anaerobic bacteria including Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Prevotella and Actinomyces sp. Up to a quarter of cases will involve a mix of aerobic and anaerobic agents, and the remainder is due to aerobic organisms, particularly Haemophilus sp. Abscesses usually evolve over a couple of weeks, causing localise encephalitis and arteritis before encapsulation. This will usually trigger inflammatory processes in the surrounding area and development of acute seizures. Localise damage resulting from abscess itself and often from surgical drainage leads to gliosis, which will be likely substrate for late seizures. Acute symptomatic seizures are presenting symptom of brain abscesses in up to a quarter of cases and over half of individuals will have such early seizures. A high proportion of survivors, particularly of temporal abscesses, will later develop focal epilepsy, which is often drug resistant.


Antibody-mediated encephalitis and epilepsy

Glutamate decarboxylase is the principal, rate - limiting enzyme that catalyse synthesis of neurotransmitter GABA and occurs in two isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67. Gad antibodies are associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, ie patients with neurological disorders or diabetes mellitus type 1. Neurological diseases are associated with very high GAD antibody concentrations, being two to three log ranks higher than in the diabetic population. The spectrum of neurological conditions associated with GAD antibodies range is broad, including stiff - man syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, limbic encephalitis and pharmacoresistant TLE, which is probably a chronic form of GAD antibody - associated limbic encephalitis. Some experimental conditions have provided evidence that these antibodies might contribute to loss of GABAergic inhibition. Histopathological studies have shown neuronal loss and axonal dystrophy in the hippocampi of these patients, whereas Ig and complement deposition were absent from these brains. Since antigen is intracellular, T - cell - mediate pathology would be a likely mechanism.

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4. Parkinsons Disease

Parkinson's Disease occurs when nerve cells, or neurons, in the area of the brain that control movement become impaired and / or die. Normally, these neurons produce an important brain chemical known as dopamine. When neurons die or become impair, they produce less dopamine, which causes movement problems of Parkinson's. Scientists still do not know what causes cells that produce dopamine to die. People with Parkinson's also lose nerve endings that produce norepinephrine, main chemical messenger of the sympathetic nervous system, which controls many automatic functions of the body, such as heart rate and blood pressure. Loss of norepinephrine might help explain some of the non - movement features of Parkinson's, such as fatigue, irregular blood pressure, decreased movement of food through digestive tract, and sudden drop in blood pressure when a person stands up from a sitting or lying - down position. Many brain cells of people with Parkinson's contain lewy bodies, unusual clumps of protein alpha - synuclein. Scientists are trying to better understand normal and abnormal functions of alpha - synuclein and its relationship to genetic mutations that impact Parkinsons Disease and Lewy body dementia. Although some cases of Parkinson's appear to be hereditary, and few can be traced to specific genetic mutations, in most cases the disease occurs randomly and does not seem to run in families. Many researchers now believe that Parkinson's Disease results from a combination of genetic factors and environmental factors such as exposure to toxins.


What is PD?

Making accurate diagnosis in the early stages of Parkinson's disease can be difficult, as beginning signs and symptoms may be considered to be indications of other conditions or effects of normal aging. For this reason, observation of patients may be required for some time until symptoms are consistently present. Currently, there are no blood or laboratory tests that are useful in diagnosis of PD. Diagnosis of PD is based primarily on medical history and thorough neurological examination. Brain scans and / or lab tests may be performed to help rule out other diseases or conditions, but brain scans generally turn out to be normal with PD. Neurological examination trial test of drugs. When symptoms are significant, trial test of drugs may be used to further diagnose the presence of PD. If a patient fails to benefit from levodopa, diagnosis of Parkinson's disease may be questionable. Compute tomography scan. A Diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of X - rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including bones, muscles, fat, and organs. Ct scans are more detailed than general X - rays. Magnetic resonance imaging. A Diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Our approach to disease

A number of different medical conditions can affect the nervous system, including: blood vessel disorders in the brain, including arteriovenous malformations and cerebral aneurysms Tumors, benign and malignant degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease Disorders of pituitary gland Epilepsy Headaches, including migraines head injuries such as concussions and brain trauma Movement Disorders, such as tremors and Parkinson Disease Demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis Neuro - ophthalmologic diseases, which are vision problems that result from damage to optic Nerve or its connections to brain Peripheral Nerve diseases, which affect nerves that carry information to and from brain and Spinal cord Mental Disorders, such as schizophrenia Spine Disorders Infections, such as meningitis Stroke neurologists and other neuroscience specialists use special tests and imaging techniques to see how nerves and brain are working. In addition to blood and urine tests, tests to diagnose nervous system diseases may include: compute tomography lumbar puncture to check for infection of spinal cord and brain, or to measure pressure of cerebro - Spinal fluid magnetic resonance imaging or magnetic resonance angiography electroencephalography to look at brain activity Electromyography to test Nerve and muscle function Electronystagmography to check for abnormal eye movements, which can be sign of brain disorder evoke potentials, which look at how brain respond to sounds, sight, and touch Magnetoencephalography myelogram of Spine to diagnose Nerve injury Nerve conduction velocity test Neurocognitive testing polysomnogram to see how brain react during sleep Single photon emission compute tomography and positron emission tomography scan to look at brain metabolic activity Biopsy of brain, Nerve, skin, or muscle to determine if there's problem with nervous system neuroradiology is branch of neuroscience medicine that focus on diagnosing and treating nervous system problems. Interventional neuroradiology involves inserting tiny, flexible tubes called catheters into blood vessels leading to the brain. This allows doctors to treat blood vessel disorders that can affect the nervous system, such as stroke. Balloon angioplasty and stenting of carotid or vertebral artery Endovascular embolization and coiling to treat cerebral aneurysms Intra - arterial therapy for Stroke Radiation oncology of brain and Spine Needle biopsies, Spine and soft tissues Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty to treat vertebral fractures open or traditional neurosurgery may be needed in some cases to treat problems in brain and surrounding structures. This is more invasive surgery that requires surgeon to make an opening, called craniotomy, in the skull. Microsurgery allows surgeons to work on very small structures in the brain using microscope and very small, precise instruments. Stereotactic radiosurgery may be needed for certain types of nervous system disorders. This is a form of radiation therapy that focuses high - power x - rays on small areas of the body, thereby avoiding damage to surrounding brain tissue.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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