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Nervous System Study

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells know as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body's electrical wiring. Structurally, nervous system has two components: central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institutes of Health, central nervous system is made up of the brain, spinal cord and nerves. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, ganglia and nerves that connect to one another and to the central nervous system. Functionally, nervous system has two main subdivisions: somatic, or voluntary, component; and autonomic, or involuntary, component. The Autonomic nervous system regulates certain body process, such as blood pressure and rate of breathing, that work without conscious effort, according to Merck Manuals. The somatic system consists of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord with muscles and sensory receptors in the skin.

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Evolution of the Nervous System

Key facts about the nervous system

DefinitionA network of neurons that sends, receives and modulates neural impulses between different body parts.
DivisionsCentral nervous system Peripheral nervous system
Central nervous systemBrain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous systemSpinal and cranial nerves. Functional divisions: - Somatic nervous system - Autonomic nervous system; sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric divisions

Many scientists and thinkers believe that the human nervous system is the most complex machine known to man. Its complexity points to one undeniable factthat it has evolved slowly over time from simpler forms. The evolution of the nervous system is intriguing not because we can marvel at this complicated biological structure, but it is fascinating because it inherits lineage of long history of many less complex nervous systems, and it documents record of adaptive behaviors observed in life forms other than humans. Thus, evolutionary study of the nervous system is important, and it is the first step in understanding its design, its workings, and its functional interface with the environment. The brains of some animals, like apes, monkeys, and rodents, are structurally similar to humans, while others are not. Do anatomical similarity of these brains suggest that behaviors that emerge in these species are also similar? Indeed, many animals display behaviors that are similar to humans,. Eg, apes use nonverbal communication signals with their hands and arms that resemble nonverbal forms of communication in humans. If we study very simple behaviors, like physiological responses made by individual neurons, then brain - base behaviors of invertebrates look very similar to humans, suggesting that from time immemorial such basic behaviors have been conserved in brains of many simple animal forms and in fact are the foundation of more complex behaviors in animals that evolve later. Even at micro - anatomical level, we note that individual neurons differ in complexity across animal species. Human neurons exhibit more intricate complexity than other animals; for example, neuronal processes in humans have many more branch points, branches, and spines. Complexity in the structure of the nervous system, both at macro - and micro - levels, gives rise to complex behaviors. We can observe similar movements of limbs, AS in nonverbal communication, in apes and humans, but the variety and intricacy of nonverbal behaviors using hands in humans surpasses apes. Deaf individuals who use American Sign Language express themselves in English nonverbally; they use this language with such fine gradation that many accents of ASL exist. Complexity of behavior with increasing complexity of the nervous system, especially the cerebral cortex, can be observed in the genus Homo. If we compare the sophistication of material culture in Homo habilis and Homo sapiens, evidence shows that Homo habilis used crude stone tools compared with modern tools used by Homo sapiens to erect cities, develop write languages, embark on space travel, and study her own self. All of this is due to the increasing complexity of the nervous system. What has led to the complexity of the brain and nervous system through evolution, to its behavioral and cognitive refinement? Darwin proposes two forces of natural and sexual selection AS work engines behind this change. He prophesy, psychology will be based on a new foundation, that of necessary acquirement of each mental power and capacity by gradation. That is, psychology will be based on evolution.


When did neurons evolve?

The natural starting point for any discussion about the origin of first nervous systems is to look at which taxa actually have neurons. Porifera and Placozoa do not have clearly defined neuronal cell types and, for a variety of reasons, have been held to be basal to the rest of metazoans. Therefore, it was most parsimonious to assume that ancestral metazoans did not possess neurons, but that nervous systems evolved in lineage towards last common ancestor of Cnidarians, Ctenophores and Bilateria. This view is challenge, however, by two Ctenophore genomes that have recently been complete. Both publications argue for the phylogenetic position of Ctenophores as sister group of all other metazoans, and for the possibility that either Ctenophore neurons evolve independently from neurons in Cnidaria and Bilateria, or that Porifera and Placozoa have lost neuronal cell types, possibilities that are discussed in this special issue by Leonid Moroz. In this context, it is interesting to note that some synapses in Ctenophores and Cnidarians share novel presynaptic morphology, consisting of a single layer of few large synaptic vesicles that is sandwiched between cell membrane and large cisterna that has, in turn, one or several large mitochondria positioned against its cytoplasmic surface. The presence of this presynaptic triad in representatives of two phyla but its absence in any other organism with a nervous system, might argue for closer relationship between two phyla than latest phylogenies would suggest. One caveat recognized by scientists working in this field is that the latest metazoan phylogeny, which has Ctenophora as most basal group, is based on the genome of single genus of Porifera, making it imperative that other sponge genomes be fully sequence. Only then will it be clear that Ctenophores are the last common ancestor to all metazoans and that sponges do indeed lose their nervous system. The same can be said for Placozoa, but as this phylum contains only a single species, Trichoplax adhaerens, no additional genomic information can be obtained to confirm this phylogenetic position. The Status of Placozoa in nervous system phylogeny is further complicated by measure of uncertainty with respect to the question of whether Placozoa have indeed lost their nervous system. Earlier work identified only four cell types in Trichoplax, none of which were described as neurons. More recent work, however, has identified six somatic cell types, one of which contains proteins typical of neurosecretory cells, including FMRFamide - like peptide, opening the door, at least, to the possibility that neurons or neuronal - like cells exist in this phylum.

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Development of the Nervous System

Table

Week:12345678
Carnegie stage:1 2 3 45 67 8 910 11 12 1314 1516 1718 1920 21 22 23

Where study of change in the Nervous System over eons is immensely captivating, studying change in single brain during individual development is no less engaging. In many ways, ontogeny of the Nervous System in individuals mimics evolutionary advancement of this structure observed across many animal species. During Development, nervous tissue emerges from the Ectoderm through the Process of Neural induction. This process causes the formation of the Neural Tube, which extends in rostrocaudal plane. The tube, which is hollow, seams itself in rostrocaudal direction.S In some disease conditions, neural Tube does not close caudally and results in an abnormality called spina bifida. In this pathological condition, lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord are disrupt. As gestation progress, Neural Tube balloons up at the rostral end, and the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, and spinal cord can be visually delineate. About 50 days into gestation, six cephalic areas can be anatomically discern. Progenitor cells that form the lining of the Neural Tube generate all neurons and glial cells of the central Nervous System. During the early stages of this development, neuroblasts rapidly divide and specialize into many varieties of neurons and glial cells, but this proliferation of cells is not uniform along neural tubethat is why we see the forebrain and hindbrain expand into larger cephalic tissues than midbrain. Neuroepithelium also generates group of specialized cells that migrate outside the Neural Tube to form Neural Crest. This structure gives rise to sensory and autonomic neurons in the peripheral Nervous System.

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Neuropores

Cranial NeuroporeCaudal Neuropore
( stage 11 )( stage 12 )

Week 4 to Week 8

Stage 13Stage 14Stage 16Stage 21
scale bar = 1 mm
Week 4Week 5Week 6Week 8

Early Neural Timeline

Carnegie StageEvent
8(about 18 postovulatory days) neural groove and folds are first seen
9three main divisions of the brain, which are not cerebral vesicles, can be distinguished while the neural groove is still completely open.
10(two days later) neural folds begin to fuse near the junction between brain and spinal cord, when neural crest cells are arising mainly from the neural ectoderm
11(about 24 days) the rostral (or cephalic) neuropore closes within a few hours; closure is bidirectional, it takes place from the dorsal and terminal lips and may occur in several areas simultaneously. The two lips, however, behave differently.
12(about 26 days) The caudal neuropore takes a day to close. The level of final closure is approximately at future somitic pair 31 (corresponds to the level of sacral vertebra 2). Secondary neurulation begins, is the differentiation of the caudal part of the neural tube from the caudal eminence (or end-bud) without the intermediate phase of a neural plate.
13(4 weeks) the neural tube is normally completely closed.
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Description of the nervous system

Early Neural Timeline

Carnegie StageEvent
8(about 18 postovulatory days) neural groove and folds are first seen
9three main divisions of the brain, which are not cerebral vesicles, can be distinguished while the neural groove is still completely open.
10(two days later) neural folds begin to fuse near the junction between brain and spinal cord, when neural crest cells are arising mainly from the neural ectoderm
11(about 24 days) the rostral (or cephalic) neuropore closes within a few hours; closure is bidirectional, it takes place from the dorsal and terminal lips and may occur in several areas simultaneously. The two lips, however, behave differently.
12(about 26 days) The caudal neuropore takes a day to close. The level of final closure is approximately at future somitic pair 31 (corresponds to the level of sacral vertebra 2). Secondary neurulation begins, is the differentiation of the caudal part of the neural tube from the caudal eminence (or end-bud) without the intermediate phase of a neural plate.
13(4 weeks) the neural tube is normally completely closed.

Signals sent by the Nervous System are electrical signals called nerve impulses, and they are transmitted by special Nervous System cells named neurons, or nerve cells, like the one in Figure:. Dendrites of neuron receive nerve impulse from other cells. Long projections from neurons carry nerve impulses directly to specific target cells. Schwann cells that wrap around axons are called glial cells. They create a myelin sheath which allows nerve impulse to travel very rapidly through axons. Cells that receive nerve impulses from neurons may be excited to performing function, inhibited from carrying out action, or otherwise control. In this way, information transmitted by the Nervous System is specific to particular cells and is transmitted very rapidly. In fact, fastest nerve impulses travel at speeds greater than 100 meters per second! Compare this to chemical messages carried by hormones that are secreted into blood by endocrine glands. These hormonal messages are broadcast to all cells of the body, and they can travel only as quickly as blood flows through the cardiovascular system.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosing nervous system conditions

Early Neural Timeline

Carnegie StageEvent
8(about 18 postovulatory days) neural groove and folds are first seen
9three main divisions of the brain, which are not cerebral vesicles, can be distinguished while the neural groove is still completely open.
10(two days later) neural folds begin to fuse near the junction between brain and spinal cord, when neural crest cells are arising mainly from the neural ectoderm
11(about 24 days) the rostral (or cephalic) neuropore closes within a few hours; closure is bidirectional, it takes place from the dorsal and terminal lips and may occur in several areas simultaneously. The two lips, however, behave differently.
12(about 26 days) The caudal neuropore takes a day to close. The level of final closure is approximately at future somitic pair 31 (corresponds to the level of sacral vertebra 2). Secondary neurulation begins, is the differentiation of the caudal part of the neural tube from the caudal eminence (or end-bud) without the intermediate phase of a neural plate.
13(4 weeks) the neural tube is normally completely closed.

There are a number of tests and procedures to diagnose conditions involving the nervous system. In addition to traditional X - ray, specialized X - ray called fluoroscopy examines the body in motion, such as blood flowing through arteries, according to NIH. Other standard neurological exams include MRI, CT scan, and electroencephalogram, which record the brain's continuous electrical activity. Positron emission tomography is a procedure that measures cell or tissue metabolism and brain activity to detect tumors or diseased tissue or tumors, NIH note. The Spinal tap places a needle into the spinal canal to drain a small amount of cerebral spinal fluid that is tested for infection or other abnormalities, according to NIH.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diseases of the nervous system

Early Neural Timeline

Carnegie StageEvent
8(about 18 postovulatory days) neural groove and folds are first seen
9three main divisions of the brain, which are not cerebral vesicles, can be distinguished while the neural groove is still completely open.
10(two days later) neural folds begin to fuse near the junction between brain and spinal cord, when neural crest cells are arising mainly from the neural ectoderm
11(about 24 days) the rostral (or cephalic) neuropore closes within a few hours; closure is bidirectional, it takes place from the dorsal and terminal lips and may occur in several areas simultaneously. The two lips, however, behave differently.
12(about 26 days) The caudal neuropore takes a day to close. The level of final closure is approximately at future somitic pair 31 (corresponds to the level of sacral vertebra 2). Secondary neurulation begins, is the differentiation of the caudal part of the neural tube from the caudal eminence (or end-bud) without the intermediate phase of a neural plate.
13(4 weeks) the neural tube is normally completely closed.

Studying of the brain continues to expand at a rapid pace, providing fascinating insights into basic mechanisms underlying Nervous System illnesses. New tools, ranging from genome sequencing to non - invasive imaging, and research fuelled by public and private investment in biomedical research has been transformative in our understanding of Nervous System Diseases and has led to an explosion of published primary research articles. Diseases of Nervous System summarizes the current state of basic and clinical knowledge for most common Neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions. In systematic progression, each chapter covers either a single disease or a group of related disorders ranging from static insults to primary and secondary progressive neurodegenerative Diseases, neurodevelopmental illnesses, illnesses resulting from Nervous System infection and neuropsychiatric conditions. Chapters follow a common format and are stand - alone units, each covering disease history, clinical presentation, disease mechanisms and treatment protocols. Dr. Sontheimer also includes two chapters which discuss common concepts shared among disorders and how new findings are being translated from bench to bedside. In the final chapter, he explains the most commonly used Neuroscience jargon. Chapters address controversial issues in current day neuroscience research, including translational research, drug discovery, ethical issues, and promises of personalized medicine. This book provides an introduction for course adoption and an introductory tutorial for students, scholars, researchers and medical professionals interested in learning the state of art concerning our understanding and treatment of Diseases of Nervous System.S Dr. Sontheimer is a researcher and educator with a life - long interest in Neuroscience. A native of Germany, he obtained a Masters degree in evolutionary comparative Neuroscience, where he worked on the development of occulomotor reflexes. In 1989, he obtained a doctorate in Biophysics and Cellular & Molecular Neuroscience from the University of Heidelberg studying biophysical changes that accompany development of oligodendrocytes, principle myelinating cells of the Nervous System. He moved to the United States, where he later became a citizen, for post - doctoral studies at Yale University. His independent research career began at Yale in 1991 and continued at University of Alabama Birmingham from 1994 - 2015, and, more recently, at Virginia Tech. His research focuses on the role of glial support cells in health and disease. His laboratory has made major discoveries that led to two clinical trials using novel compounds to treat malignant gliomas. His research led to over 170 peer - Review publications. For clinical development of his discoveries, Dr. Sontheimer started a biotechnologies company, Transmolecular Inc., Which conducted both phase I and II clinical trials with the anti - cancer agent chlorotoxin. This technology was recently acquired by Morphotec Pharmaceuticals, who will be conducting phase III clinical trials. As an educator, Dr. Sontheimer has been active in teaching Medical Neuroscience, graduate Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, and, for the past 10 years, he has offered both graduate and undergraduate courses on Diseases of Nervous System.

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Nerve Cells

The nervous system and all of its organs, including BRAIN, spinal cord and nerve fibers, consist of specialized nerve cells called neurons. Neurons have unique ability to communicate with each other through transmission of electrical impulses. The basic structure of neuron is composed of cell body, axon and dendrites. The cell body is the main part of the cell. Similar to other cells in your body, it contains a nucleus and carries out basic functions of cell. Dendrites are short, hair - like extensions of the cell body and serve to pick up impulses and carry them into neuron.S Finally, axon is a single, long extension that carries impulse away from the cell body, and towards dendrites of next neuron. Axons are wrap in white, fatty substance called myelin. Myelinated axons make up so - call, white matter of BRAIN and spinal cord; rest of neurons make up gray matter.


The Nervous System

Small child dart in front of your bike as you race down the street. You see a child and immediately react. You put on brakes, steer away from child, and yell out warning, all in just a split second. How do you respond so quickly? Such rapid responses are controlled by your Nervous System. The Nervous System is a complex network of nervous tissue that carries electrical messages throughout the body. It includes the brain and spinal cord, Central Nervous System, and nerves that run throughout the body, peripheral Nervous System. To understand how nervous messages can travel so quickly, you need to know more about nerve cells. Human Nervous Systems includes brain and spinal cord and nerves that run throughout the body.

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Central vs Peripheral

Table

Peripheral Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System
Composed of sensory and motor neuronsComposed of the brain and spinal cord
Gathers information from specialized sensory neurons and transmits it to the central nervous systemReceives signals from the peripheral nervous system, passes them to the brain, and sends signals to the motor neurons

Don't let names fool you; you really only have one, highly - integrated nervous system. Its parts, however, are divided into categories based on their functions. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system. This is where sensory stimuli are integrated and organize. Even though we refer to them as separate organs, brain and spinal cord are really one continuous unit. Because they are so essential to the function and survival of our body, they are encase in bones for protection. The brain is found inside your skull and your spinal cord is located within your vertebral column. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the rest of your nerve fibers and sensory organs. The periphery part of the name refers to being on edge or outskirts of something. In this case, PNS simply refers to nerve fibers and organs that are outside of CNS. Pns serves two main roles: to bring sensory stimuli into CNS, and then to send out motor responses to the rest of the body.


Peripheral Nervous System

The peripheral nervous system is a division of the nervous system containing all nerves that lie outside of the central nervous system. The primary role of PNS is to connect CNS to organs, limbs, and skin. These nerves extend from the central nervous system to the outermost areas of the body. The peripheral system allows the brain and spinal cord to receive and send information to other areas of the body, which allows us to react to stimuli in our environment. The peripheral nervous system itself is divided into two parts: somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. Each of these components play critical role in how peripheral nervous system operate.

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Lesson Summary

Table

TermsDefinitions
Nervous systema complex collection of nerves and cells that carry messages and control actions
Central nervous systemconsists of the brain and spinal cord and interprets the incoming sensory information and issues orders
Peripheral nervous systemmade up of nerves that travel to and from the central nervous system; reports any sensory changes to the brain and spinal cord, then carries out orders
Sensory divisionnerves in this division take information from sensory receptors and carry it to the CNS
Motor divisionnerves in this division send messages to the muscles and glands to carry out the orders issued by the brain
Somatic nervous systema subdivision of the motor division that allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous systema subdivision of the motor division that allows the body to perform tasks that are not under conscious control
Sympathetic nervous systemgets one ready for fight or flight by doing things like speeding up the heart rate, constricting blood vessels and raising blood pressure
Parasympathetic nervous systemcalms one down once the threat is over, it slows heart rate and allows one to relax

Just as your central nervous system has both conscious and unconscious reflexes, your peripheral nervous system has some functions that you re aware of while they re happening, and others that you do without thinking. Things you re conscious of involve your somatic nervous system. When you swat mosquito, it's your somatic nervous system kicking in. It controls your external muscles and skin. But, other internal activities happen more or less automatically, like your mouth watering or sweating. While it is possible to regulate how fast your heart is beating or how fast you are re breathing, these are primarily realms of the autonomic nervous system; they happen whether you re paying attention to them or not. Autonomic responses are automatic. Okay, so we can break down these automatic responses further, into sympathetic and parasympathetic responses. Your sympathetic nervous system gets you ready to fight or flee when you are re faced with a crisis, and your parasympathetic nervous system calms you down and allows you to relax. So, when you hear fire alarm go off in your building, your sympathetic nervous system gets your heart racing to ready you to act. But, when you realize it's false alarm, your parasympathetic nervous system slows your heart back down and allows you to relax.

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Nervous System Courses and Certifications

This anatomy course will be of great interest to healthcare professionals who would like to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of Human Nervous System,s and to anyone who would like to know more about the structure and function of central and peripheral nervous systems. The human Nervous System is made up of two main parts - the central Nervous System and the peripheral Nervous System. The Central Nervous System is made up of the brain and spinal cord, while the peripheral Nervous System consists of nerves that extend to all other organs in the body. The Autonomic Nervous System is part of the peripheral Nervous System and comprises sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. In Introduction to Human Nervous System you will learn about the structure and function of the central Nervous System and peripheral Nervous System; structure and function of the brain and spinal cord, and how these control and coordinate sensory inputs and movements of the body. The course also examines the peripheral Nervous System and, in particular, sympathetic and parasympathetic components of the autonomic Nervous System. Nerve impulses and synaptic transmission are also explained in detail.

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Explore a Career in Neuroanatomy

Key facts about neuroanatomy

Nervous systemDefinition: A network of neurons whose main function is to generate, modulate and transmit information between all the parts of the body. Structural divisions: central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Central nervous systemDefinition: Neural tissue within the skull and vertebral column that is the integrative and command center of the body. Parts: Brain, spinal cord
Peripheral nervous systemDefinition: Neural tissue outside the CNS whose function is to convey the information between the CNS and rest of the body. Parts: Peripheral nerves, ganglia Functional divisions: Autonomic nervous system (ANS), somatic nervous system (SNS)
Autonomic nervous systemDefinition: Involuntary component of the PNS that controls cardiac, glandular and smooth muscle cells. Divisions: Sympathetic nervous system (SANS), parasympathetic nervous system (PANS)
Somatic nervous systemDefinition: Voluntary component of the PNS in charge to direct the voluntary body movements and convey feel sensation from the skin, muscles and joints.

Your knowledge of the nervous system, from spinal nerves and sensory nerves to very motor neurons and nerve cells that make everything possible. Millions of years ago, our ancestors developed sensory neurons, and now we owe all movement and functions to the interplay of the human brain and different parts of the nervous system. With new research building better prosthetic parts, creating new treatments for degenerative diseases, and even imbuing robots with human - like sensory intelligence, you could use your understanding of things like skeletal muscles and cranial nerves to aid in this research. The human body owes everything to the nervous system, and you could uncover the next breakthrough.


Spinal cord

The spinal cord is found in the vertebral column. It is continuous with brainstem, extending from the foramen magnum of occipital bone to the L1 / L2 vertebra. This caudal part of the CNS transmits information to and from the periphery by interacting with the peripheral nervous system. However, it is more than just a channel between the brain and body - it also modifies and integrates information that passes through it and participates in reflexes. Cervical spine - 8 segments thoracic spine - 12 segments lumbar spine - 5 segments sacral spine - 5 segments coccygeal spine - 1 segment contrary to the brain, spinal cord outermost layer is form of white matter. This is divided into three funiculi containing pathways travelling between the brain and the periphery. The central mass of the spinal cord is butterfly - shaped grey matter which contains neuronal cell bodies.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

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