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Oracle To Date Format

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Last Updated: 17 October 2020

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General | Latest Info

Date and TIME functions and formats can vary for different databases. In this article we shall compare Couchbase N1QL DATE - TIME functions WITH Oracle ISO DATE FORMAT. In Oracle, DATE FORMAT and timezones feature multiple data types, including DATE, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE and TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE. The Timestamp data type is an extension of the DATE type. Date values can be represented either as literal or as numeric values. Literal needs TO be in specified FORMAT. Format for DATE times can be set using NLS_DATE_FORMAT, NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT, NLS_TIMESTAMP_TZ_FORMAT and NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE Parameters. With Couchbase, DATE - TIME is a little different. All dates and times should be stored as strings that follow the Extended ISO 8601 DATE TIME FORMAT. N1ql contains DATETIME functions that can be used TO and EXTRACT these formatted strings. The date and TIME for specific TIMEZONE can also be represented as Unix TIMESTAMP in milliseconds. This essentially means that, unlike Oracle, where FORMAT of input DATE and TIME can change based on values of NLS_DATE_FORMAT and NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT, FORMAT for Dates in Couchbase follows a strict set. 2008 - DEC - 25 17: 30 is the valid date given NLS_DATE_FORMAT = YYYY - MON - DD HH24: MI However, TO represent the same value in Couchbase, users need TO use one of the given formats. In Oracle, fractional_seconds_precision is optional and specifies the number of digits in the fractional part of the SECOND DATETIME field. It can be a number WITH default being 6. For example, in Oracle TIMESTAMP FORMAT can be given as using this we can define TIMESTAMP TO be 2006 - 01 - 02 15: 04: 05. 999 N1QL has support for fractional seconds similar to Oracle. This is seen when using FORMAT - 2006 - 01 - 02T15: 04: 05. 999. However, N1QL supports 3 digit precision and Oracle supports upto 9 digit fractional SECOND precision. This means that if we specify the date 2006 - 01 - 02T15: 04: 05. 999123456, N1QL will round off TO 3 digits and return 2006 - 01 - 02T15: 04: 05. 999. For N1QL, if we specify more than 9 digits, DATE - TIME function returns null. For Oracle, if you give more than 9 digits for fractional seconds Part it throw error - ORA - 01830: DATE FORMAT picture end before converting entire input string comparison of Couchbase N1QL and Oracles DATE TIME support is given in following following table: table - Oracle DATETIME types VS N1QL ISO TIMEZONE and DATE Formats for any DATE / TIME type both Oracle and N1QL store extra information in different fields for input DATE. These allow users TO EXTRACT specific information about the date. Oracles DATE - TIME fields are CENTURY, YEAR, MONTH, DAY, HOUR, MINUTE and SECOND. Timestamp data types represent seconds as fractional seconds WITH its precision is determined by the fractional_seconds_precision parameter. It also includes fields TIMEZONE_HOUR, TIMEZONE_MINUTE, TIMEZONE_REGION and TIMEZONE_ABBR. It internally converts the above character values into DATE values. The default TIME for the TIME component is midnight and the default DATE for the DATE component is first DAY of current MONTH. The Date datatype stores both DATE and TIME information.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Arguments

To_date converts CHAR to the value of DATE data type. For CHAR, you can specify any expression that evaluates the character string of CHAR, VARCHAR2, NCHAR, or NVARCHAR2 data type. The Optional DEFAULT return_value on CONVERSION ERROR clause allows you to specify the value this function returns if ERROR occurs while converting CHAR to DATE. This clause has no effect if ERROR occurs while evaluating CHAR. Return_value can be expression or bind variable, and it must evaluate to character string of CHAR, VARCHAR2, NCHAR, or NVARCHAR2 data type, or null. The function converts return_value to DATE using the same method it uses to convert CHAR to DATE. If return_value cannot be converted to DATE, then the function returns ERROR. Fmt is datetime model format specifying format of CHAR. If you omit fmt, then CHAR must be in DEFAULT DATE format. The DEFAULT DATE format is determined implicitly by NLS_TERRITORY initialization parameter or can be set explicitly by NLS_DATE_FORMAT parameter. If fmt is J, for Julian, then CHAR must be integer. Nlsparam argument specifies the language of text string that is being converted to DATE. This argument can have this form: do not use the TO_DATE function with DATE value for CHAR argument. The first two digits of returned DATE value can differ from the original CHAR, depending on on fmt or DEFAULT DATE format. This function does not support CLOB data directly. However, CLOB s can be passed on as arguments through implicit data CONVERSION. It is good practice always to specify the format mask with TO_DATE, as shown in examples in section that follow. When it is used without format mask, function is valid only if CHAR uses the same format as is determined by NLS_TERRITORY or NLS_DATE_FORMAT parameters. Furthermore, function may not be stable across databases unless an explicit format mask is specified to avoid dependencies.


Datetime Format Elements

The Rr datetime format element is similar to the YY datetime format element, but it provides additional flexibility for storing date values in other centuries. The The datetime format element lets you store 20th century dates in the 21st century by specifying only the last two digits of YEAR. If you use the TO_DATE function with YY datetime format element, then YEAR return always has the same first 2 digits as current YEAR. If you use the RR datetime format element instead, then century of return value vary according to specified two - digit YEAR and last two digits of current YEAR. If the specified two - digit YEAR is 00 to 49, then if the last two digits of current YEAR are 00 to 49, then the return YEAR has the same first two digits as current YEAR. If the last two digits of current YEAR are 50 to 99, then the first 2 digits of returned YEAR are 1 greater than the first 2 digits of current YEAR. If the specified two - digit YEAR is 50 to 99, then if the last two digits of current YEAR are 00 to 49, then the first 2 digits of returned YEAR are 1 less than the first 2 digits of current YEAR. If the last two digits of current YEAR are 50 to 99, then return YEAR has the same first two digits as current YEAR. The following examples demonstrate behavior of the RR datetime format element.


Format Models

Fm and FX Modifiers, used in Format Models in TO_CHAR function, control blank padding and exact format checking. A Modifiers can appear in Format Model more than once. In such case, each subsequent occurrence toggles effects of the modifier. Its effects are enabled for portion of the model following its first occurrence, and then disabled for portion following its second, and then reenabled for portion following its third, and so on. Fm Fill mode. Oracle uses trailing blank characters and leading zeroes to fill Format Elements to constant width. Width is equal to the display width of the largest element for the relevant Format Model: numeric elements are pads with leading zeros to the width of maximum value allowed for element. For example, YYYY element is pad to four digits, HH24 to two digits, and DDD to three digits. Character elements MONTH, MON, DAY, and DY are pad with trailing blanks to the width of the longest full MONTH name, longest abbreviated MONTH name, longest full date name, or longest abbreviated DAY name, respectively, among valid names determined by values of NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE and NLS_CALENDAR parameters. For example, when NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE is AMERICAN and NLS_CALENDAR is GREGORIAN, largest element for MONTH is SEPTEMBER, so all values of the MONTH Format element are pad to nine display characters. Values of NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE and NLS_CALENDAR parameters are specified in the third argument to TO_CHAR and TO_ * Datetime functions or they are retrieved from the NLS environment of current SESSION. Character element RM is a pad with trailing blanks to length of 4, which is the length of viii. Other character elements and spell - out numbers are not pad. The Fm modifier suppresses the above padding in return value of TO_CHAR function. Fx Format exact. This modifier specifies exact matching for character argument and Datetime Format Model of TO_DATE function: punctuation and quote text in character argument must exactly match corresponding parts of the Format Model. Character arguments cannot have extra blanks. Without FX, Oracle ignores extra blanks. Numeric data in character argument must have the same NUMBER of digits as the corresponding element in the Format Model. Without FX, numbers in character arguments can omit leading zeros. When FX is enable, you can disable this check for leading zeros by using FM modifier as well. If any portion of character argument violates any of these conditions, then Oracle returns an error message.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Examples

To convert string to DATE, you use Oracle DATE Format elements eg, YYYY for 4 - digit year, MM for 2 - digit month, etc. To convert this string to DATE value, first, you must construct a DATE Format Model for it. In this case, 5 is represented by DD, Jan is represented by Mon, and 2017 is represented by YYYY that results in the following Format: second, you pass both arguments, DATE literal and Format Model, to the TO_DATE function as shown below: if you fail to construct Format, TO_DATE function will issue respective error. For example, if you miss one character Y in the DATE Format Model above: b use TO_DATE function to insert data into the table, following statement inserts a new row into the members ' table. In this example, because Feb 01 2017 is not Oracle standard DATE Format, you have to use the TO_DATE function to convert it to DATE value before storing it on the table. Here is another example of inserting DATE value DATE column using the TO_DATE function for formatting. You can check whether data was actually inserted by using the following query: in this tutorial, you have learnt how to use the TO_DATE function to convert string into DATE value.


Datetime Format Elements

The functionality of some datetime format elements depends on the country and language in which you are using Oracle Database. For example, these datetime format elements return spell valu es: MONTH MON DAY DY BC or AD or BC or AD AM or PM or AM or PM language in which these values are returned is specified either explicitly with initialization parameter NLS_DATE_LANGUAGE or implicitly with initialization parameter NLS_LANGUAGE. Values returned by YEAR and SYEAR datetime format elements are always in English. Datetime format element D returns the number of day of week. The day of week that is numbered 1 is specified implicitly by the initialization parameter NLS_TERRITORY.


Format Models

You can use NUMBER Format Models in the following functions: in the TO_CHAR function to translate the value of NUMBER, BINARY_FLOAT, or BINARY_DOUBLE datatype to VARCHAR2 datatype in TO_NUMBER function to translate the value of CHAR or VARCHAR2 datatype to NUMBER datatype in TO_BINARY_FLOAT and TO_BINARY_DOUBLE functions to translate CHAR and VARCHAR2 expressions to BINARY_FLOAT or BINARY_DOUBLE values all NUMBER Format Models cause NUMBER to be round to specify NUMBER of significant digits. If value has more significant digits to the left of decimal place than are specified in format, then pound signs replace value. This event typically occurs when you are using TO_CHAR with restrictive NUMBER Format string, causing rounding operation. If the positive NUMBER value is extremely large and cannot be represented in a specified format, then the infinity sign replaces value. Likewise, if negative NUMBER value is extremely small and cannot be represented by a specified format, then negative infinity sign replaces value. If BINARY_FLOAT or BINARY_DOUBLE value is converted to CHAR or NCHAR, and input is either infinity or NaN, then Oracle always returns pound signs to replace value. However, if you omit Format Model, then Oracle returns either Inf or NaN as string.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

TO_DATE

Day

ParameterExplanation
DDay of week, from 1 to 7.
DAYName of day.
DDDay of month, from 1 to 31.
DDDDay of year, from 1 to 366.
DYAbbreviated name of day.
JJulian day, which is the number of days since January 1, 4712 BC.

The Oracle TO_DATE function includes Format mask. Format mask is helpful as it allows you to specify what Format DATE value was provided in. If, for example, you have charvalue of 02 / 05 / 2017, does this mean May 2 or Feb 5? The result of the Oracle TO_DATE function would depend on the format you specify, and may be obvious depending on what region youre from. To make it clear, we need to specify some values for Format mask as part of the Oracle TO_DATE function. As you can see, TO_DATE with time and DATE is possible, and it depends on the value being supply.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Indicators

ParameterExplanation
AM, A.M., PM, or P.M.Meridian indicator
AD or A.DAD indicator
BC or B.C.BC indicator
TZDDaylight savings information
TZHTime zone hour.
TZMTime zone minute.
TZRTime zone region.

Month

ParameterExplanation
QQuarter of year, from 1 to 4. JAN to MAR = 1
MMMonth, from 01 to 12. JAN = 01
MONAbbreviated name of month.
MONTHName of month, padded with blanks to length of 9 characters.
RMRoman numeral month, from I to XII. JAN = I.

Time

ParameterExplanation
HHHour of day, from 1 to 12.
HH12Hour of day, from 1 to 12.
HH24Hour of day, from 0 to 23.
MIMinute, from 0 to 59
SSSecond, from 0 to 59
SSSSSSeconds past midnight, from 0 to 86399.
FFFractional seconds. This uses a value from 1 to 9 after FF, to indicate the number of digits in the fractional seconds (e.g. FF7)

Week

ParameterExplanation
WWWeek of year, from 1 to 53. Week 1 starts on the first day of the year, and continues to the seventh day of the year.
WWeek of month, from 1 to 5. Week 1 starts on the first day of the month and ends on the seventh.
IWWeek of year, from 1 to 52 or 1 to 53, based on the ISO standard.

Year

ParameterExplanation
YEARYear, spelled out in full words
YYYY4-digit year
YYYLast 3 digits of year
YYLast 2 digits of year
YLast digit of year
IYYLast 3 digits of ISO year
IYLast 2 digits of ISO year
ILast digit of ISO year
IYYY4-digit year, which is based on the ISO standard
RRRRThis format accepts a 2-digit year, and returns a 4-digit year. If the provided value is between 0 and 49, it will return a year greater than or equal to 2000. If the provided value is between 50 and 99, it will return a year less than 2000
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

DATE_FORMAT

The DATE_FORMAT command assigns FORMAT Template to definition of object that has DATETIME, TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMP_TZ, TIMESTAMP_LTZ, DSINTERVAL, or YMINTERVAL data type. DATETIME FORMAT Template is a template that describes the FORMAT of DATETIME data store in Character string. Templates do not change internal representation of value in database. When you convert character string into DATE, template determines how Oracle OLAP interprets string. To assign DATETIME FORMAT Template to definition, definition must be one most recently defined or CONSIDER during the current SESSION. When it is not, you must first use the CONSIDER statement to make it current definition. Example 9 - 75 Changing DATETIME FORMAT Template For Object assumes that the default DATETIME FORMAT Template is DD_MON_RR as shown in the following statement. Assume also that you define variable name mydatetime and assign it value of CURRENT_TIMESTAMP. When you report on value of mydatetime, following value is display. This value has FORMAT determined by setting NLS_DATETIME FORMAT. It shows only DAY, MONTH, and YEAR values in order specified by now. You change the DATE FORMAT map for mydatetime by issuing the following statements. Display of value of mydatetime, now includes Hour as 24 - hour value.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Oracle Dates, Timestamps and Intervals

The way Oracle Database handles datetime values is pretty straightforward, but it seems TO confuse many client - side and PL / SQL developers alike. The vast majority of problems people encounter are because of misunderstandings about how dates are stored in Database. What you see on screen from query is what's in the database, right? Well, actually, that is often not the case. Client tools, like SQL * Plus, convert datetime column values into something much nicer TO look AT. In the process, they often miss out on very important information that can confuse you if you are not careful. The following examples use DATE type, but issues apply equally TO TIMESTAMP type. Both DATE and TIMESTAMP columns contain TIME component, which does not match in this case. Sql * Plus has converted internal representation of DATE into a nice string for US, but it has left out the TIME component. Why has it done this? Because it has use format mask specified by NLS_DATE_FORMAT parameter TO decide how to implicitly convert DATE to string. You can display current Database, instance and SESSION NLS parameter values using this script. To get full data we have TO either explicitly ask for it using the TO_CHAR function WITH format mask. Another common mistake is when you specify the date as string. That string looks perfectly acceptable TO me, because I understand variations in DATE formats and that looks like the UK representation of 27 April 2013 TO me, but the database doesn't know that. To remedy this, we must either explicitly use the TO_DATE function WITH format mask, SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT appropriately, or use ANSI DATE literal. When using Oracle DATE or TIMESTAMP values, remember to follow simple rules and you will probably avoid most of the common pitfalls. Both DATE and TIMESTAMP types * always * contain DATE and TIME component.S At exactly midnight TIME is 00: 00: 00. Never rely on implicit conversions of strings TO dates, or dates TO strings. Always explicitly perform conversions WITH TO_CHAR, TO_DATE and TO_TIMESTAMP functions, or use ASNI DATE or TIMESTAMP literals. When doing DATE or TIMESTAMP comparisons, always consider the impact of the TIME component. If you want TO discount TIME component from comparison, use TRUNC or ROUND functions TO remove it from both sides of comparison. The remainder of this article will discuss DATE, TIMESTAMP and INTERVAL types in more detail.


TIMESTAMP Datatype

Timestamp WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE is another variant of TIMESTAMP. It differs from TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE as follow: data stored in database is normalized to database TIME ZONE, and TIME ZONE offset is not stored as part of column data. When users retrieve data, Oracle returns it to users ' LOCAL session TIME ZONE. Time ZONE offset the difference between LOCAL TIME and UTC. Specify TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE datatype as follow: fractional_seconds_precision is optional and specifies the number of digits in the fractional part of the SECOND datetime field. There is no literal for TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE, but TIMESTAMP literals and TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE literals can be inserted into the TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE column. The Default DATE format for TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE is determined by the value of NLS_TIMESTAMP_FORMAT initialization parameter.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Conclusion

The DATE data type allows you to store point - in - time values that include both DATE and time with a precision of one second. Date data type stores year,s month,s day, hours, minutes, and seconds. It has range from January 1 4712 BCE through December 31 9999 CE. By default, Oracle uses CE DATE entries if BCE is not used explicitly. Oracle Database has its own private format for storing DATE data. It uses fix - length fields of 7 bytes, each corresponding to century, year, month, day, hour, minute, and second to store DATE data.


Datetime Format Elements

You can include these characters in the date format model: punctuation such as hyphens, slashes, commas, periods, and colons Character literals, enclose in double quotation marks. These characters appear in return value in the same location as they appear in format model. Oracle Database converts strings to dates with some flexibility. For example, when the TO_DATE function is used, format model containing punctuation characters matches the input string lacking some or all of these characters, providing each numerical element in the input string contains the maximum allowed number of digitsfor. Example, two digits 05 for MM or four digits 2007 for YYYY. The following statement does not return error: However, following format string does return error, because FX format modifiers require exact match of expression and format string:


Introduction to Oracle Date Format Model

Format Model is a character literal that describes the format of Datetime or numeric data store in character string. The Format Model does not change internal representation of value in the Database. When you convert character string into DATE or number, Format Model determines how Oracle Database interprets string. In SQL statements, you can use Format Model as an argument for TO_CHAR and TO_DATE functions to specify: Format for Oracle to use to return value from Database Format for value you have specified for Oracle to store in Database Datetime Format Model for string 17: 45: 29 is HH24: MI: SS. The Datetime Format Model for string 11 - Nov - 1999 is DD - MON - YYYY. The Number Format Model for strings is $2 304. 25 is $9 999. 99. For lists of number and Datetime Format Model Elements, see Table 2 - 13, number Format Elements and Table 2 - 15, Datetime Format Elements. Values of some formats are determined by the value of initialization parameters. For such formats, you can specify characters returned by these Format Elements implicitly using the initialization parameter NLS_TERRITORY. You can change the default DATE Format for your SESSION with ALTER SESSION statement. The remainder of this section describes how to use the following format models: number Format Models, Datetime Format Models, Format Model Modifiers

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

DATE FORMAT MODELS

To translate DATE into different format strings you can use the TO_CHAR function with DATE Format. For example, to see the current day you can give the following query to translate character value, which is in format other than default DATE Format, into DATE value. You can use the TO_DATE function with DATE Format to DATE like this aDAYa Format model. There are many other DATE Format models available in Oracle. The following table lists DATE Format models. For example, to see todayas DATE in the following Format for example, you want to see hire dates of all employees in the following format

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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