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Parathyroid Tumor

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant cells form on tissues of the parathyroid gland. Parathyroid glands are four pea - sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone. Pth helps the body use and store calcium to keep calcium in the blood at normal levels. Parathyroid gland may become overactive and make too much PTH, condition called hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism can occur when a benign tumor, called adenoma, forms on one of the parathyroid glands, and causes it to grow and become overactive. Sometimes hyperparathyroidism can be caused by parathyroid cancer, but this is very rare. Calcium is stored in bones to move into blood. Intestines absorb more calcium from food we eat. This condition is called hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia caused by hyperparathyroidism is more serious and life - threatening than parathyroid cancer itself and treating hypercalcemia is as important as treating cancer. Having certain inherited disorders can increase the risk of developing parathyroid cancer. Anything that increases the chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Risk factors for parathyroid cancer include the following rare disorders that are inherit: familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome. Treatment with radiation therapy may increase the risk of developing parathyroid adenoma. Possible signs of parathyroid cancer include weakness, feeling tire, and lump in the neck. Most parathyroid cancer symptoms are caused by hypercalcemia that develop. Symptoms of hypercalcemia include the following: weakness. I feeling very tired. Nausea and vomiting. Loss of appetite. Weight loss for no known reason. Being much more thirsty than usual. Urinating much more than usual. Constipation. Trouble thinking clearly. Pain in the abdomen, side, or back that doesn't go away. Pain in the bones. Broken bone. Lump in neck. Change in voice, such as hoarseness. Trouble swallowing. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms as parathyroid cancer. A doctor should be consulted if any of these problems occur. Tests that examine neck and blood are used to detect and diagnose parathyroid cancer. Once blood tests are done and hyperparathyroidism is diagnose, imaging tests may be done to help find which of parathyroid glands is overactive. Sometimes parathyroid glands are hard to find and imaging tests are done to find exactly where they are. Parathyroid cancer may be hard to diagnose because cells of benign parathyroid adenoma and malignant parathyroid cancer look alike. The patient's symptoms, blood levels of calcium and parathyroid hormone, and characteristics of the tumor are also used to make a diagnosis. Physical exam and history: exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. History of patients ' health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be take.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Coping with a parathyroid tumor

Parathyroid glands make Parathyroid hormone. Pth controls levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood, helps the body make vitamin D and helps prevent loss of too much calcium in urine. There are both benign and malignant types of Parathyroid disease. Parathyroid glands make Parathyroid hormone. Pth controls levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood, helps the body make vitamin D and helps prevent loss of too much calcium in urine. There are both benign and malignant types of Parathyroid disease. The parathyroid gland is made up of four small glands behind the thyroid gland. They are usually about the size of a kernel of corn. Usually, one parathyroid gland is located near each corner of the thyroid. Some people miss parathyroid glands or have extra one.S Parathyroid glands may be misplaced in other glands but still work normally. Until recently, decades passed with little progress in improving survival rates of Parathyroid cancer patients. But our specialized, multidisciplinary team lead by Naifa L. Busaidy, MD., And Nancy D. Perrier, MD, is bringing Parathyroid cancer patients new hope. We sat down with them to understand this rare disease and how MD Anderson is advancing Parathyroid cancer treatment. Here is what they share. We all have four parathyroids located on our necks. These endocrine glands are only the size of sunflower seed, but they control body calcium by producing regulatory hormone.S When the parathyroid becomes overactive and produces too much of this hormone, it is called hyperparathyroidism. The most common endocrine disorder, hyperparathyroidism, can result in tumor growth in the neck. Most parathyroid tumors are benign, but some patients have genetic mutation that lead to development of parathyroid cancer. If hyperparathyroidism progresses to cancer, it is important that it is caught and treated early, when treatment is most effective. That is why it is so important for patients with hyperparathyroidism to be monitored by skilled specialists, such as by our team. When monitoring hyperparathyroidism, were suspicious that its progress to cancer if patients ' calcium and parathyroid hormone levels are high. Were also concerned if diagnostic imaging, such as CT scan, ultrasound or specialized sestamibi Parathyroid scan, showed unusual features of parathyroid gland, such as glands appearing bigger than normal or calcify. In this case, we also check for lumps on patients ' neck. In addition, we closely monitor patients who have family history of kidney tumors or jaw tumors since they can be at higher risk, as well as carriers of MEN1, CDC73 and P53 gene mutations. Patients may notice bodily changes, such as excessive urination, excessive thirst, fatigue and bone pain. If you experience these symptoms, seek care from an experienced team to ensure accurate diagnosis. Why is accurate diagnosis so important for Parathyroid cancer patients? Correct diagnosis is necessary to develop an effective treatment plan. Because Parathyroid cancer is so rare, pathologists are often unfamiliar with the disease when making diagnosis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

There are treatments for all patients with Parathyroid Cancer. Two kinds of treatment are used surgery, and radiation therapy. Chemotherapy is being studied in a few clinical trials, but there have been no good chemotherapy drugs identified as effective up to this point. Surgery is the most common and by far the best treatment for Parathyroid Cancer. Treatment for Parathyroid Cancer depends on the size of tumor, its location, and whether or not it has spread to other tissues. Parathyroid gland and half of the thyroid on the same side as cancer are typically remove. This is what is shown in this picture *. This cancer was almost completely inside the thyroid gland, so the thyroid was split in half to expose the Parathyroid Tumor inside. Cancer is a large round mass in the central and lower portions of the thyroid. Lymph nodes, if they can be find, are sampled on that side of the neck. The presence of enlarged lymph nodes necessitates lymph node dissection. Radiation therapy uses high - energy x - rays to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors, but this is almost never the preferred way in which to treat this cancer initially. If a tumor reappears after some time, or if it has grown into other structures at the time of initial operation, then radiation therapy may be appropriate therapy. Parathyroid Hormone is measured annually for many years to check for recurrence. Parathyroid experts note that malignant, over - active Parathyroid cells produce Parathyroid Hormone. Thus, once it is out, simple check of the patient's blood will tell if too much Parathyroid Hormone is being produce. Mirp Procedure works extremely well for Parathyroid Cancer. Minimally Invasive Radioguided Surgery has been a huge development in treatment of all forms of Parathyroid disease. The concept is to make hyper - active Parathyroid cells radioactive with mild radioactive substance that is absorbed by overactive cells. Surgeons operate using a very small radiation detector and thus can tell where all of overactive Parathyroid cells are located in the body. This works extremely well for all patients with Parathyroid disease, including those with Parathyroid Cancer. We have two articles on MIRP Procedure: Minimal Parathyroid Surgery and MIRP Operation. Radioguided Parathyroid Surgery can be a very useful technique for re - operations. If measuring Parathyroid Hormone postoperatively shows that a Parathyroid Tumor has recur, then sestamibi scan will typically show where the tumor is locate, and Radioguided Parathyroid Operation can be perform. Once again, radioactive tumor cells can be found with probe, and surgeons can find and remove them. This technique is much more accurate, and it is typically a much less invasive way to treat Parathyroid Cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes

Secondary hyperparathyroidism is the result of another condition that lowers calcium levels. This causes your parathyroid glands to overwork to compensate for calcium loss. Factors that may contribute to secondary hyperparathyroidism include: severe calcium deficiency. Your body may not get enough calcium from your diet, often because your digestive system doesn't absorb calcium from it. Severe vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D helps maintain appropriate calcium levels in the blood. It also helps your digestive system absorb calcium from your food. Your body produces vitamin D when your skin is exposed to sunlight. You also consume some vitamin D in food. If you don't get enough vitamin D, then calcium levels may drop. Chronic kidney failure. Your kidneys convert vitamin D into form that your body can use. If your kidneys work poorly, usable vitamin D may decline and calcium levels drop, causing parathyroid hormone levels to go up. Chronic kidney failure is the most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Some medical treatments, such as vitamin D, bisphosphonates and cinacalcet, will lower PTH levels. In some people with long - term end - stage kidney disease, parathyroid glands enlarge and begin to release PTH on their own, and PTH doesn't go down with medical treatment. This is called tertiary hyperparathyroidism, and people with this condition may require surgery to remove parathyroid tissue.


Parathyroid Disease Types

Your doctor may diagnose parathyroid disease by testing levels of calcium and PTH in your blood. After diagnosis, following tests may be done to assess complications: bone densitometry: bone densitometry, also called DEXA or DXA, uses very small dose of ionizing radiation to produce pictures of the inside of the body to measure bone loss. Dxa is simple, quick and noninvasive. Ultrasound: Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. The Ultrasound is safe, noninvasive, and does not use radiation. Compute tomography - Body: CT scans use a combination of x rays and computer technology to create three - dimensional images. CT scan may include injection of contrast material. Ct scans require a person to lie on a table that slides into a tunnel - shaped device where x rays are take. Procedure is often performed in an outpatient center, and images are interpreted by radiologist; anesthesia is not needed. Magnetic resonance imaging - Body: Body MRI uses powerful magnetic field, radio waves and computer to produce detailed pictures of the inside of your body. 25 - hydroxy - vitamin D blood test: People with primary HPT commonly lack vitamin D. This test helps your doctor monitor vitamin D levels in your blood and determine if you need supplements.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk factors

A risk factor is anything that may increase your chance of having disease. The exact cause of someone's cancer may not be know. But risk factors can make it more likely for a person to have cancer. Sometimes you can control risk factors, like using sunscreen to lower your risk for skin cancer. But risk factors for parathyroid tumors are not in your control. Anyone can get a parathyroid tumor. But you are more at risk for one if you: had radiation therapy to your neck Were exposed to high doses of radiation from nuclear power plants Have family history of parathyroid tumors Have certain inherited conditions, such as familial isolated hyperparathyroidism or multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 or 2 talk with your healthcare provider about your risk factors for parathyroid tumors and what you can do about them.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Complications

This should be a complication of exceedingly low incidence. The blood supply of most parathyroid tumors is well defined and can be seen if the tumor is carefully dissect. Vascular pedicles can be dealt with by diathermy, ligature or metal clips, and these techniques should provide secure hemostasis. Tumors are sometimes fed by branches of superior and / or inferior thyroid arteries and / or internal mammary artery and care must be taken to ensure that these branches are securely ligate. If hematoma develops, patient should be taken to the theatre, hematoma evacuated and cause of bleeding dealt with. Expanding hematomas can threaten airway patency and urgency may be require.


What is the parathyroid and parathyroid adenoma?

Parathyroid glands are located in your neck, next to thyroid gland. Most people have four pea - size, oval - shape parathyroid glands. The job of the parathyroid is to secrete parathyroid hormone, which helps regulate how the body uses calcium. Calcium is needed by cells in many parts of your body: brain, heart, nerves, bones and digestive system. Parathyroid hormone takes calcium from the bone, where it's store, and releases it into the blood stream. Communication between the parathyroid and the blood stream helps keep calcium at its normal level. Sometimes, benign growths called adenomas appear on one or more of a person's parathyroid glands. We dont know the cause of most parathyroid adenomas. About 10% are thought to be hereditary. Radiation exposure to head and neck area that patients had as children or young adults also may increase the risk of adenomas. Parathyroid cancer is extremely rare and occurs in less than 1% of all parathyroid cases. Adenomas cause the parathyroid gland to make more parathyroid hormones than the body needs, condition called primary hyperparathyroidism. Too much parathyroid hormone upsets the body's normal calcium balance, which increases the amount of calcium in the blood stream. A similar but less common condition, called secondary hyperparathyroidism, can occur in people with chronic kidney failure.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What are parathyroid tumors?

Parathyroid cancer is a rare disease in which malignant cells form on tissues of the parathyroid gland. Parathyroid glands are four pea - sized organs found in the neck near the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone. Pth helps the body use and store calcium to keep calcium in the blood at normal levels. Parathyroid gland may become overactive and make too much PTH, condition called hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism can occur when a benign tumor, called adenoma, forms on one of the parathyroid glands, and causes it to grow and become overactive. Sometimes hyperparathyroidism can be caused by parathyroid cancer, but this is very rare. Extra PTH causes: calcium stored in bones to move into blood intestines to absorb more calcium from food we eat. This condition is called hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia caused by hyperparathyroidism is more serious and life - threatening than parathyroid cancer itself and treating hypercalcemia is as important as treating cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Stages of Parathyroid Cancer

After Parathyroid Cancer has been diagnose, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body. The process used to find out if cancer has spread to other parts of the body is called staging. Following imaging tests may be used to determine if cancer has spread to other parts of the body such as lungs, liver, bone, heart, pancreas, or lymph nodes: CT scan: procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken from different angles. Pictures are made by a computer linked to an x - ray machine. Dye may be injected into vein or swallowed to help organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called compute tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography. Mri: procedure that uses magnet, radio waves, and computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body. Three ways that cancer spread in the body are: through tissue. Cancer invades surrounding normal tissue. Through lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through lymph vessels to other places in the body. Through blood. Cancer invades veins and capillaries and travels through blood to other places in the body. When cancer cells break away from the primary tumor and travel through lymph or blood to other places in the body, another tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to bones, cancer cells in bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer. Localize Parathyroid Cancer is found in the parathyroid gland and may have spread to nearby tissues. Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer has spread to other parts of the body, such as lungs, liver, bone, sac around the heart, pancreas, or lymph nodes. Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer is cancer that has recurs after it has been treat. More than half of patients have recurrence. Parathyroid Cancer usually recurs between 2 and 5 years after first surgery, but can recur up to 20 years later. It usually comes back in tissues or lymph nodes of the neck. High blood calcium levels that appear after treatment may be the first sign of recurrence. There are different types of treatment for patients with Parathyroid Cancer. Different types of treatment are available for patients with Parathyroid Cancer. Some treatments are standard, and some are being tested in clinical trials. Treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that new treatment is better than standard treatment, new treatment may become standard treatment.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Follow-up tests may be needed

Some of tests that were done to diagnose cancer or to find out the stage of cancer may be repeat. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on results of these tests. This is sometimes called re - staging. Some tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has end. Results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if cancer has recur. These tests are sometimes called follow - up tests or check - ups. Parathyroid Cancer often recur. Patients should have regular check - ups for the rest of their lives, to find and treat recurrences early. Surgery. Surgery was followed by radiation therapy. Radiation therapy. Supportive care to treat hypercalcemia. Surgery to remove cancer from places where it has spread. Surgery was followed by radiation therapy. Radiation therapy. Chemotherapy. Supportive care to treat hypercalcemia. Surgery to remove cancer from places where it has recur. Surgery. Surgery was followed by radiation therapy. Radiation therapy. Chemotherapy. Supportive care to treat hypercalcemia. For more information from NCI, please write to this address: NCI Public Inquiries Office Suite 3036A 6116 Executive Boulevard, MSC8322 Bethesda, MD 20892 - 8322. US residents may call National Cancer Institute's Cancer Information Service toll - free at 1. 800. 4cancer Monday through Friday from 9: 00 am to 4: 30 pm. Deaf and hard - of - hearing callers with TTY equipment may call 1. 800. 332. 8615. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI Web site www.


Treatment

Calcimimetic is a drug that mimics calcium circulating in the blood. Drugs may trick parathyroid glands into releasing less parathyroid hormone. This drug is sold as cinacalcet. Some doctors may prescribe cinacalcet to treat primary hyperparathyroidism, particularly if surgery hasn't successfully cured the disorder or the person isn't good surgery candidate. The most commonly reported side effects of cinacalcet are joint and muscle pain, diarrhea, nausea, and respiratory infection. Hormone replacement therapy. For women who have gone through menopause and have signs of osteoporosis, hormone replacement therapy may help bones retain calcium. This treatment doesn't address underlying problems with parathyroid glands. Prolong use of hormone replacement therapy can increase the risk of blood clots and breast cancer. Work with your doctor to evaluate risks and benefits to help you decide what's best for you. Some common side effects of hormone replacement therapy include breast pain and tenderness, dizziness, and headaches. Bisphosphonates. Bisphosphonates also prevent loss of calcium from bones and may lessen osteoporosis caused by hyperparathyroidism. Some side effects associated with bisphosphonates include low blood pressure, fever and vomiting. This treatment doesn't address underlying problems with parathyroid glands.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Facts about Parathyroid Cancer

Parathyroid Cancer is very rare: about one case in every 1 000 patients with Parathyroid disease, or possibly even rarer. Parathyroid Cancer is often mild and not very aggressive. Parathyroid Cancer is often hard for pathologists to diagnose under microscope. Thus, diagnosis often depends on the clinical picture. Parathyroid Cancer is almost always associated with extremely high Parathyroid Hormone levels. If your Parathyroid Hormone level is not in the thousands, and your calcium is not consistently over 14, you do not have Parathyroid Cancer. Most people with calcium levels above 14 still do not have Parathyroid Cancer. Parathyroid Cancer is usually associated with extremely high blood calcium levels. Massive amounts of Parathyroid Hormone mobilize huge amounts of calcium from bones, releasing this calcium into the blood stream. Parathyroid Cancer is occasionally associated with genetic defect, Therefore, Parathyroid Cancer can run in families. Like most cancers, chance of cure from Parathyroid Cancer is highest if it's found and treated early. The Prognosis of Parathyroid Cancer depends on whether cancer is contained within the parathyroid gland or has spread to other areas. Parathyroid tumors can reappear as much as 30 years later, so patients with this disease must be examined at least yearly for many years. Since Parathyroid cancers typically make huge amounts of Parathyroid Hormone, effectiveness of the original operation to remove all cancer can be examined by measuring serum Parathyroid Hormone levels post - operatively. The amount of Parathyroid Hormone in the blood should be tested regularly for years to determine if Parathyroid Cancer is recurring. Serum calcium levels should also be checked at regular intervals for years post - operatively since they will rise in response to rising Parathyroid Hormone levels should cancer return. Radioguided Parathyroid Surgery works extremely well. Radioguided techniques should be used for patients with parathyroid cancerto help surgeons know if there are any lymph nodes in the neck that have metastatic parathyroid Cancer, and to let surgeons know when all of the parathyroid tumor has been removed from in and around the thyroid gland.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What is a parathyroid tumor?

Cancer is made of changed cells that grow out of control. Change cells often grow to form a lump or mass called a tumor. Cancer cells can also grow in nearby areas. And they can spread to other parts of the body. This is called metastasis. A Parathyroid tumor is growth inside the parathyroid gland. Most parathyroid tumors are not cancer. Parathyroid cancers are very rare. You have 4 parathyroid glands. They are small, pea - sized glands in your neck or upper chest near the thyroid gland. Theyre part of the endocrine system. This system controls hormones in your body. Parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone. This hormone controls levels of calcium and phosphorus in your blood. Parathyroid tumors that are not cancer may cause high levels of this hormone. This increases the amount of calcium in your blood. Parathyroid cancer causes very high levels of hormone.S This can lead to dangerously high levels of calcium in your blood. This is called hypercalcemia.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How is this type of tumor diagnosed?

Once other causes of elevated blood calcium have been ruled out and diagnosis of a parathyroid tumor has been make, surgery is typically pursue. Ultrasound is useful to specifically locate tumors prior to surgery. Usually, affected parathyroid gland is excised directly from thyroid gland, sparing thyroid gland and leaving remaining parathyroid glands in place. After surgery, your veterinarian will carefully monitor blood calcium level and supplement with calcium or vitamin D if the level drops too low, as low blood calcium can lead to serious complications. Supplementation is then gradually weaned as remaining parathyroid glands begin to function normally and regain control of blood calcium levels. Another possible treatment is ultrasound - guided ablation, either ethanol ablation or heat ablation. Although ultrasound - guided ablation is less invasive, surgery seems to have the highest success and lowest rate of complications.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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