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Phlegm Coronavirus

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Early and accurate detection is critical for preventing the spread of COVID - 19 and providing appropriate care for patients. Nasopharyngeal swabs, which require inserting a long shaft into the nasal cavity to collect samples from the back of the nose and throat, are currently the gold standard for collecting specimens for diagnosis. But the procedure is technically challenging, often uncomfortable for patients and requires personal protective equipment that may be in short supply. Other approaches to collecting specimens - including from oropharyngeal swab and sputum - have been tested in small studies, but there is uncertainty about which method is best for detecting viruses. In a new study published in EBioMedicine, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital conducted systematic review and meta - analysis, analyzing data from more than 3 000 specimens to compare three approaches. The team found that sputum testing detected RNA of virus that causes COVID - 19 at significantly higher rates while oropharyngeal swab testing had lower rates. Regardless of collection method, earlier samples were collected after symptoms begin, higher detection rate. Accurate diagnosis of COVID - 19 has implications for health care, return - to - work, infection control and Public Health, says corresponding author Jonathan Li, MD, faculty member in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Brigham. Our gold standard in and out of hospital is nasopharyngeal swab, but there's lot of confusion about which sampling modality is best and most sensitive. Our study shows that sputum testing results in significantly higher rates of SARS - CoV - 2 detection and supports use of this type of testing as a valuable method for diagnosis and monitoring of COVID - 19 patients. Li and his colleagues scour literature - both preprints and published papers - for studies that assess at least two respiratory sampling sites using NP swab, oropharyngeal swab or sputum. From more than 1 000 studies, they identified 11 that met their criteria. These studies include results from a total of 3 442 respiratory tract specimens. Team examined how often each collection method produces positive result. For NP swabs, rate was 54 percent; for oropharyngeal swabs, 43 percent; for sputum, 71 percent. The rate of viral detection was significantly higher in sputum than either oropharyngeal swabs or NP swabs. Detection rates were highest within one week of symptom onset for all three tests. When it comes to testing, earlier is better, as diagnostic accuracy is improved earlier after symptom onset, regardless of sampling site, says Li. Unlike antibody testing, it's very rare to have false positive qPCR test when diagnosing COVID - 19 early in the course of disease using these methods. Nasopharyngeal swabs are collected through the nasal cavity; oropharyngeal swabs are collected by inserting a shaft through the mouth; and sputum samples are generally collected by having patient cough deeply to produce and expel phlegm. Not all patients are able to produce sputum sample; for such patients, nasopharyngeal swab may be the best collection method.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Emergency Symptoms

According to the CDC and WHO, there are no medicines or immunizations right now to treat the COVID - 19 virus. At this time, please don't believe in any products that claim to prevent or treat coronavirus at this time. Additionally, antibiotics only treat bacteria, so they are not effective in treating this virus. What you can do is treat symptoms so that you recover as quickly as possible. The body is designed to fight viruses, and for most people, it do successfully on its own. If you are generally healthy, your body is likely to feel better after a few days and be totally recovered in about a week from the novel coronavirus. However, you may still be contagious for another week or so, which is why there is a 14 - day quarantine recommended for anyone WHO has has coronavirus.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How to Check for Fever

Most people will have mild coronavirus symptoms. There is no cure for this virus, but there are many simple ways to treat symptoms that will help your body fight the virus. Most people will feel better after a few days and feel totally fine within a week. However, they will still be contagious, so they should remain in isolation for 14 days from the time of first symptoms. Treat fever, cough and shortness of breath with techniques listed above and you will most likely feel better shortly. Staying hydrated and resting will help most. Remember to STAY away from other people and practice good cleanliness protocol to protect your loved ones from contracting viruses as well.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Allergies

Table

SymptomCOVID-19Allergies
Dry cough
Mucus/postnasal drip
Chest discomfort/pain
Shortness of breath
Wheezing
Fever
Sneezing
Nasal and eye watering and itching
Chills
Muscle Pain
Headache
Sore Throat
New loss of taste or smell

If your child has a cough, sore throat, and runny nose, you probably wonder: Is it allergies or could it be COVID - 19? Allergy season kicked off earlier this year than usual. This means that all of the time families are spending outdoors while social distancing could lead to symptoms that look similar to COVID - 19, coronavirus that is making so many people sick in area. But in many cases, these symptoms are actually triggered by reaction to pollen or grass. Dr. Subhadra Siegel, director of the Allergy and Immunology Program at Boston Children's Health Physicians, says it is important for parents to know how to tell the difference between allergies and illnesses, such as flu and COVID - 19, so they can respond appropriately.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Marvels of Mucus and Phlegm

Mucus have several names. Snot, sticky goo that pours from your nose during a cold. Or phlegm, gunk that can clog your lungs and make you cough. You are probably a fan of this stuff. But mucus is so much more than runny nose. Your body is making mucus all the time. And it plays an important role in keeping you healthy. Mucus and phlegm get sort of bad reputation, says Dr. Richard Boucher, Lung expert at University of North Carolina. People think about it as something youre supposed to cough up and get out. That's a bad thing. But in truth, mucus really is an interface between you and the outside world. Mucus lines moist surfaces of your body like lungs, sinuses hollow spaces in your skull around your nose, eyes, and forehead., Mouth, stomach, and intestines. Even your eyes are coated with thin layer of mucus. It serves as lubricant to keep tissues from drying out. It is also a line of defense. Mucus is very important for filtering out materials that you breathe in through your nose, such as dust and allergens and microorganisms, says Dr. Andrew Lane, ear, nose, and throat expert at Johns Hopkins University. Anything that you breathe in gets stuck in mucus, like flypaper.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Deep breathing technique

Deep breathing is a simple technique to expand your lungs and help clear your phlegm. You can do this many times during the day in any place or position. Make sure you are comfortable and your chest and shoulders are relax. Sit or lie in a comfortable position. Put one hand on your tummy just below your ribs and the other hand on your chest. Take a deep breath through your nose, and let your tummy push your hand out. The hand on your tummy should move more than the hand on your chest. Breathe out through pursed lips as if you were whistling. Feel your hand on your belly go in, and use it to push all the air out. Do this breathing 3 to 5 times. Take your time with each breath.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Bronchiectasis

Since the initial outbreak of Coronavirus Disease - 19 in Hubei province in China in late December 2019, acute respiratory syndrome infection has spread across China and to several countries around the world during the first 3 months of 2020. Symptoms are variable and nonspecific and include dry cough, fever, fatigue, myalgias, dyspnea, anosmia, and ageusia. Less commonly encountered symptoms include productive cough, pleuritic chest pain, hemoptysis, and diarrhea. The Real - time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is the current gold standard for confirming infection, performed using nasal or pharyngeal swab specimens or induced sputum. Routine unenhanced Chest compute tomography is useful in early diagnosis of COVID - 19 infection, in monitoring disease progression, coinfection, or disease stability. Since Chest CT was introduced as a diagnostic tool for COVID - 19 pneumonia, many typical features of this disease have been described, such as bilateral multilobar ground - glass opacification with prevalent peripheral or posterior distribution, mainly in lower lobes, and sometimes consolidative opacities superimposed on GGOs could be find. Less common imaging findings include septal thickening, bronchiectasis, pleural thickening, and subpleural involvement,. Some studies describe evolution of imaging features of COVID - 19 pneumonia: increase in GGOs and progressive transformation of GGO into multifocal consolidative opacities, septal thickening and development of crazy - paving pattern. To our best knowledge, no studies reporting onset or evolution of bronchiectasis during follow - up in patients with COVID - 19 have been publish. We describe two cases of rapid evolution of bronchiectasis documented in CT in patients with COVID - 19 pneumonia.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Tests that may be needed

Table

Consider calling an expert (e.g. your primary doctor) for guidance if you:Considering seeking urgent medical attention (call 911 if appropriate) if you:
Feel dehydrated or produce little urine even though you are drinking plenty of fluidsExperience shortness of breath (difficulty breathing) at rest or with simple activity
Experience symptoms associated with Covid-19 like cough and fever AND you are over age 60 or have a chronic medical condition like diabetes, heart disease, or lung diseaseHave chest pain
Have symptoms and were in direct contact with someone known to be infected with Covid-19 (you might be a candidate for Covid-19 testing)Become confused or light-headed
Have any other worrisome symptom for which you typically would call 911

Although news reports about Covid - 19 are alarming, reports from China, Italy, US, and elsewhere indicate that for most people, infection with the novel coronavirus is on par with getting the flu. These steps can help you know if you need formal medical care and, if not, how to care for yourself safely at home. Know when to seek medical care. Reasons to seek immediate care today are no different than they were before the Covid - 19 outbreak. Severe symptoms listed in the table below suggest that you need medical attention. Otherwise, if you have fever and cough or other cold or flu symptoms, but are otherwise healthy, are under age 60, are having difficulty breathing, and dont feel seriously ill, youre better off caring for yourself at home. Severe symptoms that suggest need for medical attention should go straight to the doctor's office or urgent care. Start by calling the medical advice line or telemedicine option instead. It is wise these days to stay away from crowded places, and that includes emergency departments, hospitals, doctors offices, urgent care centers, and clinics unless you are seriously ill. These are places where you could pick up coronavirus if you do have it, or spread your batch to other people. Many health plans have 800 numbers with nurses or doctors on call to answer questions by phone, as do some doctors offices. Look at your insurance card and make a call. Some clinics conduct video visits, also know as telemedicine. If you call the advice line first, you can often get guidance you need without spreading infection or unnecessarily exhausting yourself. Save testing for those sick enough to need hospitalization. Testing for Covid - 19 will not change your medical care because there is no treatment available or necessary for mild symptoms. Tests are currently in short supply and are being prioritize for those who have severe symptoms or who have been exposed to someone diagnosed with Covid - 19. If you do not fall into one of those two categories, resist the urge to request testing unless public health officials encourage you to get test for tracking purposes. Practice self - care. Viral infections are dehydrating. Drink plenty of liquids Pedialyte and soups that contain salt are helpful, as are plain water, tea, juice, and soda. Drink enough so your urine is its normal pale color and you produce as much urine as you usually put out. Note: not urinating normally is a sign that you may need medical attention. If you have special dietary restrictions due to diabetes, kidney disease, heart failure, or other condition, get medical advice by phone or email about fluids that are best for you. Some over - counter medications may help. As anyone who has experienced a cold knows, over - counter remedies tend to provide only limited relief, and some may have side effects such as dry mouth, drowsiness, and raised blood pressure. Try flushing out your nose and sinuses with a saline solution. Fever - reducers and pain medications such as Tylenol can help, and honey can be an effective cough remedy.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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