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Primary sensory areas

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Last Updated: 18 January 2022

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Assessment | Biopsychology | Comparative | Cognitive | Developmental | Language | Individual differences | Personality | Philosophy | Social | Methods | Statistics | Clinical | Educational Industrial | Professional items | World psychology | primary sensory areas are main cerebral areas that receive sensory information from thalamic nerve projections. Though some areas of human brain that receive primary sensory information remain poorly define, each of five sensory modalities has been recognized to relate to specific groups of brain cells that begin to categorize and integrate sensory information. Somatosensory system: primary somatosensory cortex is across central sulcus and behind primary motor cortex configured to generally correspond with arrangement of nearby motor cells related to specific body parts. Area Includes Gray Matter Along Central Gyrus And Its Extension Into Postcentral Gyrus. Taste: primary gustatory area is near face representation postcentral gyrus. It starts at about most lateral point on gyrus and continues into insular cortex where postcentral gyrus folds over operculum of gyrus at lateral sulcus. Olfaction: Olfactory cortex is found along ventral surface of frontal lobe. Olfaction is sensory system that is not rout through thalamus. Vision: visual area know as V1, striate cortex, is located on calcarine sulcus deep within inside folds of occipital lobe. Hearing: primary auditory cortex is located on transverse gyri that lie on back of superior temporal convolution of temporal lobes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Key Terms

20x microphotographs of different focal depths from BDA label slices merged into one to visualize all focal depths. About 1000 microphotographs for each brain slice are photo - merge using Photoshop to reconstruct whole brain slice at 20X. Axons are then mapped on different layers from 20X merged microphotographs using freeform pen tool and stroke with 5 pixel square brush. Co - stained slices of layer 4 are merged visible to allow visualization of barrels and used to create barrel cortex scheme. Blood vessels from CO - stain layer microphotograph and scheme are used to overlap CO scheme with axon outlines. Then finally, blood vessels are used to overlap outlines of different brain slices from same animal. This process is repeated for 3 - complete brain slices for each BDA injection. Scheme of projections from BDA injections into SI. Photomicrograph of CO stain section at layer showing borders of cortical areas AI, VI, and SI. Scale bar: 1 mm. Co - base of relevant cortical areas. Scale bar: 1 mm. Bda injections in barrel cortex, with outlined axons. Name Of Each Injection Is Shown At Upper Left Of Each Scheme And Putative Location Is Shown At Upper Right Of Each Scheme. Letter and digits identify particular barrel corresponding to particular whisker or surrounding septa. Co - defined borders of AI, and barrel cortex are shown in gray. Scale bars: 2 mm. For details on injection, see Table Table1 1.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Organization of Sensory Maps

Sensory organs are windows of brain to environment, permitting behavioral interactions with conspecifics, prey, and predators. Finding appropriate mate, being able to avoid being eat, and finding food are essential features for survival and propagation. Sensory organs filter out appropriate information for these tasks and relay it to brain to elicit adequate motor responses 1 - 3. Sensory map features depend specific sensory modality and relevant information to be extract. For example, maps project topographic array of sensors to reflect sensor distribution, density, and activity of skin to brain 4 - 6. Similarly, retinotopic map projects distinct areas of retina and corresponding visual field as two - dimensional map to target brain area 7 8, whereas cochlea map projects unidimensional map of distinct frequencies to specific areas of cochlear nuclei 9 and auditory cortex 10 11. Beyond primary maps, central map formation underlies binocular vision and depth perception 12 13. Likewise, auditory space map is generated through binaural interactions 14 - 16 whereas mechanosensory lateral line 17 and electrosensory space map 18 are generated through integration of distributed sensors across body. In contrast to these emerging centrally synthesize maps and continuous primary maps, discrete olfactory maps unique properties of odorant stimuli perceived by distributed olfactory neurosensory cells convergently onto specific glomeruli 10 19 20. Variation of latter theme is incomplete segregation of movement detection in vestibular system, where angular movements always cause concomitant linear acceleration. This causes partial of effects from organs dedicated to either linear or angular acceleration perception 21 22. Even more difficult to understand are maps where give stimulus and its intensity are differentially cod as for yet - to - be - fully - defined taste map 23 - 26. During last century, specific properties of give sensory maps and basic rules how to form them, such as chemoaffinity theory 27 and activity - mediate synaptic plasticity theory 28 29, have been worked out for some primary maps. Understanding molecular cues that guide primary map development, plasticity of primary map development mediated by activity to sharpen map in neonates adults 30 - 33, and translation of primary sensory afferent map formation into Cortical and midbrain maps for multisensory integration 2 6 34 35 will be defining achievements of 21 century. Toward this end, we provide here overview of primary sensory maps of mammals, characterized by continuous and discrete map properties 33. All primary maps require that peripheral sense be wire to independently developing central target neurons by molecular cues in target and matching cues expressed neurons as they navigate toward their target. Our aim is to turn primary sensory map formation into neuronal pathfinding problem that combines with cell cycle exit to generate embryonic primary map for each sense. Uncovering regulatory aspects of map formation across senses will facilitate sensory restoration badly needed for sensory repair seniors in our rapidly aging societies.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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