Proximate and utmost causes of dispersal in vertebrates differ, and relative relevance of these causes is poorly recognized. Amongst populations, inter- and intrasexual social signs for dispersal are thought to lower inbreeding and neighborhood mate competitors, respectively, and specific emigration cue might impact dispersal range, such that inbreeding evasion dispersal often tends to be further than dispersal to decrease neighborhood competition. Most dispersal took place throughout two 12-week periods: spring, when yearling men still closely connect with relevant ladies, and prior to fall breeding period, when yearling men closely connect with other breeding-age men. Following changes to sex and age framework that minimized possible for inbreeding and increased capacity for mate competitors, annual dispersal chance did not change; nevertheless, chance of spring dispersal decreased, whereas likelihood of loss dispersal increased. Springtime dispersal ranges were greater than drop dispersal distances, suggesting that adaptive inbreeding avoidance dispersal calls for greater range than mate competitors dispersal where opposite-sex relatives are philopatric and populations are not patchily distributed.
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