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Public Housing Projects

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Last Updated: 09 November 2020

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Residential racial segregation, accompanied by social and economic hardship, burden learning of many Urban children. But school reformers often express hope that, harsh though these obstacles may be, children in high-poverty, racially isolated neighborhoods could typically still be successful if only they had better teachers, more orderly schools and more hours of instruction. To support this hope, advocates seek examples of disadvantaged children who succeed, overcoming great socioeconomic handicaps. Some such cases exist, of coursethere is a range of outcomes for any human conditionbut, the reality that some who grow up in truly disadvantaged neighborhoods beat the odds does not mean that many can. Frequently-cite examples of such success usually turn out, upon examination, to be chimeras. A claim by US Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, referring to former New York City Schools Chancellor Joel Klein, is one. Mr. Duncan say: Klein know, as I do, that great teachers can transform children's life chancesand that poverty is not destiny. It belief deeply rooted in his childhood, As a kid growing up in Public Housing in Queens, he understood that education is a force that lifts children from Public Housing Projects to first-generation college students. Our credulity about Duncans ' well-intentioned observation reveals a shocking loss of collective memory about how public policy created and remains responsible for hopeless segregated ghettos in which too many children live today. True, Joel Klein grew up in public housing. But from the Depression into the early 1950s, faced with housing shortages compounded by flood of returning War veterans, cities constructed Public Housing for white working-and middle-class families. These projects, for stable white families like Joel Kleins, become highly-prized treasures, most desirable housing available, their lucky residents object of envy. Projects were located in mostly all-white neighborhoods, and admit only a few black residents, if any.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

HOW DID WE GET HERE?

This year marks the 70 anniversary of the Housing Act of 1949, which significantly increased the number of Public Housing agencies and led to more widespread construction of Public Housing stock we see today. The Following is a Brief History of Public Housing. Public Housing is the oldest and, until recently, largest housing subsidy program in the country. Todays 1. 1 million units of Public Housing, operated by over 3 000 local Public Housing agencies, serve 2. 2 million residents. Not to be confused with other housing subsidy programs, Public Housing is housing stock that is owned by HUD and administered by local PHAs. The Federal Public Housing program started as part of the Housing Act of 1937, passed during the New Deal. First intended to be a jobs program and a slums-clearing effort, Public Housing was the result of powerful grassroots organizing. Social Justice advocates like Catherine Bauer of Regional Planning Association of America mobilize massive public support for movement for government-sponsor housing, ie, Public Housing. In his book Color of Law, Richard Rothstein explains the intensely segregationist beginnings of Public Housing. The federal government helps local governments carry out their housing segregation policies or does little to stop them. The Public Work Administration, created under the New Deal to address the countrys housing and infrastructure needs, constructed Techwood Homes in Atlanta, GA, in 1935 as the first Federal Public Housing project. The Project evict hundreds of black families to create a 604-unit, White-only neighborhood. That same year, the Supreme Court ruled that the Federal government lacks Authority to seize property through eminent domain-but local PHAs do have this authority, allowing them to act without proper oversight regarding placement of Public Housing. Federal governments practice of creating segregated Public Housing persisted throughout the second half of the 1900s. In 1954, shortly after the Federal government expanded the Public Housing program under the Housing Act of 1949, Supreme Court handed down a landmark decision invalidating separate but equal public education. Housing and Home Finance Agency general Counsel Berchmans Fitzpatrick state decision does not apply to housing. And one year later, the Eisenhower Administration ended the policy that black and White communities should receive equal quality housing. While public housing production increased in the post-War period, segregated Public Housing construction persisted throughout the 60s and 70s and cement deeply segregated public housing across the country. In 1984, Dallas Morning News visited 47 metropolitan areas and found nearly all public housing tenants in those areas were segregated by race, and White Housing projects had better amenities. After passage of the Fair Housing Act of 1968, Public Housing would no longer be a tool for advancing segregation. Just six years later, the Federal government started steady withdrawal of support for Public Housing beginning with President Nixons moratorium on Housing spending in 1974. There has been no significant expansion of Public Housing since then, as Federal Housing subsidies have shifted to housing vouchers.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

NYCs Subsidized Housing

Meanwhile, cities also built projects for low-income African Americans in ghetto neighborhoods, or sometimes in neighborhoods to which planners want to relocate ghetto. Unlike projects for middle-class whites who paid market rents that fully cover construction and operating costs, projects for low-income blacks were heavily subsidized with Federal and sometimes State and local funds. There were also privately-built and-own developments that were subsidized by public land clearance and tax breakssuch as whites-only Stuyvesant Town in New York City. These remain today as middle-class urban islands, but forgotten have been truly public projectsbuilt, owned and operated by the governmentfor working-and middle-class whites. Woodside Houses in Queens, New York, where Joel Klein lived as a boy, was one of these. The New York City Housing Authority carefully screens applicants for projects like Woodside. Preference was given to war veterans. Only two-parent families were accept, and applicants had to produce marriage licenses to prove their status. Investigators visit potential tenants to verify they had good furniture and housekeeping habits, and well-behave children. Stable post-war employment records, good credit, no teenage pregnant daughters and no alcohol or drug problems were also require. Tenants typically had civil service jobs or work in trade or manufacturing. Some were small business owners. When the unsubsidized Woodside project opened in 1949, its tenants were 92 percent white. In surrounding neighborhood was nary black face. Across borough in South Jamaica, Authority built projects for low-income tenants: 30 percent white when they opened pre-war and down to 12 percent white by mid-1950s. Citywide, authorities respects applicants ' preferences regarding which project they wish to occupy, guided by a rule established during the New Deal by Harold Ickes, head of Public Works Administration: Public projects could not alter neighborhood racial composition. As applied by New York City, rules ensure that few low-income whites would live in South Jamaica, and few middle-income blacks would live in the Woodside. Housing Authority board minutes explain that the South Jamaica project should house minorities because it was located in a neighborhood having a preponderance of colored people. The project had lower income limits than Woodside, and rental rates were subsidized with Federal funds, but not all projects designed for African Americans were low-income: project Housing Authority built contemporaneously with Woodside, also designed for stable higher-income working families where rents cover full housing cost, was Colonial Park Houses in Harlemit was 92 percent black, 7 percent Puerto Rican, and 1 percent white. But as projects like Woodside fill up with middle-class whites, other Federal policies lure these families out of projects into even whiter suburbs. These were mortgage insurance programs of the Federal Housing Administration and the Veterans Administration, from which black families were mostly exclude. In the 1950s, as single-family home construction accelerate, housing shortages eased and white families took advantage of these guarantees to decamp from Woodside and similar projects for suburbs.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

The Governments One-Two Punch

When Early New Deal first constructed PUBLIC HOUSING in New York CITY and elsewhere, PROJECTS FOR blacks were built in existing ghettos or undeveloped areas where planners wanted TO shift existing Black neighborhoods. But PROJECTS FOR whites were built in existing white neighborhoods, places like WOODSIDE, where the Klein Family live. By mid-1930s government began TO lure white families out OF PUBLIC HOUSING with FEDERALLY insured mortgages that subsidize relocation TO new single-Family homes in the suburbs. With Federal HOUSING ADMINISTRATION and then, after World War II, Veterans ADMINISTRATION guarantees, white middle-class families could buy Suburban Homes with little or no down payments and extended 30-year amortization schedules. MONTHLY charges were often less than RENTS families had previously paid to HOUSING authorities or private landlords. The government had explicit POLICY OF not insuring Suburban mortgages FOR African Americans. In Suburban Nassau County, just EAST OF Queens, FOR example, Levittown was built in 1947: 17 500 mass-produce two-bedroom HOUSES, requiring nothing down and MONTHLY payments OF about 60. At FHA's insistence, developer William Levitt does not sell homes TO blacks, and each deed includes prohibition OF such resales in future. OF 300 large subdivisions built from 1935 TO 1947 in Queens, Nassau, and Westchester counties in New York, 83 percent had racially restrictive deeds, With preambles like whereas Federal HOUSING ADMINISTRATION require that existing mortgages on say premises BE subject and subordinate TO say restrictions on domestic servants of different Race domicile With owner or tenant. If a black family could afford TO buy into a white neighborhood without government help, FHA would refuse TO insure future mortgages even TO whites in that neighborhood, because it was now threatened with integration. The federal government was determined to prevent school integration as well. Whole neighborhoods could BE deemed ineligible FOR mortgage guarantees because, as FHA Underwriting Manual State, where children are compelled TO attend school where majority or goodly number OF pupils represent a far lower level OF society or incompatible racial element, neighborhoods UNDER consideration will prove far less stable and desirable than if this condition do not exist. Although the Supreme Court ruled in 1948 that racial restrictions were legally unenforceable, FHA and VA continue TO insure such mortgages. By 1950, Federal agencies were insuring half of all new mortgages nationwide. Many white families, who before the postwar HOUSING boom lived in urban neighborhoods in proximity TO African Americans, were relocated TO more isolated white racial enclaves, created and promoted by government POLICY. Thus, the racial and social-class homogeneity of Joel Klein's schools in Queens-PUBLIC School 151, Junior High School 10, and Bryant High-was created in good measure by PUBLIC-HOUSING and Federal mortgage-guarantee POLICIES that isolate the poor. These Federal POLICIES OF racial Segregation were APPLY not only in New York but nationwide.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Works Cited

Since passage of the US HOUSING Act of 1937, federal government has provided HOUSING assistance to low-Income renters. Most of these HOUSING Subsidies were provided under programs administered by the US Department of HOUSING and Urban Development or predecessor AGENCIES. All programs covered in this report provide subsidies that reduce rents for low-Income tenants who meet program eligibility requirements. Generally, households pay rent equal to 30 percent of their incomes, after deductions, while the Federal government pays the remainder of rent or rental costs. To qualify for subsidy, applicants ' income must initially fall below a certain income limit. These income limits are HUD-determine, location specific, and vary by household size. Applicants for HOUSING assistance are usually placed on the Waiting List until a subsidized unit becomes available. Assistance provided under HUD programs falls into three categories: Public HOUSING, tenant-base, and privately own, Project-base. In Public HOUSING, local HOUSING AGENCIES receive allocations of HUD funding to build, operate or make improvements to HOUSING. HOUSING is owned by local agencies. Public HOUSING is a form of Project-base subsidy because households may receive assistance only if they agree to live at particular Public HOUSING Project. Currently, tenant base assistance is the most prevalent form of HOUSING assistance provide. Historically, tenant base assistance begins with Section 8 certificate and Voucher programs, which were created in 1974 and 1983, respectively. These programs were replaced by the HOUSING Choice Voucher program, under legislation enacted in 1998. Tenant base programs allow participants to find and lease HOUSING in a private market. Local Public HOUSING AGENCIES and some State AGENCIES serving as PHAs enter into contracts with HUD to administer programs. PHAs then enter into contracts with private landlords. HOUSING must meet HOUSING quality standards and other program requirements. Subsidies are used to supplement rent pay by low-Income households. Under tenant-base programs, assist households may move and take their subsidies with them. The primary difference between Certificates and Vouchers is that under Certificates, there was maximum rent which unit may not exceed. By contrast, vouchers have no specific maximum rent; low-Income households must pay any excess over payment standard, amount that is determined locally and that is based on Fair Market Rent. HUD calculates Fair Market Rent based on 40 percentile of gross rent paid by recent movers for non-luxury Units meeting certain quality standards. The third major type of HUD rental assistance is collection of programs generally referred to as multifamily assist, or, privately-own, Project-base HOUSING. These types of HOUSING assistance fall under collection of programs created During last four decades. What these programs have in common is that they provide rental HOUSING that is owned by private landlords who enter into contracts with HUD in order to receive HOUSING Subsidies. Subsidies pay difference between tenant rent and total rental costs. Subsidy arrangement is term Project-base because assist household may not take subsidy and move to another location.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

An Era of Defunding Begins

When Congress passed the Housing Act of 1968, it committed the nation to the goal of producing 2. 6 million units of Housing year, including 600 000 annually for Low-Income families. Now, if the Reagan Administration has its way, direct Federal subsidy programs enacted by Congress to help meet that goal will be drastically curtail. The Department of Housing and Urban Development is proposing deep cuts in two main subsidy Programs-Section 8 Rental Housing Assistance and Public Housing-for fiscal year 1983, which begin in year. Not only are programs too expensive in light of the President's plans to balance the budget, HUD officials say, but they just do not fit in Administration's new approach to housing. In last year of Carter Administration, Housing and Urban Development and Congress, alarmed by reports of a growing shortage of Rental Housing, frantically searched for new ways to use Federal subsidies to produce more apartments. Now, Department contend, there is no nationwide shortage of Rental Housing. 'Currently there is no need for a nationwide direct subsidy Program to stimulate production of Rental Housing, in particular middle-Income Rental Housing, ' say report on which the Department is basing its new policies. 'Rental housing is an important component of the nation's housing stock and, with limited exceptions, the private market is successfully addressing this need. ' Philip D. Winn, assistant secretary for Housing and Federal Housing Commissioner, said in an interview that HUD had no replacement for the Section 8 Program and that the agency plans to rely on private sector production without subsidies. 'There is no question that a country can no longer afford whole production subsidies that exist heretofore, ' he say. 'The whole attitude that the federal government can solve all the housing problems of this country-those days are over. ' The Section 8 Program, enacted in 1974, and the Public Housing Program, enacted in 1937, have already been cut from combined peak activity level of funding commitments of 517 000 units in fiscal year 1976 to an estimated level of fewer than 150 000 units in fiscal 1982, which began Oct. 1. The level will go still lower if Congress enacts President Reagan's new round of budget cuts announced Sept. 24. For fiscal year 1983, HUD is proposing a 142 000-Unit Program. But, in complete shift from prior years, when most of subsidized units were newly constructed or totally rehabilitate, HUD is proposing only 10 000 units of new construction. Remaining funds would be used to help Low-Income tenants pay rent on 132 000 existing housing units through the current Section 8 existing Housing Program and modify version Call Housing Vouchers, which differ from Section 8 primarily in that there is a limit on the amount of subsidy the government will pay but no limit on Unit rents.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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