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Python Datetime

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Last Updated: 19 October 2020

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General | Latest Info

Dealing with dates and times in Python can be a hassle. Thankfully, there is a build - in way of making it easier: Python datetime module. Datetime helps us identify and process time - related elements like dates, hours, minutes, seconds, days of week, months, years, etc. It offers various services like managing time zones and daylight savings time. It can work with timestamp data. It can extract day of week, day of month, and other date and time formats from strings. In short, it really powerful way of handling anything date and time related in Python. So let's get into it! In this tutorial, you learn about Python datetime functions in detail, including: creating Date Objects Getting years and months from Date Getting months, days and Weekdays from Date Getting hours and minutes from Date Getting Weeks number of year from Date Converting Date object into timestamp Converting UNIX timestamp string to Date object Handling timedelta Objects Getting difference between two dates and times Formatting dates: strftime and strptime Handling timezones Working with Pandas datetime Objects Getting year, month, day, hour, and minute Getting Weekday and day of year Converting Date Objects into DataFrame index as you work through this tutorial, wed encourage you to run code on your own machine. Alternatively, if you like to run code in your browser and learn in an interactive fashion with answer - checking to be sure you are getting it right, our Python intermediate course has lessons on datetime in Python that we recommend. You can start learning by signing up for a free user account. We can see from the results above that datetime_object is indeed datetime object of datetime class. This includes year, month, day, hour, minute, second, and microsecond. Note that strptime takes two arguments: string and% y -% m -% d, another string that tells strptime how to interpret input string my_string.% Y, for example, tell it to expect the first four characters of string to be year. A full list of these patterns is available in the documentation, and well go into these methods in more depth later in this tutorial. You may also have noticed that time of 00: 00: 00pm has been added to the date. That is because we create a datetime object, which must include date and time. 00: 00: 00 is the default time that will be assigned if no time is designated in string were inputting. Anyway, we were hoping to separate out specific elements of date for our analysis. One way can do that is using built - in class attributes of datetime object, like. Month or. Year: now we can see that Python starts weeks on Monday and counts from index 0 rather than starting at 1. So it makes sense that number 3 is converted to Thursday as we saw above. Note that in the ISO calendar, week starts counting from 1, so here 5 represent the correct day of week: Friday.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

datetime.date Class

Before jumping into writing code, it is worth looking at five main object classes that are used in the datetime module. Depending on what we are trying to do, we likely need to make use of one or more of these distinct classes: datetime - allows us to manipulate times and date together. Date - allows us to manipulate dates independent of time. Time - allows us to manipulate time independent of date. Timedelta duration of time used for manipulating dates and measuring. Tzinfo abstract class for dealing with time zones. If those distinctions dont make sense yet, dont worry! Let's dive into datetime and start working with it to better understand how these are apply.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

datetime - Date/time value manipulation

Supported operations:

OperationResult
datetime2 = datetime1 + timedelta(1)
datetime2 = datetime1 - timedelta(2)
timedelta = datetime1 - datetime2(3)
datetime1 < datetime2Compares datetime to datetime . (4)

A Datetime object is a single object containing all information from date object and time object. Like date object, DateTime assumes the current Gregorian calendar extends in both directions; like Time object, DateTime assumes there are exactly 3600 * 24 seconds every day. Class DateTime. Datetime year, month and day arguments are require. Tzinfo may be none, or instance of tzinfo subclass. Remaining arguments may be ints or longs, in following ranges: MINYEAR < = year < = MAXYEAR 1 < = month < = 12 1 < = day < = number of days in give month and year 0 < = hour < 24 0 < = minute < 60 0 < = second < 60 0 < = microsecond < 1000000 If argument outside those ranges is give, ValueError is raise. Classmethod DateTime. Today return to current local datetime, with tzinfo None. This is equivalent to DateTime. Fromtimestamptime. Time. See also now, fromtimestamp. Classmethod DateTime. Now return to the current local date and time. If optional argument TZ is none or not specify, this is like today, but, if possible, supplies more precision than can be get from going through time. Time timestamp. If TZ is not None, it must be instance of tzinfo subclass, and current date and time are Convert to TZ as Time zone. In this case, result is equivalent to TZ. Fromutcdatetime. Utcnow. Replace. See also today, utcnow. Classmethod DateTime. You return the current UTC date and time, with tzinfo None. This is like now, but returns current UTC date and time, as naive DateTime object. See also now. Classmethod DateTime. Fromtimestamp Return local date and time corresponding to POSIX timestamp, such as is Return by Time. Time. If optional argument TZ is none or is not specify, timestamp is Convert to platformas local date and time, and the return DateTime object is naive. If TZ is not None, it must be instance of tzinfo subclass, and the timestamp is Convert to TZ as Time zone. In this case, result is equivalent to TZ. Fromutcdatetime. Utcfromtimestamp. Replace. Fromtimestamp may raise ValueError, if the timestamp is out of range of values supported by platform C localtime or gmtime functions. Itas common for this to be restricted to years from 1970 through 2038. Note that on non - POSIX systems that include leap seconds in their notion of timestamp, leap seconds are ignored by fromtimestamp, and then it is possible to have two timestamps differing by second that yield identical DateTime objects. See also utcfromtimestamp. Classmethod DateTime. Utcfromtimestamp Return UTC DateTime corresponding to POSIX timestamp, with tzinfo None. This may raise ValueError, if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by platform C gmtime function. Itas common for this to be restricted to years from 1970 through 2038. See also fromtimestamp. Classmethod DateTime. Fromordinal Return DateTime corresponds to proleptic Gregorian ordinal, where January 1 of year 1 has ordinal 1.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

strptime/strftime format codes A

SymbolMeaningExample
%aAbbreviated weekday name'Wed'
%AFull weekday name'Wednesday'
%wWeekday number a 0 (Sunday) through 6 (Saturday)'3'
%dDay of the month (zero padded)'13'
%bAbbreviated month name'Jan'
%BFull month name'January'
%mMonth of the year'01'
%yYear without century'16'
%YYear with century'2016'
%HHour from 24-hour clock'17'
%IHour from 12-hour clock'05'
%pAM/PM'PM'
%MMinutes'00'
%SSeconds'00'
%fMicroseconds'000000'
%zUTC offset for time zone-aware objects'-0500'
%ZTime Zone name'EST'
%jDay of the year'013'
%WWeek of the year'02'
%cDate and time representation for the current locale'Wed Jan 13 17:00:00 2016'
%xDate representation for the current locale'01/13/16'
%XTime representation for the current locale'17:00:00'
%%A literal % character'%'
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Time Zones

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

Tzinfo is an abstract base class, meaning that this class should not be instantiate directly. You need to derive concrete subclass, and supply implementations of Standard tzinfo methods needed by datetime methods you use. The Datetime module supplies simple concrete subclass of tzinfo timezone which can represent timezones with fixed offset from UTC such as UTC itself or North American EST and EDT. Instance of TZINFO can be passed to constructors for datetime and time objects. Latter objects view their attributes as being in local time, and tzinfo objects support methods revealing offset of local time from UTC, name of Time zone, and DST offset, all relative to the date or time object pass to them. Special requirement For pickling: TZINFO subclass must have _init_ method that can be called with no arguments, else it can be pickled but possibly not unpickled again. This is a technical requirement that may be relaxed in the future. Concrete subclass of TZINFO may need to be implemented following methods. Exactly which methods are needed depends on uses make aware of datetime objects. If in doubt, simply implement all of them. Tzinfo. Utcoffset Return offset of local Time from UTC, in minutes east of UTC. If local time is west of UTC, this should be negative. Note that this is intended to be total offset from UTC; For example, if TZINFO object represents both Time zone and DST adjustments, UTCOFFSET should return their sum. If UTC offset isnt know, Return None. Else value return must be timedelta object specifying the whole number of minutes in the range - 1439 to 1439 inclusive. Most implementations of utcoffset will probably look like one of these two: Return CONSTANT fix - offset class Return CONSTANT + self. Dst daylight - aware class If UTCOFFSET does not return none, DST should not return none either. Default implementation of utcoffset raises NotImplementedError. Tzinfo. Dst Return daylight saving Time adjustment, in minutes east of UTC, or none if DST information isnt know. Return timedelta if DST is not in effect. If DST is in effect, Return offset as timedelta object. Note that DST offset, if applicable, has already been added to UTC offset Return by UTCOFFSET, so there is no need to consult DST unless youre interested in obtaining DST info separately. For example, time Timetuple calls its tzinfo attribute DST method to determine how tm_isdst flag should be set, and tzinfo. Fromutc calls DST to account for DST changes when crossing time zones. Instance tz of tzinfo subclass that models both standard and daylight times must be consistent in this sense: tz. Utcoffset - tz. Dst must return the same result for every datetime dt with dt. Tzinfo = tz For sane tzinfo subclasses, this expression yields Time zone Standard offset, which should not depend on date or time, but only on geographic location.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Supported operations:

OperationResult
t1 = t2 + t3Sum of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 - t2 == t3 and t1 - t3 == t2 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 - t3Difference of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 == t2 - t3 and t2 == t1 + t3 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 i or t1 = i t2Delta multiplied by an integer. Afterwards t1 // i == t2 is true, provided i != 0 .
In general, t1 i == t1 (i-1) + t1 is true. (1)
t1 = t2 f or t1 = f t2Delta multiplied by a float. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
f = t2 / t3Division (3) of t2 by t3 . Returns a float object.
t1 = t2 / f or t1 = t2 / iDelta divided by a float or an int. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
t1 = t2 // i or t1 = t2 // t3The floor is computed and the remainder (if any) is thrown away. In the second case, an integer is returned. (3)
t1 = t2 % t3The remainder is computed as a timedelta object. (3)
q, r = divmod(t1, t2)Computes the quotient and the remainder: q = t1 // t2 (3) and r = t1 % t2 . q is an integer and r is a timedelta object.
+t1Returns a timedelta object with the same value. (2)
-t1equivalent to timedelta (- t1.days , - t1.seconds , - t1.microseconds ), and to t1 -1. (1)(4)
abs(t)equivalent to + t when t.days >= 0 , and to - t when t.days < 0 . (2)
str(t)Returns a string in the form , H:MM:SS , where D is negative for negative t . (5)
repr(t)Returns a string in the form datetime.timedelta(D) , where D is negative for negative t . (5)

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as locales abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, ..., Sat (en_US); So, Mo, ..., Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as locales full name.Sunday, Monday, ..., Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, ..., Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, ..., 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 31
%bMonth as locales abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, ..., Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, ..., Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as locales full name.January, February, ..., December (en_US); Januar, Februar, ..., Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.0001, 0002, ..., 2013, 2014, ..., 9998, 9999(2)
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%pLocales equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (3)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59(4)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, ..., 999999(5)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(6)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, ..., 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%cLocales appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocales appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocales appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

General Services Provided by DateTime

Oracle features top - of - line support of TIME zones and DATE arithmetic. Basic Oracle Datatypes for handling TIME and DATE include: DATE - DATE and TIME information that includes century, YEAR,s MONTH, DATE, hour,ss minutes and SECOND. Columns of this type support values from January 1 4712 BC up TO December 31 9999. Timestamp - granularity of DATE datatype is TO SECOND. Timestamp fields hold all information DATE plus fraction of SECOND to give precision. The default precision is 6. Timestamp WITH TIME ZONE - in addition TO information stored in the TIMESTAMP column, this variation also includes TIME ZONE offset, which is the difference between LOCAL TIME and UTC. Precision properties are the same as above. Timestamp WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE - Contrary TO TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE this type doesn't hold TIME ZONE offset in its value, but one that is determined by the user's LOCAL session TIME ZONE. Datetimes consist of a number of fields, determined by datatype's granularity and variant. These fields can be EXTRACT in SQL queries WITH EXTRACT statement. For details about available fields in Datatypes and intervals, consult the Datatypes section of Oracle Database SQL Language Reference. Let's see how this work: using this method, and Oracle's DATE arithmetic, you can also grab intervals between two dates: another datatype involved in DATE operations is INTERVAL, which represents period of TIME. At TIME of writing, Python doesn't support INTERVAL datatype return as part of query; only way TO do that is by extracting required information from INTERVAL WITH EXTRACT. Queries involving intervals that return TIMESTAMP type work fine, though. Interval YEAR TO MONTH - stores information about number of years and number of months. Year precision could be specified manually. Default is. Error Base class for all of the exceptions mentioned here except for Warning INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND - in cases where more precision is require, this type holds information about days, hours, minutes, and SECOND period of TIME. Both DAY and SECOND precision can be stated explicitly WITH ranges 0 TO 9. The Default is INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

3.0 (2011-12-09)

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

Date idealize naive date, assuming the current Gregorian calendar always was, and always will be, in effect. Attributes: year, month, and day. Class DateTime. Time is idealized time, independent of any particular day, assuming that every day has exactly 24 * 60 * 60 seconds. Attributes: hour, Minute, Second, microsecond, and tzinfo. Class DateTime. Datetime is a combination of date and time. Attributes: year, month, day, hour, Minute, Second, microsecond, and tzinfo. Class DateTime. Timedelta duration expresses the difference between two date, time, or DateTime instances to microsecond resolution. Class DateTime. Tzinfo abstract base class For time zone information objects. These are used by DateTime and time classes to provide customizable notions of time adjustment. Object d of type time or datetime may be naive or aware. D is aware if DTZINFO is not None and dtzinfo. Utcoffset do not return None. If dtzinfo is none, or if dtzinfo is not none but dtzinfo. Utcoffset returns none, d is naive. The distinction between naive and aware doesnt apply to Timedelta objects.


datetime Basic date and time types A

The Datetime module supplies classes with manipulating dates and times in both simple and complex ways. While date and time arithmetic is support, focus of implementation is on efficient member extraction for output formatting and manipulation. For related functionality, see also time and calendar modules. There are two kinds of date and time objects: naive and aware. This distinction refers to whether the object has any notion of time zone, Daylight Saving Time, or other kind of algorithmic or political time adjustment. Whether naive datetime object represents coordinated Universal Time, local Time, or time in some other timezone is purely up to the program, just like it is up to the program whether a particular number represents metres, miles, or mass. Naive datetime objects are easy to understand and to work with, at the cost of ignoring some aspects of reality. For applications requiring more, datetime and time objects have optional time zone information member, tzinfo, that can contain instance of subclass of abstract tzinfo class. These TZINFO objects capture information about offset from UTC Time, time zone name, and whether Daylight Saving Time is in effect. Note that no concrete tzinfo classes are supplied by datetime module. Supporting timezones at whatever level of detail is required is up to the application. Rules for time adjustment across the world are more political than rational, and there is no standard suitable for every application. Datetime. Minyear smallest year number allowed in date or datetime object. Minyear is 1. Datetime. Maxyear largest year number allowed in date or datetime object.

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Supported operations:

OperationResult
date2 = date1 + timedeltadate2 is timedelta.days days removed from date1 . (1)
date2 = date1 - timedeltaComputes date2 such that date2 + timedelta == date1 . (2)
timedelta = date1 - date2(3)
date1 < date2date1 is considered less than date2 when date1 precedes date2 in time. (4)

Table

DirectiveMeaningNotes
%aLocales abbreviated weekday name.
%ALocales full weekday name.
%bLocales abbreviated month name.
%BLocales full month name.
%cLocales appropriate date and time representation.
%dDay of the month as a decimal number .
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number , zero-padded on the left(1)
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number .
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number .
%jDay of the year as a decimal number .
%mMonth as a decimal number .
%MMinute as a decimal number .
%pLocales equivalent of either AM or PM.(2)
%SSecond as a decimal number .(3)
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number . All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.(4)
%wWeekday as a decimal number .
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number . All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.(4)
%xLocales appropriate date representation.
%XLocales appropriate time representation.
%yYear without century as a decimal number .
%YYear with century as a decimal number.
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(5)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).
%%A literal '%' character.

Table2

ConceptScalar ClassArray Classpandas Data TypePrimary Creation Method
Date timesTimestampDatetimeIndexdatetime64 or datetime64to_datetime or date_range
Time deltasTimedeltaTimedeltaIndextimedelta64to_timedelta or timedelta_range
Time spansPeriodPeriodIndexperiodPeriod or period_range
Date offsetsDateOffsetNoneNoneDateOffset

Table4

RuleDescription
nearest_workdaymove Saturday to Friday and Sunday to Monday
sunday_to_mondaymove Sunday to following Monday
next_monday_or_tuesdaymove Saturday to Monday and Sunday/Monday to Tuesday
previous_fridaymove Saturday and Sunday to previous Fridaya
next_mondaymove Saturday and Sunday to following Monday
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Aware and Naive Objects A

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

Aware datetime object embed timezone information. Rules of thumb For timezone in Python: always work with offset - aware datetime objects. Always store datetime in UTC and do timezone conversion only when interacting with users. Always use ISO 8601 as the input and output string format. There are two useful methods: pytz. Utc. Localize For converting naive datetime to timezone be offset - aware, and aware_dt. Astimezonepytz. Timezone For adjusting timezones of offset - aware objects. You should avoid naive_dt. Astimezone, which would converted to aware datetime As system timezone then converted to some_tzinfo timezone. For working with PYTZ, it is recommended to call Tz. Localize instead of naive_dt. Replace. Dt. Replace do not handle daylight savings time correctly.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Supported operations:

OperationResult
t1 = t2 + t3Sum of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 - t2 == t3 and t1 - t3 == t2 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 - t3Difference of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 == t2 - t3 and t2 == t1 + t3 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 i or t1 = i t2Delta multiplied by an integer. Afterwards t1 // i == t2 is true, provided i != 0 .
In general, t1 i == t1 (i-1) + t1 is true. (1)
t1 = t2 f or t1 = f t2Delta multiplied by a float. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
f = t2 / t3Division (3) of t2 by t3 . Returns a float object.
t1 = t2 / f or t1 = t2 / iDelta divided by a float or an int. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
t1 = t2 // i or t1 = t2 // t3The floor is computed and the remainder (if any) is thrown away. In the second case, an integer is returned. (3)
t1 = t2 % t3The remainder is computed as a timedelta object. (3)
q, r = divmod(t1, t2)Computes the quotient and the remainder: q = t1 // t2 (3) and r = t1 % t2 . q is an integer and r is a timedelta object.
+t1Returns a timedelta object with the same value. (2)
-t1equivalent to timedelta (- t1.days , - t1.seconds , - t1.microseconds ), and to t1 -1. (1)(4)
abs(t)equivalent to + t when t.days >= 0 , and to - t when t.days < 0 . (2)
str(t)Returns a string in the form , H:MM:SS , where D is negative for negative t . (5)
repr(t)Returns a string in the form datetime.timedelta(D) , where D is negative for negative t . (5)

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as locales abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, ..., Sat (en_US); So, Mo, ..., Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as locales full name.Sunday, Monday, ..., Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, ..., Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, ..., 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 31
%bMonth as locales abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, ..., Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, ..., Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as locales full name.January, February, ..., December (en_US); Januar, Februar, ..., Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.0001, 0002, ..., 2013, 2014, ..., 9998, 9999(2)
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%pLocales equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (3)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59(4)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, ..., 999999(5)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(6)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, ..., 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%cLocales appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocales appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocales appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

timedelta Objects A

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

Timedelta object represents duration, difference between two dates or times. Class datetime. Timedelta All arguments are optional and default to 0. Arguments may be ints, longs, or floats, and may be positive or negative. Only days, seconds and microseconds are stored internally. Arguments are converted to those units: millisecond is converted to 1000 microseconds. Minute is converted to 60 seconds. An hour is converted to 3600 seconds. The week is converted to 7 days. And days, seconds and microseconds are then normalized so that representation is unique, with 0 < = microseconds < 1000000 0 < = second < 3600 * 24 - 999999999 < = days < = 999999999 If any argument is float and there are fractional microseconds, fractional microseconds leave over from all arguments are combine and their sum is round to nearest microsecond. If no argument is float, conversion and normalization processes are exact. If the normalized value of days lies outside the indicated range, OverflowError is raise. Note that normalization of negative values may be surprising at first. For example, > from datetime import timedelta > d = timedelta > timedelta. Most negative timedelta object, timedelta. Timedelta. Max's most positive timedelta object, timedelta. Timedelta. Resolution smallest possible difference between non - equal timedelta objects, timedelta. Note that, because of normalization, timedelta. Max > - timedelta. Min. - Timedelta. Max is not representable as timedelta object. This is exact, but may overflow. This is exact, and cannot overflow. Division by 0 raises ZeroDivisionError. - Timedelta. Max is not representable as timedelta object. String representations of timedelta objects are normalized similarly to their internal representation. This leads to somewhat unusual results for negative timedeltas. For example: > timedelta datetime. Timedelta > print - 1 day, 19: 00: 00 in addition to operations list above, timedelta objects support certain additions and subtractions with date and datetime objects. Comparisons of timedelta objects are supported with timedelta objects representing smaller duration considered to be smaller timedelta. In order to stop mixed - type comparisons from falling back to default comparison by object address, when timedelta object is compared to an object of different type, TypeError is raised unless the comparison is = or! =. Latter cases return False or True, respectively. Timedelta objects are hashable, support efficient pickling, and in Boolean contexts, timedelta object is considered to be true if and only if it isnat equal to timedelta. Timedelta. Total_seconds Return total number of seconds contained in duration. Equivalent to / 10 * 6 compute with True division enable. Note that for very large time intervals, this method will lose microsecond accuracy. New in version 2.

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Supported operations:

OperationResult
t1 = t2 + t3Sum of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 - t2 == t3 and t1 - t3 == t2 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 - t3Difference of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 == t2 - t3 and t2 == t1 + t3 are true. (1)(6)
t1 = t2 i or t1 = i t2Delta multiplied by an integer. Afterwards t1 // i == t2 is true, provided i != 0 .
In general, t1 i == t1 (i-1) + t1 is true. (1)
t1 = t2 f or t1 = f t2Delta multiplied by a float. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
f = t2 / t3Division (3) of overall duration t2 by interval unit t3 . Returns a float object.
t1 = t2 / f or t1 = t2 / iDelta divided by a float or an int. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
t1 = t2 // i or t1 = t2 // t3The floor is computed and the remainder (if any) is thrown away. In the second case, an integer is returned. (3)
t1 = t2 % t3The remainder is computed as a timedelta object. (3)
q, r = divmod(t1, t2)Computes the quotient and the remainder: q = t1 // t2 (3) and r = t1 % t2 . q is an integer and r is a timedelta object.
+t1Returns a timedelta object with the same value. (2)
-t1equivalent to timedelta (- t1.days , - t1.seconds , - t1.microseconds ), and to t1 -1. (1)(4)
abs(t)equivalent to + t when t.days >= 0 , and to - t when t.days < 0 . (2)
str(t)Returns a string in the form , H:MM:SS , where D is negative for negative t . (5)
repr(t)Returns a string representation of the timedelta object as a constructor call with canonical attribute values.

Table

AttributeDescription
timedelta.minRepresents the most negative timedelta object. A timedelta object with -999999999 days as the duration. Any further increase by a microsecond will cause an overflow in the magnitude.
timedelta.maxRepresents the most positive timedelta object. A timedelta object with duration of 999999999 days, 23 hours, 59 minutes, 59 seconds, 999999 microseconds. Any further addition of a microsecond will result in the overflow of the magnitude.
timedelta.resolutionRepresents the smallest difference between two timedelta objects that are not equal. This is currently equal to 1 microsecond.

Table2

Addition (+)Adds two timedelta objects and returns the resultant timedelta object.
Subtraction(-)Subtracts one timedelta object from another timedelta object and returns the resultant timedelta object.
Multiplication()Multiplies one timedelta object by an integer or a floating-point number, and returns the resultant timedelta object.
Division(/)Divides one timedelta object by another timedelta object and returns the resultant value as a floating-point number.
Division(//)Divides one timedelta object by another timedelta object, floor is computed on the quotient and returns the resultant value as an integer.
Modulo Division (%)Divides one timedelta object by another timedelta object and returns the remainder as the resultant timedelta object.
abs(timeDeltaObject)Returns the magnitude of the time duration represented by the timedelta object .
str(timeDeltaObject)Returns the time duration in the form of n days,HH:MM:SS.
repr(timeDeltaObject)Returns the string representation of the timedelta object in the form of the actual constructor call that creates the object.

Table3

Method NameDescription
total_seconds()Returns the duration represented by the timedelta object as number of seconds.
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tzinfo Objects A

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

Datetime objects have tzinfo attribute that can be used to store time zone information, represent as instance of subclass of datetime. Tzinfo. When this attribute is set and describes offset, datetime object is aware. Otherwise, it is naive. You can use is_aware and is_naive to determine whether datetimes are aware or naive. When time zone support is disable, Django uses naive datetime objects in local time. This is sufficient for many use cases. In this mode, to obtain current time, you would write: When time zone support is enable, Django uses time - zone - aware datetime objects. If your code creates datetime objects, they should be aware of them too. In this mode, example above becomes: When USE_TZ is True, Django still accepts naive datetime objects, in order to preserve backwards - compatibility. When the database layer receives one, it attempts to make it aware by interpreting it in the default time zone and raising warning. Unfortunately, during DST transitions, some datetimes dont exist or are ambiguous. In such situations, pytz Raise exception. Thats why you should always create aware datetime objects when time zone support is enable. In practice, this is rarely an issue. Django gives you aware of datetime objects in models and forms, and most often, new datetime objects are created from existing ones through timedelta arithmetic. The only datetime that is often created in the application code is current time, and timezone. Now automatically do the right thing.

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Supported operations:

OperationResult
t1 = t2 + t3Sum of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 - t2 == t3 and t1 - t3 == t2 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 - t3Difference of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 == t2 - t3 and t2 == t1 + t3 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 i or t1 = i t2Delta multiplied by an integer. Afterwards t1 // i == t2 is true, provided i != 0 .
In general, t1 i == t1 (i-1) + t1 is true. (1)
t1 = t2 f or t1 = f t2Delta multiplied by a float. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
f = t2 / t3Division (3) of t2 by t3 . Returns a float object.
t1 = t2 / f or t1 = t2 / iDelta divided by a float or an int. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
t1 = t2 // i or t1 = t2 // t3The floor is computed and the remainder (if any) is thrown away. In the second case, an integer is returned. (3)
t1 = t2 % t3The remainder is computed as a timedelta object. (3)
q, r = divmod(t1, t2)Computes the quotient and the remainder: q = t1 // t2 (3) and r = t1 % t2 . q is an integer and r is a timedelta object.
+t1Returns a timedelta object with the same value. (2)
-t1equivalent to timedelta (- t1.days , - t1.seconds , - t1.microseconds ), and to t1 -1. (1)(4)
abs(t)equivalent to + t when t.days >= 0 , and to - t when t.days < 0 . (2)
str(t)Returns a string in the form , H:MM:SS , where D is negative for negative t . (5)
repr(t)Returns a string in the form datetime.timedelta(D) , where D is negative for negative t . (5)

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as locales abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, ..., Sat (en_US); So, Mo, ..., Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as locales full name.Sunday, Monday, ..., Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, ..., Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, ..., 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 31
%bMonth as locales abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, ..., Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, ..., Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as locales full name.January, February, ..., December (en_US); Januar, Februar, ..., Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.0001, 0002, ..., 2013, 2014, ..., 9998, 9999(2)
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%pLocales equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (3)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59(4)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, ..., 999999(5)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(6)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, ..., 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%cLocales appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocales appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocales appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%
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strftime() and strptime() Behavior A

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as localeas abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, a, Sat (en_US); So, Mo, a, Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as localeas full name.Sunday, Monday, a, Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, a, Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, a, 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 31
%bMonth as localeas abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, a, Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, a, Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as localeas full name.January, February, a, December (en_US); Januar, Februar, a, Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.1970, 1988, 2001, 2013
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%pLocaleas equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (2)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(3)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, a, 999999(4)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(5)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, a, 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%cLocaleas appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocaleas appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocaleas appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%

The following is a list of all format codes that the 1989 C standard require, and these work on all platforms with standard C implementation. Several additional directives not required by C89 standard are included for convenience. These parameters all correspond to ISO 8601 date values. These may not be available on all platforms when using the With strftime method. Iso 8601 year and ISO 8601 week directives are not interchangeable with the year and week number directives above. Calling strptime with incomplete or ambiguous ISO 8601 directives will raise ValueError. The full set of format codes support varies across platforms, because Python calls Platform C libraryas strftime function, and platform variations are common. To see the full set of format codes supported on your platform, consult strftime documentation.


Strptime python

Datetime Basic Date and time types, date and time objects may be categorized as aawarea or anaivea depending For complete list of formatting directives, see strftime and strptime behavior. Python strptime in this article, you will learn to create datetime object from string. The Strptime method creates a datetime object from give string. 8. 1 datetime Basic Date and time types, There are two kinds of date and time objects: anaivea and aawarea. List of formatting directives, see section strftime and strptime behavior. Datetime. Strptime is equivalent to datetime * time. Strptime, except when format includes sub - second components or timezone offset information, which are supported in datetime. Strptime but is discarded by time. Strptime. Python string to datetime - strptime, Python time strptime method - Python time method strptime parse string representing time according to format. This is directive which would be used to parse give string.% C - preferred Date and time representation. Python time method strptime parses strings representing time according to format. Return value is struct_time as return by gmtime or localtime. Return value is struct_time as return by gmtime or localtime.

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Table2

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as localeas abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, a, Sat (en_US); So, Mo, a, Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as localeas full name.Sunday, Monday, a, Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, a, Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, a, 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 31(9)
%bMonth as localeas abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, a, Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, a, Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as localeas full name.January, February, a, December (en_US); Januar, Februar, a, Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12(9)
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 99(9)
%YYear with century as a decimal number.0001, 0002, a, 2013, 2014, a, 9998, 9999(2)
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 23(9)
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12(9)
%pLocaleas equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (3)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(9)
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(4), (9)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, a, 999999(5)
%zUTC offset in the form AHHMM (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030, +063415, -030712.345216(6)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, GMT(6)
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, a, 366(9)
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(7), (9)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(7), (9)
%cLocaleas appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocaleas appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocaleas appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%

Table3

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%GISO 8601 year with century representing the year that contains the greater part of the ISO week ( %V ).0001, 0002, a, 2013, 2014, a, 9998, 9999(8)
%uISO 8601 weekday as a decimal number where 1 is Monday.1, 2, a, 7
%VISO 8601 week as a decimal number with Monday as the first day of the week. Week 01 is the week containing Jan 4.01, 02, a, 53(8), (9)
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8.1.3. date Objects A

Supported operations:

OperationResult
date2 = date1 + timedeltadate2 is timedelta.days days removed from date1 . (1)
date2 = date1 - timedeltaComputes date2 such that date2 + timedelta == date1 . (2)
timedelta = date1 - date2(3)
date1 < date2date1 is considered less than date2 when date1 precedes date2 in time. (4)

The Date object represents the date in the idealized calendar, current Gregorian calendar indefinitely extends in both directions. January 1st of year 1 is call day number 1, January 2nd of year 1 is call day number 2, and so on. This matches the definition of aproleptic Gregoriana calendar in Dershowitz and Reingoldas book Calendrical Calculations, which itas based calendar for all computations. See book For algorithms for converting between proleptic Gregorian ordinals and many other calendar systems. Class datetime. Date All arguments are require. Arguments may be ints or longs, in the following ranges: MINYEAR < = year < = MAXYEAR 1 < = month < = 12 1 < = day < = number of days in give month and year If argument outside those ranges is give, ValueError is raise. Classmethod date. Today Return current local date. This is equivalent to date. Fromtimestamptime. Time. Classmethod date. Fromtimestamp Return local date corresponding to POSIX timestamp, such as is Return by time. Time. This may raise ValueError, if the timestamp is out of the range of values supported by platform C localtime function. Itas common for this to be restricted to years from 1970 through 2038. Note that on non - POSIX systems that include leap seconds in their notion of timestamp, leap seconds are ignored by fromtimestamp. Classmethod date. Fromordinal return date corresponds to proleptic Gregorian ordinal, where January 1 of year 1 has ordinal 1. Valueerror is raised unless 1 < = ordinal < = date. Max. Toordinal. For any date date. Fromordinald. Toordinal = d. Date. Earliest representable date, date. Date. Max latest representable date, date. Date. Resolution smallest possible difference between non - equal date objects, timedelta. Date. Year between MINYEAR and MAXYEAR inclusive. Date. Months Between 1 and 12 inclusive. Date. Day Between 1 and number of days in give month of give year. Date2 is moved forward in time If timedelta. Days > 0, or backward if timedelta. Days < 0. Afterward date2 - date1 = timedelta. Days. Timedelta. Second and timedelta. Microseconds are ignore. Overflowerror is raised if date2. The year would be smaller than MINYEAR or larger than MAXYEAR. This isnat quite equivalent to date1 +, because - timedelta in isolation can overflow in cases where date1 - timedelta do not. Timedelta. Second and timedelta. Microseconds are ignore. This is exact, and cannot overflow. Timedelta. Second and timedelta. Microseconds are 0, and date2 + timedelta = date1 after. In other words, date1 < date2 If and only If date1. Toordinal < date2. Toordinal. In order to stop comparison from falling back to the default scheme of comparing object addresses, date comparison normally raises TypeError if other comparand isnat also date object. However, NotImplemented is Return instead if other comparison has timetuple attribute. This hook gives other kinds of date objects chance at implementing mixed - type comparison.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Starting Your PyCon Countdown #

Earlier, you learn about creating datetime instances Strptime. This method uses special mini - language within Python to specify how date string is format. Python datetime has additional method call. Strftime that allows you to format datetime instance into string. In a sense, it reverse operation of parsing Strptime. You can differentiate between two methods by remembering that p in. Strptime stands for parse, and f in. Strftime stands for format. In your PyCon countdown, you can use. Strftime to print output to let user know the date on which PyCon US will start. Remember, you can find formatting codes that you want to use on strftime. Org. Now add this code on line 18 of your PyCon countdown script: in this code, line 18 is uses. Strftime to create string representing the starting date of PyCon US 2021. Output includes weekday, month, day, year, hour, minute, AM or PM, and time zone: on line 19, you print this string for users to see with some explanatory text. The last line prints the amount of time remaining until PyCon start date. Next, youll finish your script to make it easier for other people to reuse.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Conclusion #

In this tutorial, you learn about programming with dates and times and why it often leads to errors and confusion. You also learn about Python datetime and dateutil modules as well as how to work with time zones in your code. Store dates in good, future - proof format in your programs. Create Python datetime instances with formatted strings. Add time zone information to datetime instances with dateutil Perform arithmetic operations with datetime instances using relativedelta in end, you create a script that counts down time remaining until the next PyCon US so you can get excite for biggest Python gathering around. Dates and times can be tricky, but with these Python tools in your arsenal, youre ready to tackle the toughest problems!

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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