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Python Datetime From Timestamp

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Last Updated: 05 November 2020

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General | Latest Info

Dealing with dates and times in Python can be a hassle. Thankfully, theres build-in way of making it easier: Python datetime module. Datetime helps us identify and process time-related elements like dates, hours, minutes, seconds, days of Week, months, years, etc. It offers various services like managing time zones and daylight savings time. It can work with timestamp data. It can extract day of week, day of month, and other date and time formats from strings. In short, it is a really powerful way of handling anything date and time related in Python. So lets get into it! In this tutorial, well learn about Python datetime functions in detail, including: creating Date Objects Getting year and month from Date Getting month day and Weekday from Date Getting hours and minutes from Date Getting Week number of year from Date Converting Date object into timestamp Converting UNIX timestamp string to Date object Handling timedelta Objects Getting difference between two dates and times Formatting dates: strftime and strptime Handling timezones Working with Pandas datetime Objects Getting year, month, day, hour, and minute Getting Weekday and day of year Converting Date Objects into DataFrame index as you work through this tutorial, wed encourage you to run code on your own machine. Alternatively, if you like to run code in your browser and learn in an interactive fashion with answer-checking to be sure youre getting it right, our Python intermediate course has lessons on datetime in Python that we recommend. You can start learning by signing up for a free user account. We can see from the results above that datetime_object is indeed datetime object of datetime class. These include year, month, day, hour, minute, second, and microsecond. Note that strptime take two arguments: string and % y-% m-% d, another string that tells strptime how to interpret input string my_string. % Y, for example, tell it to expect the first four characters of string to be year. A full list of these patterns is available in the documentation, and well go into these methods in more depth later in this tutorial. You may also have noticed that time of 00: 00: 00 has been added to the date. That is because we create a datetime object, which must include date and time. 00: 00: 00 is the default time that will be assigned if no time is designated in string were inputting. Anyway, we were hoping to separate out specific elements of Date for our analysis. One way can do that is using built-in class attributes of datetime object, like. Month or. Year: now we can see that Python starts weeks on Monday and counts from index 0 rather than starting at 1. So it makes sense that number 3 is converted to Thursday as we saw above. Note that in the ISO calendar, week starts counting from 1, so here 5 represent the correct day of week: Friday.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Timestamp to DateTime object

Complete list of format code :

Format CodesDescriptionExample
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number01, 02, 03, 04 , 31
%aWeekday as abbreviated nameSun, Mon, , Sat
%AWeekday as full nameSunday, Monday, , Saturday
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number01, 02, 03, 04 , 12
%bMonth as abbreviated nameJan, Feb, , Dec
%BMonth as full nameJanuary, February, , December
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number00, 01, , 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number0001, , 2018, , 9999
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number01, 02, 03, 04 , 23
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number01, 02, 03, 04 , 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number01, 02, 03, 04 , 59
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left000000, 000001, , 999999
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number01, 02, 03, 04 , 12
%pLocales equivalent of either AM or PMAM , PM
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number01, 02, 03, 04 , 366

A Datetime object is a single object containing all information from date object and time object. Like date object, datetime assumes the current Gregorian calendar extends in both directions; like Time object, datetime assumes there are exactly 3600 * 24 seconds every day. Class datetime. Datetime year, month and day arguments are require. Tzinfo may be none, or instance of tzinfo subclass. Remaining arguments may be integers, in following ranges: MINYEAR < = year < = MAXYEAR 1 < = month < = 12 1 < = day < = number of days in give month and year 0 < = hour < 24 0 < = minute < 60 0 < = second < 60 0 < = microsecond < 1000000 If argument outside those ranges is give, ValueError is Raise. Classmethod datetime. Today return to current local datetime, with tzinfo None. This is equivalent to datetime. Fromtimestamptime. Time. See also now, fromtimestamp. Classmethod datetime. Now return to the current local date and time. If optional argument TZ is none or not specify, this is like today, but, if possible, supplies more precision than can be get from going through Time. Time timestamp. Else TZ must be instance of class TZINFO subclass, and current date and time are Convert to TZ s Time zone. In this case, the result is equivalent to TZ. Fromutcdatetime. Utcnow. Replace. See also today, utcnow. Classmethod datetime. You return the current UTC date and time, with tzinfo None. This is like now, but returns current UTC date and time, as naive datetime object. Aware current UTC datetime can be obtained by calling datetime. Now. See also now. Classmethod datetime. Fromtimestamp Return local date and Time corresponding to POSIX timestamp, such as is Return by Time. Time. If optional argument TZ is none or is not specify, timestamp is Convert to platforms local date and Time, and the Return datetime object is naive. Else TZ must be instance of class TZINFO subclass, and the timestamp is Convert to TZ s Time zone. In this case, the result is equivalent to TZ. Fromutcdatetime. Utcfromtimestamp. Replace. Fromtimestamp may raise OverflowError, if timestamp is out of range of values supported by platform C localtime or gmtime functions, and OSError on localtime or gmtime failure. It is common for this to be restricted to years from 1970 through 2038. Note that on non-POSIX systems that include leap seconds in their notion of timestamp, leap seconds are ignored by fromtimestamp, and then it is possible to have two timestamps differing by second that yield identical datetime objects. See also utcfromtimestamp. Change in version 3. 3: Raise OverflowError instead of ValueError If timestamp is out of range of values supported by platform C localtime or gmtime functions. Raise OSError instead of ValueError on localtime or gmtime failure. Classmethod datetime. Utcfromtimestamp Return UTC datetime corresponding to POSIX timestamp, with tzinfo None.

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Supported operations:

OperationResult
datetime2 = datetime1 + timedelta(1)
datetime2 = datetime1 - timedelta(2)
timedelta = datetime1 - datetime2(3)
datetime1 < datetime2Compares datetime to datetime . (4)
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Get Current Timestamp using time.ctime()

One of the ways you can manage the concept of Python Time in your application is by using floating point numbers that represent the number of seconds that have passed since the beginning of erathat is, since certain starting point. Let's dive deeper into what that mean, why it is useful, and how you can use it to implement logic, based on Python Time, in your application. You learn in the previous section that you can manage Python Time with floating point number representing elapsed time since the beginning of the era. The fixed point in time from which series of years is reckoned system of chronological notation computed from give date as basis important concept to grasp here is that, when dealing with Python Time, youre consider the period of time identify by starting point. In computing, you call this starting point epoch. The Epoch, then, is the starting point against which you can measure the passage of Time. For example, if you define the epoch to be midnight on January 1 1970 UTCthe, epoch as defined on Windows and most UNIX systemsthen you can Represent midnight on January 2 1970 UTC as 86400 seconds since epoch. This is because there are 60 seconds per minute, 60 minutes per hour, and 24 hours per day. January 2 1970 UTC is only one day after the epoch, so you can apply basic math to arrive at that result: it is also important to note that you can still represent Time before the epoch. The number of seconds would just be negative. For example, you would Represent midnight on December 31 1969 UTC as-86400 seconds. While January 1 1970 UTC is a common epoch, it is not the only epoch used in computing. In fact, different operating systems, filesystems, and APIs sometimes use different epochs. As you saw before, UNIX systems define epoch as January 1 1970. Win32 API, on the other hand, defines the epoch as January 1 1601. Youll learn about gmtime and struct_time throughout the course of this article. For now, just know that you can use Time to discover epoch using this function. Now that you understand more about how to measure time in seconds using epoch, let's take a look at Pythons Time Module to see what functions it offers that help you do so. First, Time. Time returns to the number of seconds that have passed since the epoch. The return value is floating point number to account for fractional seconds: number you get on your machine may be very different because the reference point considered to be epoch may be very different. Measuring time in seconds is useful for a number of reasons: you can use float to calculate the difference between two points in time. Float is easily serializable, meaning that it can be stored for data transfer and come out intact on other side.


Python Time as an Object

When youre working with date and time related strings, it can be very valuable to convert timestamp to time object. To convert Time string to struct_time, you use strptime, which stands for string parse Time: first argument to strptime must be the timestamp you wish to convert. The second argument is the format that timestamp is in. The Format parameter is optional and defaults to ' % b % d % H: % M: % S % Y'. Therefore, if you have a timestamp in that format, you do need to pass it as an argument: since struct_time has 9 key dates and time components, strptime must provide reasonable defaults for values for those components it cant parse from string. In previous examples, tm_isdst =-1. This means that strptime ca be determined by timestamp whether it represents daylight savings Time or not. Now you know how to work with Python times and dates using the Time module in a variety of ways. However, there are other uses for Time outside of simply creating Time objects, getting Python Time strings, and using seconds elapse from epoch.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Aware and Naive Objects A

By default, all datetime objects are naive. To make them Timezone-aware, you must attach TZINFO object, which provides UTC offset and Timezone abbreviation as function of date and time. For time zones that are fixed offset from UTC, in Python 3. 2 +, datetime module provides Timezone class, concrete implementation of tzinfo, which takes timedelta and name parameter: for Python versions before 3. 2, it is necessary to use a third party library, such as dateutil. Dateutil provides an equivalent class, tzoffset, which takes arguments from dateutil. Tz. Tzoffset, where offset is specified in seconds: for zones with daylight savings Time, Python standard libraries do not provide standard class, so it is necessary to use a third party library. Pytz and dateutil are popular libraries providing Time zone classes. In addition to static time zones, dateutil provides Time zone classes that use daylight savings Time. You can use tz. Gettz method To get Time zone object, which can then be passed directly to the datetime constructor: CAUTION: As of version 2. 53, dateutil does not handle ambiguous datetimes correctly, and will always default to a later date. There is no way to construct object with dateutil timezone representing, for example, 2015-11-01 1: 30 EDT-4, since this is during daylight savings Time transition. All edge cases are handled properly when using pytz, but pytz time zones should not be directly attached to time zones through constructor. Instead, pytz Time zone should be attached using Time zone's localize method: be aware that if you perform datetime arithmetic on pytz-aware Time zone, you must either perform calculations in UTC, or you must call normalize on result:


Python get timezone from datetime

Datetime Basic date and time types, these tzinfo Objects capture information about offset from UTC time, time zone name, and whether daylight saving time is in effect. Only one concrete tzinfoaA Function Overview: Function astimezone returns Datetime instance with time zone information as specified by tz parameter. New Datetime instance return by astimezone will have new UTC offset value as per tz parameter. Astimezone-Datetime-Python documentation, astimezone-return Datetime object with new TZINFO attribute tz, adjusting date and time data so the result is same UTC time as self, Python Datetime. Astimezone method Datetime. The Astimezone method is Use to manipulate Objects of Datetime class of module Datetime. It uses instance of class and returns a Datetime object with new TZINFO attribute TZ. It works on Datetime class instance. Python Examples of Datetime. Datetime. Astimezone, this page shows Python Examples of Datetime. Datetime. Astimezone. Tz = dt. Atzinfo dt = dt. Replace this is essentially a test of whether or not theaA change in version 3. 6: astimezone method can now be called on naive instances that are presumed to represent system local time. Datetime. Utcoffset If tzinfo is None, return None, else return self. Tzinfo. Utcoffset, and raise exception if latter doesnat return none or timedelta object with magnitude of less than one day.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

timedelta Objects A

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

Timedelta objects represent duration, difference between two dates or times. Class datetime. Timedelta All arguments are optional and default to 0. Arguments may be integers or floats, and may be positive or negative. Only days, seconds and microseconds are stored internally. Arguments are converted to those units: millisecond is converted to 1000 microseconds. Minute is converted to 60 seconds. An hour is converted to 3600 seconds. Week is converted to 7 days. And days, seconds and microseconds are then normalized so that representation is unique, with 0 < = microseconds < 1000000 0 < = second < 3600 * 24-999999999 < = days < = 999999999 following example illustrates how any arguments besides days, seconds and microseconds are amergeda and normalized into those three resulting attributes: > from datetime import Timedelta > delta = Timedelta > only days, seconds, and microseconds remain > delta datetime. Timedelta If any argument is float and there are fractional microseconds, fractional microseconds leave over from All arguments are combined and their sum is round to nearest microsecond using a round-half-to-even tiebreaker. If no argument is float, conversion and normalization processes are exact. If the normalized value of days lies outside the indicated range, OverflowError is raise. Note that normalization of negative values may be surprising at first. For example: > from datetime import Timedelta > d = Timedelta > Timedelta. Min most negative Timedelta object, Timedelta. Timedelta. Max most positive Timedelta object, Timedelta. Timedelta. Resolution smallest possible difference between non-equal Timedelta objects, Timedelta. Note that, because of normalization, Timedelta. Max >-Timedelta. Min.-Timedelta. Max is not representable as Timedelta object. This is exact but may overflow. This is exact and cannot overflow. Division by 0 raises ZeroDivisionError.-Timedelta. Max is not representable as Timedelta object. String representations of Timedelta objects are normalized similarly to their internal representation. This leads to somewhat unusual results for negative timedeltas. For example: > Timedelta datetime. Timedelta > print-1 day, 19: 00: 00 expression t2-t3 will always be equal to expression t2 + except when t3 is equal to Timedelta. Max; in that case, the former will produce results while the latter will overflow. In addition to the operations list above, Timedelta objects support certain additions and subtractions with date and datetime objects. Comparisons = or! = Always Return bool, no matter the type of compared object: For all other comparisons, when Timedelta object is compared to an object of different type, TypeError is raise: in Boolean contexts, Timedelta object is considered to be true if and only if it isnat equal to Timedelta. Timedelta. Total_seconds Return total number of seconds contained in duration. Equivalent to td / Timedelta. For interval units other than seconds, use division form directly e. G td / Timedelta. Note that for very large time intervals this method will lose microsecond accuracy. New in version 3.

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Supported operations:

OperationResult
t1 = t2 + t3Sum of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 - t2 == t3 and t1 - t3 == t2 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 - t3Difference of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 == t2 - t3 and t2 == t1 + t3 are true. (1)(6)
t1 = t2 i or t1 = i t2Delta multiplied by an integer. Afterwards t1 // i == t2 is true, provided i != 0 .
In general, t1 i == t1 (i-1) + t1 is true. (1)
t1 = t2 f or t1 = f t2Delta multiplied by a float. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
f = t2 / t3Division (3) of overall duration t2 by interval unit t3 . Returns a float object.
t1 = t2 / f or t1 = t2 / iDelta divided by a float or an int. The result is rounded to the nearest multiple of timedelta.resolution using round-half-to-even.
t1 = t2 // i or t1 = t2 // t3The floor is computed and the remainder (if any) is thrown away. In the second case, an integer is returned. (3)
t1 = t2 % t3The remainder is computed as a timedelta object. (3)
q, r = divmod(t1, t2)Computes the quotient and the remainder: q = t1 // t2 (3) and r = t1 % t2 . q is an integer and r is a timedelta object.
+t1Returns a timedelta object with the same value. (2)
-t1equivalent to timedelta (- t1.days , - t1.seconds , - t1.microseconds ), and to t1 -1. (1)(4)
abs(t)equivalent to + t when t.days >= 0 , and to - t when t.days < 0 . (2)
str(t)Returns a string in the form , H:MM:SS , where D is negative for negative t . (5)
repr(t)Returns a string representation of the timedelta object as a constructor call with canonical attribute values.

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as localeas abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, a, Sat (en_US); So, Mo, a, Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as localeas full name.Sunday, Monday, a, Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, a, Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, a, 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 31
%bMonth as localeas abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, a, Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, a, Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as localeas full name.January, February, a, December (en_US); Januar, Februar, a, Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.1970, 1988, 2001, 2013
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%pLocaleas equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (2)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(3)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, a, 999999(4)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(5)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, a, 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%cLocaleas appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocaleas appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocaleas appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

tzinfo Objects A

In Python, date and time are not data type of Its own, but module name datetime can be imported to work with date as well as time. Datetime modules come built into Python, so there is no need to install them externally. The Datetime module allows classes to work with date and time. These classes provide a number of functions to deal with dates, times and time intervals. Date and datetime are objects in Python, so when you manipulate them, you are actually manipulating objects and not string or timestamps. Datetime classes are categorized into 6 main classes-date-idealized naive date, assuming the current Gregorian calendar always was, and always will be, in effect. Its attributes are year, month and day. Time-idealized time, independent of any particular day, assuming that every day has exactly 24 * 60 * 60 seconds. Its attributes are hour, minute, second, microsecond, and tzinfo. Datetime-Its combination of date and time along with attributes year, month, day, hour, minute, second, microsecond, and tzinfo. Timedelta-duration expresses the difference between two date, time, or datetime instances to microsecond resolution. Tzinfo-It provides time zone information objects. Timezone-A class that implements TZINFO abstract base class as fixed offset from UTC.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

strftime() and strptime() Behavior A

Date

StringOutput
20122012-01-01T00:00:00+00:00
2012-05-032012-05-03T00:00:00+00:00
201205032012-05-03T00:00:00+00:00
2012-052012-05-01T00:00:00+00:00

Date, DateTime, and Time objects all support the strftime method, to create a string representing Time under control of explicit Format string. Broadly speaking, dstrftime acts like Time module Time. Strftimefmt, dtimetuple although not all objects support the timetuple method. Conversely, DateTime. The Strptime class method creates a DateTime object from string representing Date and Time and the corresponding Format string. DateTime. Strptime is equivalent to DateTime * Time. Strptime. For time objects, format codes for year, month, and day should not be used as time objects have no such values. If theyre use anyway, 1900 is substitute for year, and 1 for month and day. For date objects, format codes for hours, minutes, seconds, and microseconds should not be used as date objects have no such values. If theyre use anyway, 0 is a substitute for them. The full set of format codes support varies across platforms, because Python calls platform C librarys strftime function, and platform variations are common. To see the full set of format codes supported on your platform, consult strftime documentation. The Following is a list of all format codes that C Standard require, and these work on all platforms with Standard C implementation. Note that the 1999 version of C Standard added additional format codes. Because format depends on current locale, care should be taken when making assumptions about output value. Field orderings will vary, and output may contain Unicode characters encoded using locales default encoding. The Strptime method can parse years in full range, but years < 1000 must be zero-fill to 4-digit width. Change in version 3. 2: in previous versions, strftime method was restricted to years > = 1900. Change in version 3. 3: in version 3. 2, strftime method was restricted to years > = 1000. When using the With strptime method, % P directive only affects output Hour field if the % I directive is used to parse Hour. Unlike the Time module, DateTime module does not support leap seconds. When using the With strptime method, % F directive accepts from one to six digits and zero pads on right. % F is an extension to the set of Format characters in C Standard. For Naive object, % Z and % Z Format codes are replaced by empty Strings. For awareness object: % Z utcoffset is transformed into a 5-character string of form + HHMM or-HHMM, where HH is a 2-digit string giving the number of UTC offset hours, and MM is a 2-digit string giving the number of UTC offset minutes. For example, if utcoffset returns timedelta, % Z is replaced with string '-0330'. % Z If tzname returns None, % Z is replaced by empty string. Otherwise % Z is replaced by returned value, which must be string. Change in version 3. 2: When % Z directive is provided to strptime method, aware DateTime object will be produce.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Datetime

StringOutput
20161001T143028+05302016-10-01T14:30:28+05:30
20161001T142016-10-01T14:00:00+00:00

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

Intervals

StringOutput
2007-03-01T13:00:00Z/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z2007-03-01T13:00:00+00:00 -> 2008-05-11T15:30:00+00:00
2008-05-11T15:30:00Z/P1Y2M10DT2H30M2008-05-11T15:30:00+00:00 -> 2009-07-21T18:00:00+00:00
P1Y2M10DT2H30M/2008-05-11T15:30:00Z2007-03-01T13:00:00+00:00 -> 2008-05-11T15:30:00+00:00

Ordinal day

StringOutput
2012-0072012-01-07T00:00:00+00:00
20120072012-01-07T00:00:00+00:00

RFC 3339

StringOutput
1996-12-19T16:39:57-08:001996-12-19T16:39:57-08:00
1990-12-31T23:59:59Z1990-12-31T23:59:59+00:00

Supported operations:

OperationResult
datetime2 = datetime1 + timedelta(1)
datetime2 = datetime1 - timedelta(2)
timedelta = datetime1 - datetime2(3)
datetime1 < datetime2Compares datetime to datetime . (4)

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as locales abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, ..., Sat (en_US); So, Mo, ..., Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as locales full name.Sunday, Monday, ..., Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, ..., Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, ..., 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 31
%bMonth as locales abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, ..., Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, ..., Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as locales full name.January, February, ..., December (en_US); Januar, Februar, ..., Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.0001, 0002, ..., 2013, 2014, ..., 9998, 9999(2)
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, ..., 12
%pLocales equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (3)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, ..., 59(4)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, ..., 999999(5)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(6)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, ..., 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, ..., 53(7)
%cLocales appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocales appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocales appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%

Table2

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as localeas abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, a, Sat (en_US); So, Mo, a, Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as localeas full name.Sunday, Monday, a, Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, a, Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, a, 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 31
%bMonth as localeas abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, a, Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, a, Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as localeas full name.January, February, a, December (en_US); Januar, Februar, a, Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.1970, 1988, 2001, 2013
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%pLocaleas equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (2)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(3)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, a, 999999(4)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(5)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, a, 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%cLocaleas appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocaleas appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocaleas appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%

Table3

StringOutput
00:002016-12-17T00:00:00+00:00
12:04:232016-12-17T12:04:23+00:00
1204232016-12-17T12:04:23+00:00
12:04:23.452016-12-17T12:04:23.450000+00:00

Table4

TimeLT8:30 PM
Time with secondsLTS8:30:25 PM
Month numeral, day of month, yearL09/04/1986
Month name, day of month, yearLLSeptember 4 1986
Month name, day of month, year, timeLLLSeptember 4 1986 8:30 PM
Month name, day of month, day of week, year, timeLLLLThursday, September 4 1986 8:30 PM

Table5

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as localeas abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, a, Sat (en_US); So, Mo, a, Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as localeas full name.Sunday, Monday, a, Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, a, Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, a, 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 31(9)
%bMonth as localeas abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, a, Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, a, Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as localeas full name.January, February, a, December (en_US); Januar, Februar, a, Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12(9)
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 99(9)
%YYear with century as a decimal number.0001, 0002, a, 2013, 2014, a, 9998, 9999(2)
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 23(9)
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12(9)
%pLocaleas equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (3)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(9)
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(4), (9)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, a, 999999(5)
%zUTC offset in the form AHHMM (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030, +063415, -030712.345216(6)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, GMT(6)
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, a, 366(9)
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(7), (9)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(7), (9)
%cLocaleas appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocaleas appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocaleas appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%

Table6

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%GISO 8601 year with century representing the year that contains the greater part of the ISO week ( %V ).0001, 0002, a, 2013, 2014, a, 9998, 9999(8)
%uISO 8601 weekday as a decimal number where 1 is Monday.1, 2, a, 7
%VISO 8601 week as a decimal number with Monday as the first day of the week. Week 01 is the week containing Jan 4.01, 02, a, 53(8), (9)

Week number

StringOutput
2012-W052012-01-30T00:00:00+00:00
2012W052012-01-30T00:00:00+00:00
2012-W05-52012-02-03T00:00:00+00:00
2012W0552012-02-03T00:00:00+00:00
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Technical Detail A

Historical Context: If youre interested in why timegm is not in time, you can view the discussion in Python Issue 6280. In short, it was originally added to the calendar because time closely follows Cs time library, which contains no matching function. The Above-mentioned Issue propose the idea of moving or copying timegm into time. However, with advances in data library, inconsistencies in patched implementation of time. Timegm, and question of how to then handle the calendar. Timegm, maintainers decline patch, encouraging use of datetime instead. Further Reading: While representing Dates using Python time is completely valid and acceptable, you should also consider using the Pythons datetime module, which provides shortcuts and a more robust framework for working with Dates and Times together. For example, you can simplify outputting date in ISO 8601 format using datetime: to learn more about using Python datetime module, check out Using Python datetime to Work With Dates and Times


Python Time as an Object

In your application, you may need to work with Local Time rather than UTC. The Python Time module provides a function for getting Local Time from the number of seconds elapsed since epoch call localtime. The signature of localtime is similar to gmtime in that it takes optional secs argument, which it uses to build struct_time using your Local Time zone: notice that tm_isdst = 0. Since DST matters with Local Time, tm_isdst will change between 0 and 1 depending on whether or not DST is applicable for give Time. Since tm_isdst = 0, DST is not applicable for March 1, 2019. In the United States in 2019, daylight savings Time begins on March 10. So, to test if the DST flag will change correctly, you need to add 9 days worth of seconds to secs argument. To compute this, you take the number of seconds in day and multiply that by 9 days: now, youll see that struct_time shows the date March 10 2019 with tm_isdst = 1. Also, notice that tm_hour has also jumped ahead, to 8 instead of 7 in previous example, because of daylight savings time. Since Python 3. 3, struct_time has also included two attributes that are useful in determining the time zone of struct_time: tm_zone tm_gmtoff at first, these attributes were platform dependent, but they have been available on all platforms since Python 3. 6 here, you can see that localtime returns to struct_time with the time zone set to CST. As you saw before, you can also tell the time zone based on two pieces of information, UTC offset and DST: in this case, you can see that current_local is 21600 seconds behind GMT, which stands for Greenwich Mean Time. GMT is Time zone with no UTC offset: UTC00: 00. 21600 seconds divided by seconds per hour means that the current_local time is GMT-06: 00. You can use GMT offset plus DST status to deduce that current_local is UTC-06: 00 at Standard Time, which corresponds to Central Standard Time zone. Like gmtime, you can ignore the second argument when calling localtime, and it will return current Local Time in struct_time: unlike gmtime, inverse function of localtime do exist in the Python Time module. Let's take a look at how that work.


Understanding Time Zones

UTC is the Time Standard against which all world timekeeping is synchronize. It is not, itself, Time Zone but rather a transcendent standard that defines what time zones are. UTC Time is precisely measured using astronomical time, referring to Earth's rotation, and atomic clocks. Time zones are then defined by their offset from UTC. For example, in North and South America, Central Time Zone is behind UTC by five or six hours and, therefore, use notation UTC-5: 00 or UTC-6: 00. Sydney, Australia, on other hand, belongs to the Australian Eastern Time Zone, which is ten or eleven hours ahead of UTC. This difference is the reason for the variance you observe in two outputs from ctime in previous examples: Central Time: 'Mon Feb 25 19: 11: 59 2019' Australian Eastern Time: 'Tue Feb 26 12: 11: 59 2019' These times are exactly sixteen hours apart, which is consistent with Time Zone offsets mentioned above. You may be wondering why CT can be either five or six hours behind UTC or why AET can be ten or eleven hours ahead. The reason for this is that some areas around the world, including parts of these time zones, observe Daylight savings Time.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

8.1.1. Available Types A

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

DATE, Datetime, and TIME objects all support the strftime method, to create STRING representing TIME under control of explicit Format STRING. Broadly speaking, dstrftime acts like TIME moduleas TIME. Strftimefmt, dtimetuple Although not all objects support the timetuple method. Conversely, Datetime. Strptime class method Create Datetime object From STRING representing DATE and TIME and corresponding Format STRING. Datetime. Strptime is equivalent to Datetime * TIME. Strptime, except when format includes sub-SECOND components or timezone offset information, which are supported in Datetime. Strptime but are discarded by TIME. Strptime. For TIME objects, format codes for YEAR, MONTH, and DAY should not be used AS TIME objects have no such values. If theyare used anyway, 1900 is substitute for YEAR, and 1 for MONTH and DAY. For DATE objects, format codes for hours, minutes, seconds, and microseconds should not be used AS DATE objects have no such values. If theyare used anyway, 0 is a substitute for them. The full set of format codes support varies across platforms, because Python calls platform C libraryas strftime Function, and platform variations are common. To see the full set of format codes supported on your platform, consult strftime documentation. For the same reason, handling of Format Strings containing Unicode Code points that canat be represented in charset of current locale is also platform-dependent. On some platforms, such code points are preserve intact in output, while on others, strftime may raise UnicodeError or Return empty STRING instead. The following is a list of all format codes that C standard require, and these work on all platforms WITH standard C implementation. Note that the 1999 version of C standard added additional format codes. The exact range of years for which strftime work also varies across platforms. Regardless of platform, years before 1900 cannot be used Because the format depends on current locale, care should be taken when making assumptions about output value. Field orderings will vary, and output may contain Unicode characters encoded using localeas Default encoding. When using the WITH strptime method, % p directive only affects output HOUR field if the % I directive is used to parse HOUR. Unlike the TIME module, Datetime module does not support leap seconds. % F Is extension to the set of Format characters in C standard. When using the WITH strptime method, % f directive accepts from one to six digits and zero pads on right. New in version 2. 6 For naive object, % Z and % Z Format codes are replaced by empty Strings. For awareness object: % Z utcoffset is transformed into 5-character STRING of form + HHMM or-HHMM, where HH Is 2-digit STRING giving the number of UTC offset hours, and MM Is 2-digit STRING giving the number of UTC offset minutes. For example, if utcoffset returns timedelta, % Z is replaced WITH STRING '-0330'.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Supported operations:

OperationResult
t1 = t2 + t3Sum of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 - t2 == t3 and t1 - t3 == t2 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 - t3Difference of t2 and t3 . Afterwards t1 == t2 - t3 and t2 == t1 + t3 are true. (1)
t1 = t2 i or t1 = i t2Delta multiplied by an integer or long. Afterwards t1 // i == t2 is true, provided i != 0 .
In general, t1 i == t1 (i-1) + t1 is true. (1)
t1 = t2 // iThe floor is computed and the remainder (if any) is thrown away. (3)
+t1Returns a timedelta object with the same value. (2)
-t1equivalent to timedelta (- t1.days , - t1.seconds , - t1.microseconds ), and to t1 -1. (1)(4)
abs(t)equivalent to + t when t.days >= 0 , and to - t when t.days < 0 . (2)
str(t)Returns a string in the form , H:MM:SS , where D is negative for negative t . (5)
repr(t)Returns a string in the form datetime.timedelta(D) , where D is negative for negative t . (5)

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as localeas abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, a, Sat (en_US); So, Mo, a, Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as localeas full name.Sunday, Monday, a, Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, a, Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, a, 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 31
%bMonth as localeas abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, a, Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, a, Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as localeas full name.January, February, a, December (en_US); Januar, Februar, a, Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.1970, 1988, 2001, 2013
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%pLocaleas equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (2)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(3)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, a, 999999(4)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(5)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, a, 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%cLocaleas appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocaleas appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocaleas appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

8.1.3. date Objects A

Supported operations:

OperationResult
date2 = date1 + timedeltadate2 is timedelta.days days removed from date1 . (1)
date2 = date1 - timedeltaComputes date2 such that date2 + timedelta == date1 . (2)
timedelta = date1 - date2(3)
date1 < date2date1 is considered less than date2 when date1 precedes date2 in time. (4)

The time module has a strftime function that works in pretty much the same manner as the datetime version. The difference is mainly in what it accepts for input: tuple or struct_time object, like those that are Return when you call time. Gmtime or time. Localtime. Here is a little example: this code is quite similar to the timestamp code we create in the datetime portion of this chapter. I think the datetime method is a little more intuitive in that you just create datetime. Datetime object and then call its strftime method with format you want. With time module, you have to pass format plus time tuple. Its really up to you to decide which one makes most sense to you.


The time Module

The Ctime function will convert time in seconds from epoch to a string representing local time. If you do pass anything, then the current time is return. Let try out a couple of examples: here, we show results of calling ctime with nothing at all and with a fairly random number of seconds since epoch. I have seen this sort of thing used when someone saves date as seconds since epoch and then they want to convert it to something humans can understand. It is a bit simpler to save big integer to the database than to mess with formatting it from datetime object to whatever date the object the database accepts. Of course, that also has drawback that you do need to convert integer or float value back into string.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Python datetime Classes

Instance attributes (read-only):

AttributeValue
daysBetween -999999999 and 999999999 inclusive
secondsBetween 0 and 86399 inclusive
microsecondsBetween 0 and 999999 inclusive

The Datetime module supplies classes for manipulating dates and times in both simple and complex ways. While date and time arithmetic is support, focus of implementation is on efficient attribute extraction for output formatting and manipulation. For related functionality, see also Time and calendar modules. There are two kinds of date and time objects: anaivea and aawarea. The aware object has sufficient knowledge of applicable algorithmic and political time adjustments, such as Time zone and Daylight Saving Time information, to locate itself relative to other aware objects. Aware object is used to represent a specific moment in Time that is not open to interpretation 1. Naive objects do not contain enough information to unambiguously locate them relative to other date / time objects. Whether naive object represents coordinate Universal Time, Local Time, or Time in some other timezone is purely up to the program, just like itas up to the program whether a particular number represents metres, miles, or mass. Naive objects are easy to understand and to work with, at the cost of ignoring some aspects of reality. For applications requiring aware objects, datetime and Time objects have an optional Time zone information attribute, tzinfo, that can be set to an instance of subclass of the abstract tzinfo class. These TZINFO objects capture information about offset from UTC Time, Time zone name, and whether Daylight Saving Time is in effect. Note that no concrete tzinfo classes are supplied by datetime module. Supporting timezones at whatever level of detail is required is up to the application. Rules for time adjustment across the world are more political than rational, and there is no standard suitable for every application. Datetime. MINYEAR smallest year number allowed in date or datetime object. MINYEAR is 1. Datetime. MAXYEAR largest year number allowed in date or datetime object.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

Supported operations:

OperationResult
datetime2 = datetime1 + timedelta(1)
datetime2 = datetime1 - timedelta(2)
timedelta = datetime1 - datetime2(3)
datetime1 < datetime2Compares datetime to datetime . (4)

Table

DirectiveMeaningExampleNotes
%aWeekday as localeas abbreviated name.Sun, Mon, a, Sat (en_US); So, Mo, a, Sa (de_DE)(1)
%AWeekday as localeas full name.Sunday, Monday, a, Saturday (en_US); Sonntag, Montag, a, Samstag (de_DE)(1)
%wWeekday as a decimal number, where 0 is Sunday and 6 is Saturday.0, 1, a, 6
%dDay of the month as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 31
%bMonth as localeas abbreviated name.Jan, Feb, a, Dec (en_US); Jan, Feb, a, Dez (de_DE)(1)
%BMonth as localeas full name.January, February, a, December (en_US); Januar, Februar, a, Dezember (de_DE)(1)
%mMonth as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%yYear without century as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 99
%YYear with century as a decimal number.1970, 1988, 2001, 2013
%HHour (24-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 23
%IHour (12-hour clock) as a zero-padded decimal number.01, 02, a, 12
%pLocaleas equivalent of either AM or PM.AM, PM (en_US); am, pm (de_DE)(1), (2)
%MMinute as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59
%SSecond as a zero-padded decimal number.00, 01, a, 59(3)
%fMicrosecond as a decimal number, zero-padded on the left.000000, 000001, a, 999999(4)
%zUTC offset in the form +HHMM or -HHMM (empty string if the the object is naive).(empty), +0000, -0400, +1030(5)
%ZTime zone name (empty string if the object is naive).(empty), UTC, EST, CST
%jDay of the year as a zero-padded decimal number.001, 002, a, 366
%UWeek number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a zero padded decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%WWeek number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number. All days in a new year preceding the first Monday are considered to be in week 0.00, 01, a, 53(6)
%cLocaleas appropriate date and time representation.Tue Aug 16 21:30:00 1988 (en_US); Di 16 Aug 21:30:00 1988 (de_DE)(1)
%xLocaleas appropriate date representation.08/16/88 (None); 08/16/1988 (en_US); 16.08.1988 (de_DE)(1)
%XLocaleas appropriate time representation.21:30:00 (en_US); 21:30:00 (de_DE)(1)
%%A literal '%' character.%
* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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