Although Radio Detection and Ranging and Sound Navigation and Ranging depend on two specific types of wave transmitters, both are remote sensing devices. From 1930 to 1940, the US Naval Research Laboratory investigated radio for ranging and finding, and in 1935, the Naval Appropriations Committee of the US House of Representatives awarded $100,000 to the Naval Research Laboratory for radar development. 20 radar units had been installed on select ships by the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The modern sonar was first introduced in the 1920s when advances in applying underwater sound to practical needs became abundantly apparent. The discovery that low-frequency sounds could travel long distances in the ocean can travel vast distances in the ocean could be a contributing factor in sonar's development was the realization that submarines emit specific low-frequency energy. The Naval Research Laboratory's first Rotating Beam Radar Antenna was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory in 1937. An echo is the result of sound waves off the surface of some faraway object. The sound waves travel through the air, bounce off the rocky walls, and then return to you as you shout in a canyon. If you shout in a canyon, the sound waves travel through the air, bounce off the rocky walls, and then return to you. This technology also relies on sound waves to find objects. Medical technicians can now examine the human body with sound waves. If bats, dolphins, and other animals use sonar properly, usually to find prey, it's called echolocation. Their clocks log the length of time a wave takes to fly to an object and back. The further the distance, the longer it takes for an echo to return. Controllers from the Department of Air Traffic Control use radar to locate aircraft in the sky. Navies use sonar to map the ocean bottom-or-or-look for enemy submarines. Lidar's laser pulses can reach forest cover to record the shape of the ground below. Because electromagnetic waves are particularly weak in water, RADAR signals are often used for ground or atmospheric measurements. The British Anti-Submarine Detection and Investigation Committee launched attempts to equip every ship in the British fleet with advanced detection systems during the early battles of World War II. Watson-Watt and his colleagues at the British Radio Research Station measured the ionosphere's altitude by sending short bursts of radio waves up and then measuring the time it took for the signals to return to the station. Another technique used by Watson-Watt and his colleagues at the British Radio Research Station measured the altitude of the ionosphere by sending brief bursts of radio waves upward and then recording the time it took for the signals to return to the station. At Ditton Park, Watson-Watt designed his first practical RADAR unit. Radiation technology used by RADAR technologies had a major influence on the fledgling science of radio astronomy.
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