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Right Lower Lobe Lung Mass

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Lung Cancer is the number one killer among cancers in both men and women. It accounts for one - third of all cancer - related deaths in the United States. Although the number of men who get Lung Cancer has slightly decreased recently, number of women who contract Lung Cancer has steadily rise. For nearly 40 years, breast cancer was the leading cause of death in women until Lung Cancer replaced it in 1987. In 1997, 178 000 new cases of Lung Cancer were diagnosed in the United States. Lung Cancer is divided into two categories: small cell Lung Cancer and non - small cell Lung Cancer. These two types behave differently and are, therefore, evaluated and treated differently. Small cell Lung Cancer, which includes oat cell carcinoma, is a more aggressive disease and is often more advanced at the time of diagnosis. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Non - small cell Lung Cancer includes adenocarcinoma, squamous cell, and large cell Cancer. Surgery is the primary treatment for early stage non - small cell Lung Cancer. Up to 80% of non - small cell Lung Cancer cases can be cured by surgery, depending upon the size of tumor and if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the organ or body. Lung Cancer may be found as mass or tumor on chest X - ray of patients with no symptoms, but most patients have symptoms when diagnose. Symptoms may include: new cough, change in existing cough and bloody cough Pneumonial Rib or shoulder pain Hoarseness Loss of appetite Weight Loss Facial swelling Headaches Bone pain Cedars - Sinai, through its Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, offers state - of - art treatment for all stages of Lung Cancer, including investigational studies involving new treatments that are not otherwise available. Highly integrated team approach to treating patients is an integral part of our program. Multimodality therapy is often required, so surgeons, pulmonary specialists, oncologists and radiation therapy specialists work together to formulate the best treatment plan for each patient. Tumor board and Lung Cancer clinics are options for reviewing Lung Cancer cases so specialists can discuss cases to recommend treatment approaches. We are dedicated to providing the most up - to - date and compassionate care for our patients. As with all cancers, Lung Cancer may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination thereof. Treatment depends on the type and extent of cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Risk Factors

Ninety percent of Lung Cancers are related to smoking. The risk of Lung Cancer is 30 times greater in smokers than in non - smokers and correlates with total exposure to cigarettes, referred to as pack - years. One in seven people who smoke at least two per day will die of Lung Cancer. Cigar and pipe smoke double the risk of developing Lung Cancer, compared to nonsmokers. Approximately 5 000 to 10 000 Americans develop Lung Cancer per year from secondhand smoke. Exposure to air pollution, radiation and industrial chemicals, such as arsenic, nickel, chromium and asbestos also increase risk of Lung Cancer. Asbestos alone increases four times the risk of getting Lung Cancer. The combination of asbestos and smoking increases the risk 90 times. Asbestos exposure is also associated with mesothelioma, type of cancer that starts in the pleural lining of the chest. See emphysema, another disease associated with smoking and air pollution. See also sarcoidosis, another disease that can affect the lungs.


Pulmonary nodules characteristics

There are two main types of pulmonary nodules: malignant and benign. Over 90% of pulmonary nodules that are smaller than two centimeters in diameter are benign. Benign pulmonary nodules can have a wide variety of causes. Many are the result of inflammation in the lungs as result of infection or disease, producing inflammation in the body. Nodule may represent an active process or be the result of scar tissue formation related to prior inflammation. Benign developmental lesions may also appear as nodules. Infections Most infections that appear as with pulmonary nodules are relatively indolent and often not active. Examples include mycobacterium such as mycobacterium tuberculosis or mycobacterium avium intracellulare, and fungal infections such as aspergillosis, histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, and cryptococcosis. Inflammation related to infections often forms what is termed granuloma. A Granuloma is a small clump of cells that form when lung tissue becomes inflame. Granulomas form when the immune system isolates substances that it considers foreign. Most of the time, granulomas occur in the lungs, but they may also form in other parts of the body. They can become calcify over time, as calcium tends to collect in healing tissue. Noninfectious causes of benign inflammatory lung nodules Noninfectious disorders such as sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and rheumatoid arthritis also show themselves with granulomas forming in the lungs. Neoplasms Neoplasms are abnormal growths that may be benign or malignant. Types of benign neoplasms include: Fibroma hamartoma neurofibroma blastoma. Types of malignant tumors include: Lung Cancer Lymphoma carcinoid sarcoma metastatic tumors

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Evaluation

Staging and evaluation of Lung Cancer involves history and physical examination and several other tests. Knowing the stage of your cancer helps you and your doctor develop a proper treatment plan. Tests will also determine if you have lung capacity to undergo treatment. Pulmonary Function Tests - Pulmonary Function Tests are done to see if a patient has enough lung function so that operation can be performed safely. The patient breathes into a machine to determine lung capacity. If the pulmonary function test is good, then lobectomy is the usual treatment. If pulmonary function is not adequate, there are other surgical and non - surgical treatment options. Brain CT Scan or MR - Lung Cancer may travel to the brain so imaging of the brain is performed if patient has headaches or psychological symptoms, weight loss, or appears to have more advanced stage tumor. If there are no symptoms and the tumor appears to be in early stage, this is often not do because the chances of finding a tumor in the brain are low. Ct Scan - CT of the chest is needed to evaluate the tumor. A surgeon needs to look at the tumor to determine its location, so the surgeon knows where to resect and the relation of the tumor to surrounding structures to determine the extent of resection needed to remove the tumor. Pet Scan - Parts of the body with active metabolism absorb more glucose than other parts of the body, so Fluorodeoxyglucose is injected to identify these areas. This test is often used to evaluate mass in lungs and determine if there is spread elsewhere. In general, if mass in lung lights up on PET Scan, there is an 80 to 90% chance that it is cancer. False positive tests can occur if mass is inflammatory or infection. If lung mass does not light up on PET, chances of mass being cancer are only 5%. False negative tests occur if mass is small or low grade, slow growing tumor, such as broncho - alveolart Cancer. Pet Scan evaluates mediastinum to see if lymph nodes are involve. False positive tests occur up to 25% of the time; this may be due to infection, inflammation, or anthrocosis. False negative tests occur if the area of tumor on the lymph node is small. Nodes that are positive on PET generally need to be biopsied to determine if there is really a tumor there. Bone Scan - bone Scan or brain scan, may be done to see if the tumor has metastasized to other parts of the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Stages

Cancer of the lung, like all cancers, results from abnormality in the body's basic unit of life, cell.S Normally, body maintains a system of checks and balances on cell growth so that cells divide to produce new cells only when new cells are needed. Disruption of this system of checks and balances on cell growth results in uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells that eventually form mass know as tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant; when we speak of cancer, we are referring to malignant tumors. Medical professionals can usually remove benign tumors, and these tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant Tumors, on the other hand, often grow aggressively locally where they start, but tumor cells can also enter into the bloodstream or lymphatic system and then spread to other sites in the body. This process of spread is termed metastasis; areas of tumor growth at these distant sites are called metastases. Since Lung Cancer tends to spread or metastasize very early after it form, it is a very life - threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat. While Lung Cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain locations - particularly adrenal glands, liver, brain, and bones - are the most common sites for Lung Cancer metastasis. Lung also is a very common site for metastasis from Malignant Tumors in other parts of the body. Same types of cells as original tumor make up tumor metastases. For example, if prostate cancer spreads via the bloodstream to lungs, it is metastatic prostate Cancer in lung and is not lung cancer. The principal function of lungs is to exchange gases between air we breathe and blood. Through lung, carbon dioxide is removed from the bloodstream and oxygen enters the bloodstream. The right lung has three lobes, while the left lung has two lobes and a small structure called lingula that is equivalent of the middle lobe on the right. Major airways entering lungs are bronchi, which arise from trachea, which is outside the lungs. Bronchi branch into progressively smaller airways called bronchioles that end in tiny sacs know as alveoli where gas exchanges occur. A thin layer of tissue called pleura covers the lungs and chest wall. Lung cancers can arise in any part of the lung, but 90% - 95% of cancers of the lung arise from epithelial cells, cells lining larger and smaller airways; For this reason, lung cancers are sometimes called bronchogenic cancers or bronchogenic carcinomas. Cancers also arise from pleura or rarely from supporting tissues within lungs, for example, blood vessels. Lung Cancer is the most common cause of death due to cancer in both men and women throughout the world.


Results

Frequencies of metastasis at station 11s and 11i were significantly higher in the SS and BS groups, respectively. Both SS and BS groups show high frequency of subcarinal mediastinal zone metastasis. The Frequencies of superior mediastinal zone metastasis were 37. 5% in SS and 35. 8% in the BS group. In patients with pN2 disease, three - year disease - free survival was significantly shorter in SS than in the BS group. In the BS group, independent predictive factors of poor or good prognosis were metastasis to station 11i or skip metastasis, respectively; however, we do not detect independent prognostic factors in the SS group. In right lower lung lobe, there was no segment - specific nodal spread.


Prior history of lung cancer

Anyone can get lung cancer, but 90 percent of lung cancer cases are the result of smoking. From the moment you inhale smoke into your lungs, it starts damaging your lung tissue. Lungs can repair damage, but continuous exposure to smoke makes it increasingly difficult for lungs to keep up repair. Once cells are damage, they begin to behave abnormally, increasing the likelihood of developing lung cancer. Small - cell Lung cancer is almost always associated with heavy smoking. When you stop smoking, you lower your risk of lung cancer over time. Exposure to radon, naturally existing radioactive gas, is the second leading cause, according to the American Lung Association. Radon enters buildings through small cracks in the foundation.S Smokers who are also exposed to radon have a very high risk of lung cancer. Breathing in other hazardous substances, especially over long periods of time, can also cause lung cancer. Type of lung cancer called mesothelioma is almost always caused by exposure to asbestos. Arsenic cadmium chromium nickel, some petroleum products uranium inherited genetic mutations may make you more likely to develop lung cancer, especially if you smoke or are exposed to other carcinogens.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Surgery for Lung Cancer

Surgery offers the best chance of cure for Lung Cancer and is the treatment of choice for early stage non - small cell Lung Cancer, but it is not very effective for more advanced stage cancers. Operations are performed when tumor appears to be confined to the lung and when procedure can be performed safely. The operation involves removing cancer and lymph nodes from the chest. The right lung has three lobes and the left lung has two lobes. Segmentectomy or wedge resection is removal of less than entire lobe, Lobectomy is removal of entire lobe and Pneumonectomy is removal of whole lung. Lobectomy - The most common Lung Cancer operation is Lobectomy. This has been proven to have a lower chance of cancer recurrence in the lung and to have a higher cure rate than wedge Resection or segmentectomy for Stage I Lung Cancer. The Cure rate for Lung Cancer Surgery varies from 20 to 80%, depending on stage of tumor. For Lung Cancer Surgery, patients are generally admitted to hospital for three to seven days. The operation is done under general anesthesia. The most common risk is pneumonia, so patients are out of bed on the day of operation and walk in halls the day after the operation. During the operation, drainage tubes are placed into the chest cavity. These are connected to the collection system. These tubes are removed from the chest several days after surgery. Vats Lobectomy - program for treatment of Lung Cancer at Cedars - Sinai Medical Center has led the charge into the 21st Century. In the United States, about 80% of lung surgery is done through large incisions under the arm. In contrast, surgeons at Cedars Sinai develop minimally invasive surgery for Lung Cancer. At Cedars Sinai, over 90% of Lung Cancer Surgery is performed with small incisions. Less than 3% of Plan VATS operations convert to thoracotomies. Using the most advanced surgical technology available, our surgeons perform the same operation that other surgeons perform through large incisions. In the US, there are many operations performed in which nodes are not remove, but that is important for complete removal of tumor, for prognosis, and to determine if additional treatment is needed. Cedars - Sinai is proud to be one of few institutions in the world capable of offering patients complete Lung Cancer operations via minimally invasive surgery, which results in less pain, shorter hospital stays and faster recovery than traditional, invasive, rib - spreading operations. At Cedars Sinai, our surgeons have the most experience in the world with VATS lobectomies. Segmentectomy - Each lobe has smaller sections called segmentectomies. There are cases where the tumor is small, where the tumor does not require much tissue to be remove, or where the patient cannot tolerate removal of the entire lobe so segmentectomy can be perform. At Cedars Sinai, segmentectomy, for example, are also routinely performed by VATS.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What are benign lung tumors?

Nodule is spot on lung, seen on X - ray or computed tomography scan. In fact, nodules show up on about one in every 500 chest X - rays. Normal lung tissue surrounds this small round or oval solid overgrowth of tissue. It may be single or solitary pulmonary nodule. Or, you may have multiple nodules. Your lung nodule is more likely to be benign if: you are younger than 40. You are a nonsmoker. There is calcium in the nodule.S Nodule is small. A Benign Lung tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue that serves no purpose and is found not to be cancerous. Benign lung tumors may grow from many different structures in the lung. Determining whether nodule is a benign tumor or an early stage of cancer is very important. That's because early detection and treatment of Lung Cancer can greatly enhance your survival.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Case Report

Lung malignancy is the most common cause of cancer in males. Bronchogenic carcinoma is the most common malignant lung tumor and accounts for 95% of lung malignancies. It is divided mainly into two groups: non - small cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. One of the rare tumors of lung is pulmonary carcinosarcoma, which is a subgroup of pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas. In 2004, WHO classified sarcomatoid carcinomas into pleomorphic carcinoma, spindle cell carcinoma, giant cell carcinoma, carcinosarcoma and pulmonary blastoma. Pulmonary carcinosarcoma contains a mixture of malignant epithelial and sarcomatous mesenchymal elements such as cartilage, bone or skeletal muscle. It accounts for 0. 3 - 1. 3% of all lung tumors. It occurs in elderly aged mostly in 6 and 7 decades and is four times more common in males. There is a strong association with this tumor in heavy smokers. The prognosis of sarcomatoid carcinomas is worse than bronchogenic carcinoma due to their rapid growth, invasive nature and early metastatic spread and, hence, need for their early diagnosis andtimely treatment. We report the case of an elderly male patient WHO was found to have malignant mass in the right lower lobe along with pulmonary metastases and was diagnosed as a case of carcinosarcoma in this report.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Causes

Around 4 - 5% of the mass found in the lungs turns out to be one of the types of Lung Cancer. It may be comforting to know that even if mass is Lung Cancer, both treatments and survival have improved in recent years. Keep this in mind, especially if you know someone who had Lung Cancer more than a year or two ago. In some cases, advanced Lung Cancer can almost be treated as a chronic disease. Immunotherapy drugs can sometimes lead to durable response for people with even the most advanced stages of disease. Lung Cancer is far too common and is currently the leading cause of cancer deaths in men and women in the United States. Unlike reduction of lung cancer in older men, for one group of people, lung cancer has been increasing significantly: young, never - smoking women. Cancers other than Lung Cancer may also appear as mass in lungs. These include lymphomas and sarcomas. Metastases of cancers from other regions of the body to lung are another cause. The most common cancers that spread and cause mass in the lungs are breast cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, and prostate cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Diagnosis

Lung nodule is a small abnormal areA that is sometimes found during CT scan of the chest. These scans are done for many reasons, such as part of Lung Cancer screening, or to check your lungs if you have symptoms. Most lung nodules seen on CT scans are not cancer. They are more often the result of old infections, scar tissue, or other causes. But tests are often needed to be sure nodule is not cancer. If you have lung nodules most often, next step is to get a repeat CT scan to see if the nodule is growing over time. The time between scans might range anywhere from a few months to a year, depending on how likely your doctor thinks that nodule could be cancer. This is based on size, shape, and location of the nodule, as well as whether it appears to be solid or filled with fluid. If a repeat scan shows that the nodule has grow, your doctor might also want to get another type of imaging test called positron emission tomography scan, which can often help tell if it is cancer. If later scans show that the nodule has grow, or if the nodule has other concerning features, your doctor will want to get a sample of it to check it for cancer cells. This is called a biopsy. This can be done in different ways: doctor might pass long, thin tube down your throat and into the airways of your lung to reach the nodule. A small tweezer on the end of the bronchoscope can be used to get sample of nodule. If the nodule is in the outer part of the lung, doctor might pass a thin, hollow needle through the skin of the chest wall and into the nodule to get a sample. If there is a higher chance that the nodule is cancer, surgery might be done to remove the nodule and some surrounding lung tissue. Sometimes larger parts of lung might be removed as well. These types of tests, biopsies, and surgeries are described in more detail in Tests for Lung Cancer. After biopsy After biopsy is done, tissue sample will be looked at closely in the lab by a doctor called a pathologist. A pathologist will check the biopsy for cancer, infection, scar tissue, and other lung problems. If cancer is find, then special tests will be done to find out what kind of cancer it is. If something other than cancer is find, next step will depend on diagnosis. Some nodules will be followed with repeat CT scan in 6 - 12 months for a few years to make sure they do not change. If a lung nodule biopsy shows infection, you might be sent to a specialist called infectious disease doctor, for further testing. Your doctor will decide on the next step, depending on the results of the biopsy.


What are pulmonary nodules?

Most people with SPN do not experience symptoms. Generally, SPN is detected as an incidental finding. Early lung cancer can often appear as SPN on chest X - ray. Therefore, goal of investigating SPN is to differentiate benign growth from malignant growth as soon and as accurately as possible. People should always communicate openly and honestly with their health care provider about their history and risk factors. Youra workup depends on your personal risk that SPN is cancerous. This is largely dependent on age, exposures, and family history. The following features are important when assessing whether SPN is benign or malignant. Age: Risk of malignancy increases with age. Risk of 3% at age 35 - 39 years Risk of 15% at age 40 - 49 years Risk of 43% at age 50 - 59 years Risk of greater than 50% in people ages 60 and older Smoking history: history of smoking increases chances of SPN being malignant. Prior history of cancer: People with a history of cancer in other areas of the body have a greater chance that SPN is malignant. Occupational Risk factors for lung cancer: Exposure to asbestos, radon, nickel, chromium, vinyl chloride, and polycyclic hydrocarbons increase chance that SPN is malignant. Travel history: People who have travel to areas with endemic mycosis or high prevalence of tuberculosis have a higher chance of SPN being benign. People who have a history of tuberculosis or pulmonary mycosis have a greater chance of SPN being benign.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Treatment

If your doctor is pretty sure that your lung mass is cancer, you may be feeling scar. What does this mean? What happen next? If that describes you, take a moment to learn about the first steps to take when you are diagnosed with lung cancer. Remember that treatments are improving. Be your own advocate and learn as much as you can about your disease. There is also a wonderful lung cancer community available online with people who can provide support while helping you better understand your cancer and your options.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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