Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 8 mil and more summaries

Risk Factors For Atherosclerosis

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 02 July 2021

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the United States and while the exact cause of atherosclerosis remains unknown, certain traits, conditions, or habits may raise a person's chance of developing it. These conditions are known as Risk Factors and person's chances of developing atherosclerosis increase with the number of risk factors they have - Most Risk Factors can be controlled and atherosclerosis can be prevented or delayed - These include high cholesterol and low - density Lipoprotein in blood, low level of High - density Lipoprotein in Blood, Hypertension, tobacco smoke, Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity, inactive lifestyle, age - family history of Heart Disease is also Risk Factor and one which cannot be Control. Unhealthy Blood Cholesterol levels - this includes high LDL Cholesterol and low HDL Cholesterol. High Blood pressure - Blood pressure is considered high if it stays at or above 140 / 90 mmHg over a period of time. Smoking - this can damage and tighten blood vessels, raise cholesterol levels, and raise blood pressure - Smoking also doesn't allow enough oxygen to reach the body's tissues. Insulin resistance - Insulin is a hormone that helps move blood sugar into cells where it's used and Insulin resistance occurs when the body cannot use its own insulin properly. Diabetes - this is a disease in which the body's blood sugar level is high because the body doesn't make enough insulin or does not use its insulin properly. Overweight or Obesity - overweight is having extra body weight from muscle, bone, fat, and / or water - Obesity is having a high amount of extra body fat. Lack of physical activity - lack of activity can worsen other Risk Factors for atherosclerosis. Age - As the body ages, risk of atherosclerosis increases and genetic or lifestyle factors cause plaque to gradually build in arteries - by middle - age or older, enough plaque has built up to cause signs or symptoms, In men, risk increases after age 45, while in women, risk increases after age 55. Family history of early Heart Disease - Risk for atherosclerosis increases if father or brother was diagnosed with Heart Disease before 55 years of age, or if mother or sister was diagnosed with Heart Disease before 65 years of age but though age and family history of early Heart Disease are Risk Factors, It do not mean that you will develop atherosclerosis if you have one or both. Making lifestyle changes and / or taking medicines to treat other Risk Factors can often lessen genetic influences and prevent atherosclerosis from developing, even in older adults.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Testing for atherosclerosis

Other risk factors that also may raise your risk of developing Atherosclerosis include: sleep apnoea - disorder in which breathing stops or gets very shallow while person is sleeping - untreated sleep apnoea can raise the chances of high blood pressure, diabetes, and even heart attack or stroke. Research shows that the most commonly reported trigger for heart attack is an emotionally upsetting event - particularly one involving anger. Alcohol - heavy drinking can damage heart muscle and worsen other risk factors for Atherosclerosis - men should have no more than two drinks containing alcohol a day, while women should have no more than one drink containing alcohol a day.


How is atherosclerosis treated?

Cholesterol - lowering medications, including statins and fibrates angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, which may help prevent narrowing of your arteries, beta - blockers or calcium channel blockers to lower your blood pressure, diuretics, or water pills, to help lower your blood pressure, anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin to prevent blood from clotting and clogging your arteries aspirin is particularly effective for people with history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. An Aspirin regimen can reduce your risk of having another health event. If there is no prior history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, you should only use aspirin as preventive medication if your risk of bleeding is low and your risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is high.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Emerging Risk Factors

Unhealthy blood cholesterol levels. These include high LDL cholesterol and low HDL cholesterol. High blood pressure. Blood pressure is considered high if it stays at or above 140 / 90 mmHg over time. If you have diabetes or chronic kidney disease, high blood pressure is defined as 130 / 80 mmHg or higher. Smoking. Smoking can damage and tighten blood vessels, raise cholesterol levels, and raise blood pressure. Smoking also doesn't allow enough oxygen to reach the body's tissues. Insulin resistance. This condition occurs if the body can't use its insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps move blood sugar into cells where it's used as an energy source. Insulin resistance may lead to diabetes. Diabetes. With this disease, body's blood sugar level is too high because the body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use its insulin properly. Overweight or obesity. Terms overweight and obesity refer to body weight that's greater than what is considered healthy for a certain height. Lack of physical activity. Lack of physical activity can worsen other risk factors for Atherosclerosis, such as unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, and overweight and obesity. Unhealthy diet. An unhealthy diet can raise your risk of Atherosclerosis. Foods that are high in saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, and sugar can worsen other Atherosclerosis risk factors. Older age. As you get older, your risk of Atherosclerosis increases. Genetic or lifestyle factors cause plaque to build up in your arteries as you age. By time you re middle - age or older, enough plaque has built up to cause signs or symptoms. In men, risk increases after age 45. In women, risk increases after age 55. Family history of early Heart Disease. Your Risk for Atherosclerosis increases if your father or brother was diagnosed with Heart Disease before 55 years of age, or if your mother or sister was diagnosed with Heart Disease before 65 years of age. Although age and family history of early Heart Disease are risk factors, it doesn't mean that you 'll develop Atherosclerosis if you have one or both. Controlling other risk factors can often lessen genetic influences and prevent Atherosclerosis, even in older adults. Studies show that an increasing number of children and young people are at risk for Atherosclerosis. This is due to a number of causes, including rising childhood obesity rates.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Conclusion

Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease. The impact of traditional risk factors such as age, sex, elevated blood pressure, smoking, high levels of LDL cholesterol, and low levels of HDL cholesterol on CHD risk has long been demonstrated beyond any doubt. More recent analyses show that increased triglyceride levels are also associated with increased CHD risk. In particular, triglyceride - rich lipoprotein remnants associated with apo C - III appear to have a major impact on risk. As promising novel risk factors, additive value of homocysteine and hs - CRP for assessment of CHD risk is being evaluated in ongoing prospective studies. The Combination of traditional risk factors and emerging risk factors is expected to facilitate assessment of patients ' global risk, thereby allowing optimal use of diagnostic and therapeutic efforts in high - risk subjects.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How it progresses

Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth, unique research program initiated in 1985, has now developed into a detailed and comprehensive 15 - Center investigation of arteries of more than 3 000 young people who died between 15 and 34 years of age. The main objectives of this highly organized multicenter study are to compare quantitatively evaluate risk factors for coronary heart disease including blood lipid values, evidence of smoking, indices of hypertension, tendency toward diabetes, etc., With results of macroscopic and microscopic quantitation of severity and with microscopic components of developing atherosclerotic lesions in these young people. 1 - 5 This commentary will summarize some of the results which have been published in more than 75 full - length reports, with emphasis on results obtained because of unusual and frequently unique features of study protocol, which was developed during a 10 - year period before study begin. 6 - 17 report findings can be divided into two categories. Results in the first category are derived from gross evaluation of extent and severity of lesions. 18 - 28 Computer - assist mapping was also applied to raise lesions traced out by pathologists. 28 29 second category of report results come from detailed micromorphometric, microchemical, and immunohistochemical quantitative data based on major microscopic components and classification of each lesion. 30 - 39. In fact, as study progress, it has become possible to classify four major types of intermediate lesions that are associated with different rates of progression of atherosclerotic process in aortas and coronary arteries of these young people as well as with certain risk factors. 40 41 because lesions tend to increase in extent, numbers, and severity with age, It is assumed that this in - depth quantitative analysis of Atherosclerosis found in each of these cases from the 15 - 34 age group may give new insights into why some young people's plaques seem to progress rapidly with age while others remain almost stationary, as well as comparison of Progression in various parts of arterial tree. 20 22 30 42 results of the study reflect the state of Atherosclerosis development in young people living in the USA late in the 20th century. All case material comes from forensic autopsies on young individuals who had no evidence of chronic debilitating disease and who succumbed suddenly to traumatic or other fatal episodes. Intervals between death and refrigeration of body, as well as performance of autopsy, were generally short. This has made it possible for tissues and cells to be studied using a number of Pathobiological methods appropriate for well - preserved human tissues. 31 - 41 in order to insure an adequate and representative autopsy population, nine of centers select, approve, and fund function as collecting centers. All nine are geographically and / or organizationally related to forensic Laboratories where state and local regulations make it possible to collect and utilize small samples of tissue for research purposes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

How atherosclerotic plaque causes damage

Atherosclerosis is a slow, progressive disease that may start in childhood. In some people, atherosclerosis progresses rapidly in their 30s. In others, it doesnt become dangerous until they reach their 50s or 60s. Exactly how atherosclerosis starts or what cause it isnt know. Many scientists believe plaque begins when arterys inner lining becomes damage. Three possible causes of such damage are: elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in blood High blood pressure Cigarette Smoking Smoking has a big role in the progression of atherosclerosis in the aorta, coronary arteries and arteries in the legs. Smoking makes fatty deposits more likely to form, and it accelerates the growth of plaque.


Atherosclerosis and cholesterol

Atherosclerosis is narrowing of arteries due to plaque buildup on artery walls. Arteries carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body. A thin layer of cells forms a lining that keeps them smooth and allows blood to flow easily. This is called endothelium. Atherosclerosis happens when endothelium becomes damage, due to factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, or high levels of glucose, fat, and cholesterol in the blood. This damage allows collection of substances, know as plaque, to build up in artery wall. These substances include fat and cholesterol. If plaque continues to collect, it can block artery and disrupt the flow of blood around the body. Sometimes, pieces of plaque break open. If this happen, particles from blood cells, known as platelets, gather in the affected area. These can stick together, forming blood clots. Clot can block artery, leading to life - threatening complications, such as stroke and heart attack. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery, but it mainly occurs in larger, high pressure arteries. Find out the difference between stroke and heart attack, and how to recognize each, here.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0066-782X2000000300001

Arterial thrombotic disease and venous thromboembolism have traditionally been considered separate diseases with different pathophysiology, but during the last decade studies have supported bidirectional association between them. Whether the association between arterial and venous thrombosis is causal or mediated through shared risk factors remains uncertain. Of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, only age, obesity and family history of MI have consistently been associated with VTE, whereas diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia have been associated with VTE in some but not all studies. The majority of studies that find association between atherosclerotic risk factors and VTE were of retrospective nature, whereas most prospective studies report no association. In conventional cohort studies, risk factor levels are usually assessed at time of inclusion and relate to outcomes occurring several years, or even decades, later. However, status of risk factor may change over time, and these changes usually become greater with time from exposure assessment. Both the effect of risk factor and the value of risk factor itself can change over time. Random measurement errors, temporary fluctuations, and true changes in variables over time generally lead to regression dilution bias, phenomenon that results in underestimation of the true association between exposure and outcome. As most atherosclerotic risk factors are modifiable, changes during follow - up may have influenced risk estimates of MI and VTE in previous cohort studies. Thus, absence of association between atherosclerotic risk factors and VTE found in cohorts could potentially be explained by regression dilution. Regression dilution bias is potentially major limitation of prospective cohorts that could either be addrest by performing time - varying analysis or correcting risk estimates by regression dilution ratio. When variable is assessed within the same individual at different time points during the study period, time - varying analysis will allow for changes in exposure status during follow - up. If repeat measurements exist only for subsample of individuals within cohort, regression dilution ratio can be calculated and used to correct risk estimates from time - fix analyses. Using this approach, previous study reported that single baseline measurement of cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure resulted in respectively 47% and 76% underestimation of association with coronary heart disease risk in the third decade of follow - up. Another study reported that baseline assessment of disease risk underestimated the strength of real associations by about one - third first decade, about one - half second decade, and about two - thirds third decade. However, it has been suggested that simple methods of correction for regression dilution bias may lead to overcorrection if the relationship between risk factor and disease is not short term. In prospective population - base cohort, we therefore aim to investigate whether use of repeated measurements of atherosclerotic risk factors influences risk estimates for VTE and MI compared to using baseline measurements only, with and without correction for regression dilution bias.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Overview

This review assesses current status of knowledge concerning the relationship of risk factors to atherosclerotic lesions. Risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions per se need not necessarily be identical to those related to clinically overt coronary heart disease. This review is based on 1 autopsy study where information about risk factors was gathered in a retrospective fashion; and 2 autopsy studies where information on risk factors was gathered prospectively. In spite of differences in study designs and grading methods among studies, general findings were similar. Elevate serum cholesterol and blood pressure are positively and significantly related to atherosclerotic lesions. High density lipoprotein cholesterol is inversely related to coronary and probably also to cerebral atherosclerosis. Almost all studies indicate a significant association between cigarette smoking and the degree of aortic atherosclerosis; positive relationship between smoking and coronary atherosclerosis is found between obesity or physical activity and the degree of atherosclerosis. Data from the Community Pathology Study in New Orleans indicate that the average extent of coronary atherosclerosis in the population may be subject to changes within a relatively short period of time; these changes might be expected to parallel changes in risk factors in the population.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.