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Sars And Mrsa

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

SARS and MERS are Infectious Respiratory Diseases that are caused by members of a class of viruses know as coronaviruses. The name Coronavirus comes from the appearance of the virus under the microscope-it has a spiky or crown-like appearance. Both diseases can be fatal to humans. SARS is caused by the SARS-associate Coronavirus, while MERS is caused by the Middle East Respiratory syndrome Coronavirus. SARS-COV emerged over a decade ago in China and spread rapidly to other countries, but was quickly contained and no new cases have been reported since the initial outbreak. MERS-COV emerged in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and continue to circulate throughout the Middle East. It has been carried by travelers to other parts of the world, including the United States, Europe, Africa, and Asia, and has recently caused the largest outbreak, outside the Middle East, in South Korea. SARS was first recognized in Guangdong Province, China in November of 2002. It then spread extremely rapidly to other regions within China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Toronto, Canada in the early half of 2003. SARS is characterized by severe, pneumonia-like symptoms which can be fatal. SARS-COV is transmitted from person to person mainly through respiratory droplets produced when person sneezes or coughs and through direct contact with surface contaminated with infected respiratory droplets. Altogether, more than 8 000 people were documented to have been injured with SARS-COV and over 800 died. The global scientific response to SARS was unprecedented. Within weeks after the Respiratory Disease was first report, agent that caused the disease was identify, diagnostic tests were develop, and the entire genome of the virus was sequence. Epidemiologists gather evidence that first people Infect had had contact with wild game in markets of Guangdong Province in China. It is likely that these individuals were Infect through direct contact with infected animals, particularly palm civets, which harbor very closely related coronaviruses. The virus then is thought to have mutated to adapt to its human host, and consequently human-to-human transmission became more efficient, setting off the SARS epidemic. Fortunately, SARS outbreak was short-live, and public health containment procedures and coordinated responses prove effective in preventing further spread of the disease. Until recently, SARS-COV was the only member of the Coronavirus family known to cause death or severe respiratory disease in humans. Other previously known viruses in this group cause mild upper-Respiratory infections in humans and are associated with respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurologic diseases in animals. One reason that SARS-COV might have been more lethal than other coronaviruses is that it appears to interfere with enzyme system in humans that is critical for regulating body fluid balance. Therefore, Virus could disrupt normal functioning of lungs by blocking this enzyme system and allowing fluid to leak into air sacs of lungs, resulting in severe respiratory illness. A new member of the Coronavirus family, MERS-COV, emerged in the fall of 2012 in the Arabian Peninsula.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

As early as December 2019, cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology was identified in Wuhan, China and shortly thereafter, causative agent was identified as novel Betacoronavirus, severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-relate Coronavirus-2. The spectrum of disease severity ranges from asymptomatic disease to severe pulmonary disease including Acute Respiratory distress Syndrome, multisystem organ failure, and death. Genetic sequencing performed early in the course of an outbreak leads to the development of diagnostic testing. With testing, SARS-CoV-2 was noted to be responsible for the global pandemic, and as of April 27 2020, total of nearly 3 million cases worldwide have been diagnose, and at least 207 000 have died from COVID-19. Many experts have advocated widespread testing. Due to the rapidity and extensive spread of infection however, many countries, including the United States, were ill-prepared to employ widespread testing as an effective public health tool. Limitations relating to availability of testing were complex, and occur on many levels: first, various assays had to be developed and deploy, second, physical testing sites had to be operationalized, and lastly, supplies of ancillary equipment had to be obtain. Key to ancillary equipment was adequate and sustained supply of viral sample collection kits. Many healthcare systems that have overcome the first two of these barriers have been faced with unexpected shortages of swabs and transport media, compounded by slow or non-existent replacements and unreliable supply chains. As with creative interventions to re-purpose personal protective equipment, healthcare systems have looked for ways to overcome barriers to testing. Interim guidelines issued by CDC on April 14, 2020 clarify allowance of other swab types with guidance on specimen collection and transport. In these guidelines, both FDA and CDC allow for expansion of specimen types and swab / transport media to accommodate demand for more testing. While nasopharyngeal specimens obtained with mini-tip viral swab and transport in viral transport medium is still the preferred choice for initial testing, acceptable alternatives include nasopharyngeal aspirates and nasal washes as well as swabs of oropharynx, anterior nares, and nasal mid-turbinates. The latter two are only appropriate in symptomatic patients and both nares must be sample. Anterior nares specimens should be collected using spun polyester or flock COPAN ESwabs used for MRSA detection. These interim guidelines allow for anterior nares and mid-turbinate specimens to be transported in viral transport medium, American transport medium, or sterile saline. There is no data, however, on the effect on diagnostic accuracy of SARS-CoV-2 tests based on these variable swabs and transport media used for specimen collection from sit other than the nasopharynx. Give wide availability of specimen collection kits use for MRSA testing in our facility, we seek to determine whether nasal MRSA swabs and their transport medium can be used to detect SARS-CoV-2 when viral swabs are not available. We therefore seek to assess the concordance between test results using these two different collection kits. This is of paramount importance at this critical time.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Methods

Usually, coronavirus illnesses are fairly mild, affecting just the upper airway. But new virus, as well as both SARS and MERS, are different. Those three types of betacoronaviruses can latch onto proteins studding outside of lung cells, and penetrate much deeper into the airway than cold-causing coronaviruses, said Anthony Fauci, director of US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, MD 2019 version is a disease that causes more lung disease than sniffles, Fauci say. Damage to lungs can make viruses deadly. In 2003 and 2004, SARS killed nearly 10 percent of 8 096 people in 29 countries. WHO fell ill. Total of 774 people die, according to the World Health Organization. MERS is even more deadly, claiming about 30 percent of people it infect. Unlike SARS, outbreaks of that virus are still simmering, Fauci say. Since 2012, MERS has caused 2 494 confirmed cases in 27 countries and killed 858 people. MERS can spread from person to person, and some superspreaders have passed the virus on to many others. Most famously, 186 people contract MERS after one businessman unwittingly brought the virus to South Korea in 2015 and spread it to others. Another superspreader WHO caught MERS from that man passed the virus to 82 people over just two days while being treated in the hospital emergency room. Right now, 2019-nCoV appears to be less virulent, with about 4 percent mortality rate. But that number is still moving target as more cases are diagnose, Fauci say. As of January 23, new coronavirus had infected more than 581 people, with about quarter of those becoming seriously ill, according to WHO. By January 24, number of reported infections had risen to at least 900. Analysis of illness in the first 41 patients diagnosed with 2019-nCoV from Wuhan, China suggests that the virus acts similarly to SARS and MERS. Like the other two, 2019-nCoV causes pneumonia. But unlike those viruses, new ones rarely produce runny noses or intestinal symptoms, researchers report on January 24 in Lancet. Most of people affected in that first group were healthy, with fewer than a third having chronic medical conditions that could make them more vulnerable to infection.


What are coronaviruses?

Coronaviruses are rounded and surrounded by a halo of spiky proteins, giving them resemblance to crown or sun wispy corona. Four major categories, or genera, of coronavirus exist. Theyre known by the Greek letters alpha, beta, delta and gamma. Only alpha and beta coronaviruses are known to infect people. These viruses spread through the air, and just four types are responsible for about 10 to 30 percent of colds around the world. What makes the virus coronavirus is only loosely enshrine in its DNA. Coronavirus designation is less about genetics and more about the way it appears under the microscope, say Brent C. Satterfield, cofounder and chief scientific officer of Co-Diagnostics, company based in Salt Lake City and Gujarat, India, that is developing molecular tests for diagnosing coronavirus infections. Coronaviruses genetic makeup is composed of RNA, single-stranded chemical cousin of DNA. Viruses in family often appear very similar on genetic level, with some types having more differences between them than humans have from elephants, Satterfield say. New viruss proteins are between 70 and 99 percent identical to their counterparts in the SARS virus, said Karla Satchell, microbiologist and immunologist at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine in Chicago.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Results

SARS-CoV-2 is an envelop, positive-sense, single-strand RNA virus, belonging to the family Coronaviridae. Virus emerge in 2019 and is responsible for Respiratory illnesses Coronavirus Disease 2019 that results in respiratory tract infections and causes severe lung damage in most fatal cases. SARS-CoV-2 has overwhelmed health systems, with the numbers of those infected with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization and critical care. Early stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection typically include symptoms of mild fever and shortness of breath. As the virus replicates in the respiratory tract, symptoms worsen and once the virus reaches and begins infecting alveoli, host responds by generating inflammatory factors in alveolar tissues that may result in pneumonia. In almost all severe cases, SARS-CoV-2 infection results in pneumonia and inflame fluid-fill alveolar tissue now is an ideal habitat for bacterial growth for pathogens including P. Aeruginosa and S. Aureus. Causative agents resulting in severe disease progression may be bacteria, viruses or fungi. The presence of secondary bacterial infections in those infected with SARS-CoV-2 complicates treatment. Overview of all COVID-19 case studies, available as Supplementary Information, where we have analyzed 15 case studies reporting SARS-CoV-2 infection. In particular for data obtained from clinical observations in China, COVID-19 patients are most commonly treated with antibiotics to reduce risk of nosocomial infections, prophylactic strategy. Should bacterial infection occur despite prophylactic use of antibiotics, caused by bacteria that are resistant to one or more drugs, different combinations of the same drugs are be used for treatment, as a therapeutic strategy. Both strategies, prophylactic and therapeutic use of antibiotics, deploy the same types and dosage of drugs: however prophylactic use of antibiotics is not recommended by most health institutions and governments around the globe, due to observed increase in antibiotic resistance rates, which correlates with overuse of antibiotics. However, risk of superinfection with MDR bacteria poses additional challenges for treatment of severely sick COVID-19 patients in intensive care units.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Background

The volume of biomedical literature has grown rapidly in the past fifty years. The Electronic citation database PubMed, maintained by the US National Library of Medicine, along with its mechanically printed predecessor, Index Medicus, have been the standard source of information on biomedical periodical publications since 1879. PubMed includes content of Cumulative Index Medicus and older Current List of Medical Literature reaching back to 1946. In 2015, PubMed included greater than 24. 6 million citations, with 765 850 works from 5642 journals newly Index during fiscal year 2014 alone. In FY2014, database was search 2. 7 billion times. The growth of international Medical Literature has been stunning, likely reflecting increased funding for biomedical research around the world. As of July 2015, PubMed included 161 882 citations published in 1964, 234 576 in 1974, 317 252 in 1984, 435 130 in 1994, 619 182 in 2004 and 1 088 434 in 2014. In addition to serving as Index for biomedical Literature, PubMed data can be used to assess relative changes in magnitude of worlds research infrastructure on particular subject. We notice a rapid rise in the number of biomedical papers published concerning methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus after the year 2000, which may have resulted from increased funding, increased public awareness, increase in incidence of community-associate-MRSA infections or some combination of these factors. There is a lack of surveillance data for MRSA in most countries, including the United States. There does exist, however, robust surveillance for many other emerging and re-emerging pathogens. We wonder whether we could identify the incidence pattern of MRSA during the past 50 years by comparing its citation pattern to those of other pathogens. We hypothesize that growth in publish scientific periodical literature on pathogens mirrors trends in incidence of or mortality from that pathogen. If trends shown by the annual number of PubMed citations over time were found to be similar for emerging or re-emerging pathogens, perhaps we could derive a qualitative classification scheme for types of publishing trends to describe this emergence. If this turns out to be true, assessment of annual trends in publishing on MRSA may shed light on our understanding of MRSA as an emerging or re-emerging pathogen in the era of CA-MRSA in the US and elsewhere in the world. Type I emerging pathogens: HIV / AIDS, annual citations per 1000 citations in PubMed, 1963-2014; Also showing annual mortality per 100 000 population for HIV / AIDS in US; and Lyme Disease, annual citations per 1000 citations in PubMed, 1963-2014; Also showing annual incidence of Lyme Disease per 100 000 US population. See Table 1 for PubMed search criteria. * Note y-axis scales differ to make trends comparable Type Ia reemerging pathogens, annual citations per 1000 citations in PubMed for 1963-2014 for West Nile Virus; Also include is annual incidence per 100 000 US population; and Chikungunya Virus; Also include is annual incidence per 100 000 North / South American population and avian influenza; Also include is annual incidence per 100 000 World population. See Table 1 for PubMed search criteria.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Conclusion

Multidrug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., And multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, have increased in prevalence in many acute and long-term care facilities. Controlling hospital-acquire infections associated with these organisms has become a major challenge. As patient-to-patient spread is a major route of MDRO transmission, hand hygiene and isolation are pivotal infection control measures. However, compliance with these measures is low. Hospital environments could be source of outbreaks of resistant organisms, and experts suggest indirect transmission via environment to be as likely as direct person-to-person transmission. Although the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America recommends environmental cleaning only with moderate strength, enhanced environmental cleaning can reduce MDRO transmission. Several technologies have proven antibacterial efficacy and these include hydrogen peroxide vapor, ultraviolet light decontamination, and copper-and silver-coated surfaces. However, their use is limited by high cost or high risk of recontamination. Among currently recognized alternatives are photocatalytic antimicrobial coating. Photocatalysis mainly uses semiconductors such as titanium dioxide that can absorb UV wavelength < 400 nm and stimulate reactions on its surface producing highly reactive oxygen species, contributing to biocidal activity. Presently, further improvements such as composite TiO 2 have enabled activation under visible light, increasing availability in hospital settings. Since this material is stable with respect to self-destruction and responsiveness to light, it is presumed to have durable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, TiO 2 has better safety data than pure copper-and silver-coated surfaces, especially when exposed at low doses, such as in environmental coating. Although many in vitro studies have presented positive results of photocatalytic antimicrobial action with titania, only little work in real life application has been report. These works raise numerous issues about applying this material in the hospital environment. An Inappropriately incorporated binder, which acts as glue to adhere TiO 2 to the surface, could prevent action of photocatalyst. Even if properly manufacture, slow action time of the photocatalyst makes it act as a supplemental measure to conventional decontamination procedures at best. Furthermore, others argue that its effect is not significant on already thoroughly clean surfaces. Recognizing the significance of these issues, we decided to use metal ion-doped nanoparticle TiO 2, which is firmly attached to the surface, as an adjunctive measure of environmental decontamination. Additionally, we recognize high incidence rates of MRSA at this institute. Take together, we seek to evaluate the usefulness of photocatalyst to reduce risk of MRSA transmission, by comparing MRSA acquisition rate and nosocomial infection rate before and after photocatalyst coating.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Etiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection

This scientific brief provides an overview of modes of transmission of SARS-COV-2, what is known about when infected people transmit the virus, and implications for infection prevention and control precautions within and outside health facilities. This scientific brief is not a systematic review. Rather, it reflects consolidation of rapid reviews of publications in peer-review journals and of non-peer-review manuscripts on pre-print servers, undertaken by WHO and partners. Preprint findings should be interpreted with caution in the absence of peer review. This brief is also informed by several discussions via teleconferences with WHO Health Emergencies Programme ad hoc Experts Advisory Panel for IPC Preparedness, Readiness and Response to COVID-19, WHO ad hoc COVID-19 IPC Guidance Development Group, and by review of external Experts with relevant technical backgrounds. The overarching aim of the global Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19 is to control COVID-19 by suppressing transmission of virus and preventing associated illness and death. Current evidence suggests that SARS-COV-2, virus that causes COVID-19, is predominantly spread from person-to-person. Understanding how, when and in what types of settings SARS-COV-2 spreads is critical to developing effective public health and infection Prevention and Control measures to break chains of transmission.


Modes of transmission

Airborne transmission is defined as the spread of an infectious agent caused by dissemination of droplet nuclei that remain infectious when suspended in air over long distances and time. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur during medical procedures that generate aerosols. WHO, together with the scientific community, has been actively discussing and evaluating whether SARS-CoV-2 may also spread through aerosols in the absence of aerosol generating procedures, particularly in indoor settings with poor ventilation. Physics of exhaled air and flow physics have generated hypotheses about possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through aerosols. These theories suggest that 1 number of respiratory droplets generate microscopic aerosols < 5 m by evaporating, and 2 normal breathing and talking results in exhaled aerosols. Thus, susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if aerosols contain virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. However, proportion of exhaled droplet nuclei or of respiratory droplets that evaporate to generate aerosols, and infectious dose of viable SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection in another person are not know, but it has been studied for other respiratory viruses. 17 one experimental study quantifies the amount of droplets of various sizes that remain airborne during normal speech. However, authors acknowledge that this relies on an independent action hypothesis, which has not been validated for humans and SARS-CoV-2. 18 another recent experimental model found that healthy individuals can produce aerosols through coughing and talking 19, and another model suggests high variability between individuals in terms of particle emission rates during speech, with increased rates correlate with increased amplitude of vocalization. 20 to date, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by this type of aerosol route has not been demonstrate; much more research is needed to give possible implications of such a route of transmission. Experimental studies have generated aerosols of infectious samples using high-power jet nebulizers under controlled laboratory conditions. These studies find SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in air samples within aerosols for up to 3 hours in one study 21 and 16 hours in another, which also find viable replication-competent virus. 22 these findings were from experimentally inducing aerosols that do not reflect normal human cough conditions. Some studies conducted in health care settings where symptomatic COVID-19 patients were cared for, but where aerosol generating procedures were not perform, report presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples 23-28, while other similar investigations in both health care and non-health care settings find no presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA; no studies have find viable virus in air samples. 29-36 within samples where SARS-CoV-2 RNA was find, quantity of RNA detected was in extremely low numbers in large volumes of air and one study that found SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples reported inability to identify viable virus. 25 detection of RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR-base assays is not necessarily indicative of replication-and infection-competent viable virus that could be transmissible and capable of causing infection.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Therapeutic options for SARS-CoV-2 infection

Historically, viral diseases have always emerged and posed major issues for public health. Several viral outbreakssuch as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in 2002-2003, H1N1 influenza virus in 2009, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in 2012have caused serious global health concerns in recent years. Over the past 50 years, there has been a noticeable increase in the emergence of different novel coronaviruses responsible for a wide range of human and veterinary diseases. Most recently, new viral epidemic with numerous cases of unexplained low respiratory tract infections occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, as it was first reported to the World Health Organization on 31 December 2019. Novel virus strain was identified as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 triggering Coronavirus Disease 2019. On 11 March 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 pandemic. Coronaviruses are highly diverse, envelop, positive-sense, single-strand RNA viruses, which constitute the biggest group of viruses within the Nidovirales order, containing the largest genomes for RNA viruses. In total, about 30 CoVs have so far been recognized to be able to infect different species, including humans, mammals, fowl, and other animals. Among them, seven human CoVs, belonging to alpha and betaCoVs groups, have been identified as being capable of infecting humans, including 229E, NL63, OC43 HKU1, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and novel SARS-CoV-2. The name Coronavirus is inspired by its most defining feature: club-shaped spikes projecting from the surface of the virion. Spikes sticking out of the envelope surface give the virus the appearance of a crown. Nucleocapsids of CoVs, enclosing genomic RNA, are helically symmetrical. This is in fact unusual for positive-sense RNA viruses, and far more common for negative-sense RNA viruses. Two overlapping open-reading-frames of SARS, translate into viral enzymes 3C-like protease and papain-like protease, which are vital for virus multiplication, constitute approximately two-thirds of the genome. Another one-third of the genome encodes structural proteins of virus, such as spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. The interaction between S-protein and receptor is the primary determinant for Coronavirus to infect host species. To date, it is known that SARS-CoV attaches to its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, while MERS-CoV was found to bind to dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 in order to penetrate human cells. So far, it has been observed that the new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 behaves much like SARS by using the same entry mechanism as human cells and sharing 79. 5 % genome sequence identity to SARS-CoV. Several studies have demonstrated that novel SARS-CoV-2 likely binds to human ACE2 receptor, but with higher affinity than the original SARS virus strain. Genetic data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 possesses overlapping open-reading-frames similar to those of SARS-and MERS-CoV, translate into viral enzymes 3CLpro and PLpro. SARS-and SARS-CoV-2 share 3CLpro sequence similarity of 96 %, and PLpro sequence identity of 83 %.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Future perspective

The number of yearly publications on MRSA identified by our search strategy increased dramatically, rising more than four-fold from 501 in 2000 to 2148 by the end of 2014. On average, there were more than five citations to MRSA added to PubMed each day during 2014. Even accounting for the growing number of citations added to PubMed each year, number related to MRSA more than doubled between 2000 and 2009, from 0. 94 to 2. 32 per 1000 citations in PubMed. Reasons for this massive growth in publication rate, presumably reflecting increasing research on MRSA epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, immunity and therapy, may have result from a number of factors, including increased funding, interest among researchers and an increase in incidence of disease caused by MRSA, particularly outside of healthcare settings in US and certain other countries. To what extent is this dramatic rise in the number of publications related only to an increased level of attention by researchers and to what extent is it a reflection of true epidemiologic change? Comparing the increase in number of citations to an emerging pathogen that has had well-describe epidemiology demonstrates complex associations of relative publishing volume and epidemiologic change. AIDS, for example, was first identified as a distinct syndrome in 1981. It will continue to spread slowly in the US in 2015 while it remain devastating disease in many parts of the developing world. The Relative number of citations for HIV / AIDS peaked in 1998 at 28. 36 per 1000 PubMed citations. This rise in the number of references to HIV / AIDS was likely associated with public interest in the disease, incidence of disease in the US and funding provided to study disease. The number of deaths from AIDS in the US peaked in 1995, just as the number of publications peak. After the rapid drop in mortality from AIDS in the US in 1994-1996, with the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy, number of deaths has continued to decline slowly, as has the number of publications on HIV / AIDS relative to the total number of PubMed citations. PubMed citations for Lyme Disease, in contrast, increased rapidly between 1982 and 1989. Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme Disease, was discovered in 1981, several years after clinical syndrome of Lyme Disease was recognize, and this discovery led to a great increase in research efforts on bacterium and on disease it cause. It appears that research interest in disease peaks after about a decade. Thereafter, relative number of citations plateaued for the next decade, following a similar time course in its citation pattern to that of HIV, even as the number of Report US cases of Lyme Disease continued to rise steadily from 8257 in 1993 to 22 014 in 2012. Because deaths from Lyme Disease are unusual, it is possible that the dynamics of funding for research on, and thus citations for Lyme Disease differ from those for HIV.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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