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Satellites Of The United States

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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In 1978, Adm. Stansfield Turner, then head of the Central Intelligence Agency, said that Russians could kill the US in Space. Turner was referring to the Soviet Unions kinetic anti-Satellite weapons Program. In other words, Soviet military could shoot down US Satellites in orbit with missiles. Today, there are even more sophisticated threats to US and ally space systems, and Washington should decide how to respond. The United States began viewing space as a contested domain in the early 1960s. Due to Soviet threat, Pentagon developed kinetic space weapons programs like the F-15-launch Miniature Homing Vehicle. The space operating environment has changed since the end of the Cold War. There are considerably more spacefaring nations and some of these actors have increasingly capable anti-Satellite weapons. Additionally, global economy now depends on safe use of space. Washington should not, however, reinvigorate its former kinetic space weapons programs to address threats to its satellites. Use of kinetic space weapons during conflict would create an enormous amounts of debris that would harm space systems that the United States needs for precision targeting, early warning, navigation, communications, and other critical functions. Charles Powell has persuasively argued that debris, which can remain in orbit for years, is one of the most serious threats to satellites. Not all space weapons are created equal. The US military should focus on development of non-kinetic systems that can disarm adversary satellites without physically destroying them. If the United States must hit back due to an attack on space systems, it can do so using non-kinetic capabilities or kinetic response in another domain. Targeting Command and control facilities on ground using kinetic and non-kinetic weapons could negate adversary space capabilities without creating debris that would threaten American, allied, and neutral space systems. To prevent creation of even more debris, Washington should also work with other spacefaring nations to establish a moratorium on testing kinetic weapons against objects in space. During the Cold War, United States was torn between competing priorities relating to space remaining sanctuary and developing anti-Satellite weapons. Some policymakers want to keep space safe for reconnaissance, in addition to non-military purposes. Other officials, however, want to be able to shoot down Soviet military satellites. Less than six months after the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik Satellite, National Security Council adopted NSC 5802 / 1, which calls for vigorous research into anti-Satellite systems. In October 1959, United States conducted its first successful anti-Satellite weapons test. The missile came within four nautical miles of the US Explorer Satellite, which was deemed close enough to have demonstrated sufficient accuracy. In conflict, missile would utilize nuclear warhead, creating an enormous amount of debris. President John F. Kennedy was convinced that the United States needed to be able to deter aggression against US National Security satellites. In May 1961, Kennedy instructed Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara to develop an anti-Satellite Program at the earliest practicable TIME.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Satellite quick facts

Weather Satellites are important observational tool for all scales of NWS forecasting operations. Satellite Data, having a global view, complements land-base systems such as radiosondes, weather radars, and surface observing systems. There are two types of Weather Satellites: polar orbiting and Geostationary. Both satellite systems have unique characteristics and produce very different products. Two polar orbiting Satellites, in their North-South orbits, observe the same spot on Earth twice daily, once during daylight and once at night. Polar orbiting Satellites provide Imagery and atmospheric soundings of temperature and moisture data over the entire Earth. Geostationary Satellites are in orbit 22 000 miles above the equator, spin at the same rate as Earth and constantly focus on the same area. This enables satellites to take pictures of Earth, at the same location, every 30 minutes. Computer processing of this data creates movie loops of data that forecasters use as their real-time birds ' eye view from Space. Two US Geostationary Satellites provide Imagery over North and South America and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. During severe weather outbreaks, Geostationary Satellites can be commanded to take images every 5-15 minutes, and will focus in on smaller impacted area. On very special occasions, Geostationary Satellites can be commanded to take pictures every minute, but of very small areas like a severe thunderstorm. Geostationary Satellites can also take atmospheric profiles of temperature and moisture, but at reduced resolution compared to polar Satellites and radiosonde soundings. NOAA's newest Geostationary Weather Satellites go-16 was successfully launched on November 19 2016. When operational, go-16 will provide continuous Imagery and atmospheric measurements of Earth's Western Hemisphere, total Lightning Data, and Space Weather monitoring to provide critical atmospheric, hydrologic, oceanic, climatic, solar and space data. Go-16s environmental data products, expected to be operational by late 2017, will support short-term 1-2 day weather forecasts and severe storm watches and warnings, maritime forecasts, seasonal predictions, drought outlooks and Space Weather predictions. Go-16 will offer 3x more types of Imagery with 4x greater resolution, and available 5x faster than ever before. Go-16 can multi-task. The satellite will scan the Western Hemisphere every 15 minutes, Continental US every five minutes, and areas of severe weather every 30-60 seconds, all at the same time. Go-16 can provide images of severe weather as frequently as every 30 seconds! The Satellites revolutionary Geostationary Lightning Mapper will be the first-ever operational Lightning Mapper fly from Geostationary orbit. For more detailed description of polar and Geostationary Satellites, visit: to learn how weather satellite Imagery and data products are used in NWS operations, visit:

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Moons around other worlds

We human beings have been venturing into Space since October 4 1957, when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics launched Sputnik, first artificial Satellite to orbit Earth. This happened during period of political hostility between the Soviet Union and the United States known as the Cold War. For several years, two superpowers have been competing to develop missiles, called intercontinental Ballistic missiles, to carry nuclear weapons between continents. In USSR, rocket designer Sergei Korolev had developed the first ICBM, rocket called R7, which would begin the Space race. This competition came to a head with the launch of Sputnik. Carry atop R7 rocket, Sputnik Satellite was able to send out beeps from a radio transmitter. After reaching Space, Sputnik orbits Earth once every 96 minutes. Radio beeps could be detected on ground as satellites pass overhead, so people all around the world know that it was really in orbit. Realizing that the USSR had capabilities that exceeded US technologies that could endanger Americans, United States grew worried. Then, month later, on November 3 1957, Soviets achieved an even more impressive space venture. This was Sputnik II, satellite that carry living creature, dog named Laika. Prior to the launch of Sputnik, United States had been working on its own capability to launch Satellite. The United States made two failed attempts to launch a satellite into Space before succeeding with a rocket that carried a satellite called Explorer on January 31 1958. The team that achieved this first US Satellite launch consisted largely of German rocket engineers who had once developed Ballistic missiles for Nazi Germany. Working for the US Army at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, German rocket engineers were lead by Wernher von Braun and had developed the German V2 rocket into a more powerful rocket, called Jupiter C, or Juno. Explorers carry several instruments into Space for conducting science experiments. One instrument was a Geiger counter for detecting cosmic rays. This was for experiment operated by researcher James Van Allen, which, together with measurements from later Satellites, prove existence of what are now called Van Allen radiation belts around Earth. In 1958, space exploration activities in the United States were consolidated into a new government Agency, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. When it began operations in October of 1958, NASA absorbed what had been called National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and several other research and military facilities, including the Army Ballistic Missile Agency in Huntsville. The first human in Space was Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, who made one orbit around Earth on April 12 1961, on a flight that lasted 108 minutes. A little more than three weeks later, NASA launched astronaut Alan Shepard into Space, not on an orbital flight, but on suborbital trajectorya flight that goes into Space but does not go all way around Earth. Her suborbital flight lasts just over 15 minutes.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

NOAA GOES-S

Geostationary Satellites circle Earth in geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit Earth's equatorial plane at a speed matching Earth's rotation. This allows them to stay in a fixed position in the sky, remaining stationary with respect to point on ground. Go Satellites continually views the Western Hemisphere from approximately 22 300 miles above Earth. Since 1975, NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites have provided Continuous imagery and Data on Atmospheric conditions and Solar activity. They have even aided in the search and rescue of people in distress. Go Data products have led to more accurate and timely weather forecasts and better understanding of long-term climate conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration builds and Launch go, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operates them. In October 2015, NOAA celebrate 40 anniversary of the launch of the first go Satellite. Go Satellites are designated with a letter prior to launch and renamed with a number once they achieve Geostationary orbit. The Go-N Series consists of go-13, go-14, and go-15. Go-N Series Data Book > Information about Current Status > Direct Broadcast Services on go-N Series include go VARiable and Low-Rate Information Transmission. Direct Broadcast Services on go-R Series include go Rebroadcast and High Rate Information Transmission / Emergency Managers Weather Information Network. Go-16 and go-17 go-R Series are four-Satellite Programs consisting of go-16 and go-17 and go-T and go-U that will extend availability of the Operational go Satellite system through 2036. Detail Information is available in the go-R Series Data Book. Go Satellites operate from two primary locations. Go East at 75. 2 W and go West at 137. 2W. NOAA also maintains on-orbit spare go Satellite in event of anomaly or failure to go East or go West. Direct Broadcast Services on go-R Series include go Rebroadcast and High Rate Information Transmission. Emergency Managers Weather Information. Network. GRB replaces go VARiable Service. Although GRB receiving Station costs more than GVAR receives Station, increase in capability is significant. GRB provides 31 Mbps vs. GVARs Data Rate of 2. 11 Mbps and includes improved products such as ABI and Lightning Data from GLM. The ABI provides three times more spectral information, four times spatial resolution, and more than five times faster temporal coverage than the previous system. Checkout go Image Viewer. Data and images hosted on STAR webservers, including go Image Viewer, are not official NOAA Operational products, and are provided only as examples for experimental use by remote sensing researchers, experienced meteorologists, or oceanographers. Although STAR provides Operational Data for some products, STAR website primarily hosts examples of ongoing experimental product development. GRB Data stream includes ABI Level 1b products. ABI has three Operational Scan modes. In Mode 4, or Continuous full disk Mode, ABI produces a full disk image every 5 minutes.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

NOAA-20

JPSS-1 / NOAA-20 and JPSS-2 series JPSS are next Generation Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System series of USA, procured by NOAA through NASA, with the following major objectives: 1 2 3 4 5 6 provide advanced Atmospheric Temperature, moisture and pressure profiles from Space provide advance imaging capability to analyze fires, volcanoes, Gulf oil tracking and other adverse incidents direct broadcast Data to Field terminals at hour scale latency maintain continuity of Climate observations and Critical Environmental Data from Polar Orbit. 1 JPSS consists of three Satellites Suomi-NPP, JPSS-1, JPSS-2, Ground System and Operations through 2025-JPSS Mission is to provide global Imagery and Atmospheric measurements using Polar-Orbiting Satellites-NOAA has final Decision authority and is responsible for Overall Program commitment-JPSS Program is a subset of JPSS managed by NASA-NASA is Acquisition agent for Flight System Satellite, instruments and Launch vehicle, Ground System, lead Program Systems engineering, and Program safety and Mission assurance-NOAA is responsible for Operations, Data Exploitation and archiving, infrastructure. 3 Partnership is governed by NOAA and NASA JPSS Management Control Plan-JPSS Program is executed in accordance with NPR 7120. 5D NASA Procedural Requirements A loosely-couple Program JPSS represents significant technological and scientific advances in Environmental monitoring and will help advance environmental, weather, climate, and oceanographic Science. JPSS's primary user, NOAA's NWS National Weather Service, will use JPSS Data in models for medium-and long-term weather forecasting. JPSS will allow scientists and forecasters to monitor and predict weather patterns with increased speed and accuracy and is key for continuity of long-standing climate measurements, allowing study of long-term climate trends. JPSS will improve and extend Climate measurements for 30 different EDRs Environmental Data Records of Atmosphere, land, Ocean, Climate and Space Environment. 7 Since 1960's United States has operated two separate Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite Programs: in 1994, NPOESS National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System Program was created under Presidential Decision Directive with the expectation that combining civil POES and military DMSP Programs would reduce duplication and result in cost savings Tri-agency IPO integrate Program Office was form to manage Program-NOAA was responsible for Overall Program Management of converged System and Satellite Operations-USAF United States Air Force was responsible for Acquisition Program was to Launch NPP NPOESS Preparatory Project to reduce Risk-scope of Program include six Satellites three orbits each hosting Up to 13 instruments, and Ground System. By 2005, cost had increased to 10 billion and the first Launch had to be delayed from 2008 to 2010. The decision to restructure the program was made in 2006-Satellites reduced from six to four in two orbits-EUMETSAT would provide mid-morning Orbit-further schedule delays. The major challenge of NPOESS was jointly executing Program between three agencies of different sizes with divergent objectives and different acquisition procedures.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

The Mission Defense Meteorological Satellite Program has been collecting weather data for US military operations for more than five decades and provides assure, secure global weather and space weather data to support Department of Defense Operations. Features Two Primary Operational DMSP satellites are in sun-synchronous low-Earth Polar orbits at about 450 nautical miles. The main weather sensor on DMSP is the Operational Linescan System, which provides continuous visual and infrared imagery of cloud cover over an area 1 600 nautical miles wide. Complete global coverage of weather features is accomplished every 14 hours providing essential data over data-sparse and data-deny areas. Additional Satellite sensors measure atmospheric vertical profiles of moisture and temperature. Military Weather forecasters can detect developing patterns of weather and track existing weather phenomena over remote areas, including the presence of severe thunderstorms, hurricanes and typhoons. Other DMSP sensors measure Space Weather parameters such as charged particles, electromagnetic fields, and ionospheric characteristics to assess the impact of the natural environment on ballistic-Missile early warning radar Systems, long-range communications and satellite communications. Additionally, data is used to monitor global auroral activity and to predict the effects of the space environment on Satellite Operations. Background The First DMSP Satellite, known at that time as the Defense Satellite Applications Program, was Launch in 1962. DMSP was initially classified and run by the National Reconnaissance Office in support of the CORONA Program. CORONA satellites had limited film onboard, and it was essential to have timely and accurate weather forecasts to ensure cloud-free pictures were taken of high-interest areas. DMSP data is also critical to the forecast process. Declassify in 1972, DMSP data was made available to civilian and scientific user communities. In May 1994, President directed the Departments of Defense and Commerce and DOD to converge on their separate Polar-Orbiting Weather Satellite programs. A tri-agency organization consisting of DOC, DOD and National Aeronautics and Space Administration was form. As part of the convergence plan, DMSP Operations were transferred from DOD to DOC in June 1998, with funding responsibility remaining with the US Air Force. Satellite Operations were moved to Suitland, Maryland, where the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Satellite and Product Operations provide command, control and communications for DMSP, Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite, geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, joint Polar Satellite System and others. The Satellite Control Authority resides with 50 Operations Group, Detachment 1, located at NOAA Satellite Operations Facility, for oversight of DMSP constellation. Backup Operations are performed by 6 Space Operations Squadron at Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado. DMSP continues to provide assure, secure, global environmental sensing data to support warfighter. DMSP spacecraft have the ability to store data onboard as well as transmit data directly to ground terminals. Air Force Satellite Control Network sites are used to retrieve store data and electronically transfer data to Air Combat command 557 Weather Wing at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska. NOAA and NASA sites at Fairbanks, Alaska, and McMurdo, Antarctica also support DMSP store data distribution to users.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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