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Scientists Working On A Cure For Coronavirus

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Scientists around the world are working on potential treatments and vaccines for the new Coronavirus disease know as COVID - 19. Several companies are working on antiviral drugs, some of which are already in use against other illnesses, to treat people WHO already have COVID - 19. Other companies are working on vaccines that could be used as preventive measure against disease. With confirmed COVID - 19 cases worldwide surpassing 9 million and continuing to grow, scientists are pushing forward with efforts to develop vaccines and treatments to slow pandemic and lessen disease damage. Some of the earliest treatments will likely be drugs that are already approved for other conditions, or have been tested on other viruses. People are looking into whether existing antivirals might work or whether new drugs could be developed to try to tackle viruses, say Dr. Bruce Y. Lee, Professor at CUNY Graduate School of Public Health & Health Policy. As of May 8, two medications had received emergency use authorization from the Food and Drug Administration: antiviral remdesivir and a drug used to sedate people on ventilator. FDA issued EUA in March for antimalaria drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, but later revoked it after studies showed that theyre unlikely to be effective in treating COVID - 19. Eua allows doctors to use these drugs to treat people with COVID - 19 even before medications have go through the formal FDA approval process. These drugs are still being tested in clinical trials to see whether theyre effective against COVID - 19. This step is needed to make sure medications are safe for this particular use and what the proper dosage should be. It could be months before treatments are available that are known to work against COVID - 19. It could be even longer for vaccine. But there are still other tools we can use to reduce damage done by the new Coronavirus, also know as SARS - CoV - 2. Even though technological advances allow the US to do certain things more quickly, Lee told Healthline, we still have to rely on social distancing, contact tracing, self - isolation, and other measures.

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Searching for effective treatments

Everyone wants new treatments and vaccines to address the devastation of coronavirus Disease 2019. But, currently, under intense pressure and based on hope and limited data from poorly conducted clinical trials and observational data, many clinicians are embarking on ill - advise and uncontrolled human experimentation with unproven treatments. 1 This approach cannot provide answers about what treatments are effective, and it poses undue risk to patients. In this light, decisions to seek and invoke Emergency Use Authorization authorities from the US Food and Drug Administration, such as the recent EUA for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, 2 which will further increase use of these drugs for treating individuals with COVID - 19, are noteworthy and deserve careful attention. Not only are there potential negative consequences from uncontrolled use of these drugs based on currently unconvincing data but, equally concerning, integrity of governmental decision - making is increasingly coming under pressure, risking harm to both patients and to public confidence need to respond effectively to this pandemic. In 2014, Ebola virus Disease, then believed to be fatal to most infected individuals, was widespread in West Africa. Early doses of secret serum, triple monoclonal antibody combination, were given to 2 US citizens. Both survive, generating intense global pressure to use this product and other unproven treatments. At time, it was argued that even promising therapies most often prove ineffective or harmful and that, even in Emergency, fastest route to learning whether experimental products work was with randomized clinical trials. At the same time, it was noted that, providing adequate supplies, access for patients who could not enroll in clinical trials could be facilitated through FDA compassionate Use provisions. Such provisions, unlike EUA, require consent and provide enhanced clarity to physicians and patients that product is experimental and not necessarily endorse by the government. However, there was extreme resistance to conducting RCTs, and by the time the study that compared monoclonal antibody combination therapy with standard care was underway, epidemic was waning and the trial terminated before it could reach definitive conclusions. It took 4 years and another outbreak to learn that any potential benefit afforded by this triple antibody product was less than that of 2 similar treatments. Furthermore, because of the deficit of RCTs, it is still not know whether other experimental Ebola treatments are of value or may be injurious. As a result of these experiences, consensus emerged that sound research can and should be done during emergencies and that RCTs are the most ethical and reliable approach to quickly identify effective treatments and ensure that most people benefit. 4 in this context, recent issuance of chloroquine / hydroxychloroquine EUA, in the midst of political pressure and with scant and conflicting supporting evidence, should be of serious concern. Although everyone hops these drugs will be found to work, weakness of currently existing efficacy data and safety concerns are significant.

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Antivirals

In just two months, our results have shown that the drug is effective at inhibiting viral replication in cells with SARS - CoV - 2, says Joanne Lemieux, Professor of biochemistry in Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry. This drug is very likely to work in humans, so we are encouraged that it will be an effective antiviral treatment for COVID - 19 patients. The drug is a protease inhibitor that interferes with the virus's ability to replicate, thus ending infection. Proteases are key to many body functions and are common targets for drugs to treat everything from high blood pressure to cancer and HIV. First study by U of chemist John Vederas and biochemist Michael Jam following 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome, protease inhibitor was further developed by veterinary researchers who show it cure disease that is fatal in cats. Work to test drug against the coronavirus that cause COVID - 19 was a co - operative effort between four U of laboratories, run by Lemieux, Vederas, biochemistry Professor Howard Young and founding director of Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Lorne Tyrrell. Some of the experiments were carried out by Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Structural Molecular Biology program. Their findings were published today in the peer - review Journal Nature Communications after first being posted on BioRxIV, research website. There's rule with COVID Research that all results need to be made public immediately, Lemieux say, which is why they were posted before being peer - reviewed. She says interest in work is high, with paper being accessed thousands of times as soon as it was post. Lemieux explained that Vederas synthesized compounds, and Tyrrell tested them against SARS - CoV - 2 virus in test tubes and in human cell lines. Young and Lemieux groups then reveal the crystal structure of the drug as it bind with protein. We determine three - dimensional shape of protease with drug in active site pocket, showing mechanism of inhibition, she say. This will allow the US to develop even more effective drugs. Lemieux said she will continue to test modifications of the inhibitor to make it even better fit inside the virus. But she says the current drug shows enough antiviral action against SARS - CoV - 2 to proceed immediately to clinical trials. Typically, for a drug to go into clinical trials, it has to be confirmed in the lab and then tested in animal models, Lemieux say. Because this drug has already been used to treat cats with coronavirus, and it's effective with little to no toxicity, it's already passed those stages and this allows the US to move forward. Because of strong data that we and others have gathered, we are pursuing clinical trials for this drug as an antiviral for COVID - 19. Researchers have established collaboration with Anivive Life Sciences, veterinary Medicine company that is developing drug for cats, to produce the quality and quantity of drug needed for human clinical trials.

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Next steps for treatments

While a lot of focus is on developing new treatments for COVID - 19, improvements in how doctors care for patients using existing technology are also crucial. Things that we have to worry about with the novel coronavirus is that it can cause pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, Lee say. There are ways of treating those things that can reduce effects, so doctors are trying to use those as well. No company has offered a timeline for when its drug might be used more widely to treat COVID - 19. This isnt easy thing to estimate. After laboratory and animal testing, drugs have to pass through several clinical trial stages before they can be approved for widespread use in people. It is also difficult to speed things up, because scientists have to enroll enough people in each stage to have useful results. They also have to wait long enough to see whether there are harmful side effects of drugs. However, drugs can sometimes be given to people outside clinical trials through the FDA compassionate Use program. For this to happen, people must have immediately life - threatening condition or serious disease or condition. Doctors at University of California, Davis were able to secure this type of approval for a woman with severe COVID - 19 to receive remdesivir. They reported she was doing well. Many will take this as a sign that drugs works. But because the drug was given outside of clinical trial to just one person, it is not possible to know for certain. Also, other people may not have the same response to drugs. Improvements in testing can also reduce COVID - 19 deaths by slowing the spread of the virus. As cities and states lift stay - at - home and physical distancing orders, increased testing will be needed to prevent large spikes in infections. The FDA has granted Emergency Use authorizations for many diagnostic tests. Companies and universities around the world also continue to develop new ones. On May 8, FDA announced authorization of the first at - home saliva - base COVID - 19 diagnostic test. The test, which was designed by Rutgers Clinical Genomics Laboratory, allows people to spit in a tube at home and mail it back to Rutgers lab for testing. This is the first at - home test approved involving saliva collection. All other approved at - home tests are conducted via nasal swab. The Rutgers test will hopefully expand access for people unable to easily make it to clinic or drive - thru testing facility. Test is currently only available by prescription. New guidelines were posted by FDA in early May designed to expedite development and approval of more at - home self - collection kits to further expand access to testing. Under new guidance, test developers are encouraged to reach out to FDA to ensure their kits and shipping methods are in compliance with most up - to - date regulations. One commercially available test developed by scientists in Europe can show in 15 minutes whether someone has an infection. Test Use sample collected with nasopharyngeal swab inserted into nose.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Vaccines

Lots of different groups around the world are working on possible COVID - 19 vaccines. There are now 15 potential vaccine candidates in the pipeline globally using a wide range of technolog: mRNA, DNA, nanoparticle, synthetic and modified virus - like particles, says microbiologist Ian Henderson of University of Queensland. The US National Institutes of Health announced that they have funded Phase 1 Clinical Trials of potential COVID - 19 Vaccine, called mRNA - 1273, which begin this week. The vaccine was able to be brought to Clinical Trials so quickly because researchers had already been working on a vaccine to protect against another coronavirus, which causes Middle East respiratory syndrome. While results from this first trial may be available within three months, it will still take at least a year and likely longer for the resulting vaccine to be widely available to the public. Closer to home, last month Queensland researchers were ready to begin testing another potential COVID - 19 Vaccine on animals, and hope to then start Human Trials of it by the middle of year. But getting to Clinical Trials, and proving your vaccine is both safe and effective, isn't only challenge scientists developing these vaccines face. The next challenge will be finding enough production capacity globally to produce these competing vaccines, at a scale that millions or even billions of people can be vaccinate, professor Henderson say. Which is why we re still hearing it will take at least 12 to 18 months, for COVID - 19 Vaccine to be widely available.

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Drugs and therapies

Drug: Remdesivir Development: Late - stage trials FDA granted Emergency Use Authorization for Gilead's Remdesivir Drug to treat COVID - 19 on May 1. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases released results from its study showing patients WHO take Remdesivir usually recover faster than those WHO didn't take the drug. Even though Remdesivir was granted for Emergency Use, there are still several ongoing clinical trials testing whether it's effective in stopping coronavirus from replicating. Remdesivir has shown some promise in treating SARS and MERS, which are also caused by coronaviruses. Some health authorities in the US, China and other parts of the world have been using Remdesivir, which was tested as a possible treatment for the Ebola outbreak, in hopes that the drug could improve outcomes for COVID - 19 patients. The company says it expects to produce more than 140 000 rounds of its 10 - day treatment regimen by the end of May and anticipates it can make 1 million rounds by the end of this year. Drug: Hydroxychloroquine Development: Various Clinical trials Hydroxychloroquine is a decades - old malaria drug touted by President Donald Trump as a potential game - changer. Drugs are proven to work in treating Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, but not COVID - 19. A handful of small studies on its use in coronavirus patients published in France and China had raised hope that the drug might help fight the virus. However, Hydroxychloroquine, which is available as a generic drug and is also produced under the brand name Plaquenil by French drugmaker Sanofi, can have serious side effects, including muscle weakness and heart arrhythmia. The Fda issued a warning against taking Drug outside hospitals or formal clinical trial settings after it became aware of reports of serious heart rhythm problems in patients. On March 24, researchers at NYU Langone in New York launched one of the nation's largest Hydroxychloroquine Clinical studies after federal health regulators fast - tracked approvals for coronavirus research, allowing scientists across the nation to skip through months of red tape. It's one of more than a dozen formal studies in the US looking at treatments for coronavirus, according to clinicaltrials. Gov. But early results aren't so promising. An observational study published in the Journal JAMA Network Open on Monday and run by the New York State Department of Health, in partnership with the University of Albany, found that it didn't help coronavirus patients. Worse yet, when taken with azithromycin, which French researchers credit with speeding RECOVERY times, it puts patients at significantly higher risk of cardiac arrest. Drug: Favipiravir Development: Midstage trial Favipiravir is an anti - flu drug sold by Fujifilm Holding under the name Avigan. Researchers in China are testing drug to see if it's effective in fighting coronavirus. Most of Favipiravir's preclinical data is derived from its influenza and Ebola activity; however, agent also demonstrates broad activity against other RNA viruses, according to researchers in Japan. Drug: Kevzara Development: Clinical trials Regeneron and Sanofi started Clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis drug Kevzara in COVID - 19 patients in March.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Using Antibodies Against the Virus

In 1998, when Dutch Scientist Berend Bosch decided to make study of coronaviruses his life work, level of attention they garnered among medical researchers was such that ph. The D Program he joined was in the Department of veterinary science. Coronaviruses that could cause severe infections were circulating among animals, but the type that people could contract seldom causes anything worse than the common cold. For human health, it is that important, Bosch say. That started to change around the time he was completing his doctorate, at Utrecht University. In 2002 and 2003, SARS, disease caused by a coronavirus that had leapt from bats to humans, caused widespread panic and killed about eight hundred people. Bosch started working on potential therapies for it. For a few months, he and his colleagues felt the eyes of the scientific world on themhe. Was invited to speak about pathogens at several conferencesbut, once the outbreak was contain, interest wan. Life in the lab was low - pressure; on weekends, he liked to rent a boat and go sailing. In 2012, though, there was a new surge of attention when MERS, another disease caused by coronavirus, killed almost nine hundred people, mainly in the Arabian Peninsula. The MERS outbreak was an important lesson for Bosch and other scientists: coronaviruses that could species - jump were not a once - in - century thing, as some had assume. Already, they had proven to be twice - in - adecade thing. Bosch, now on faculty at Utrecht, seeks to identify antibodies that show promise in combating disease. Antibodies are Y - shaped proteins that certain white blood cells make in response to foreign substance, antigen, and are a critical part of the way our bodies fight off infection. They mobilize against viruses by binding to part of the virus particle, or virion. Some antibodies act like homing beacons, summoning attack by other components of the body's immune system. Others neutralize virus directly, preventing it from invading cells. All coronaviruses are enveloped in protein, and MERS, SARS, and common cold type of coronavirus share certain parts of those proteins. Broadly reactive antibody, Bosch thought, could maybe help the US prevent the next Pandemic. He started with mice that had been genetically engineered so that they would respond to antigens with human - type antibodies, and gave mice protein that appear on human - infecting coronaviruses. A few weeks or so later, his team extracted antibody - producing cells from mice, and isolated virus - binding antibodies. From this collection of antibodies, Bosch and his colleagues identified fifty - one that work against SARS, and several that were broadly reactive against multiple coronaviruses. They were of no immediate use, he say, but I dont like to throw things away. Bosch's team was playing a long game: they put their samples in the freezer and wait. Today, COVID - 19 patients are not so much treated as support: in severe cases, theyre are given anti - inflammatoriessteroids, typicallyand put on ventilators so that they can hold on until the virus, dubbed SARS - CoV - 2, succumbs to their immune system, or vice versa.

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Bayers Contribution to Combat COVID-19

Pharma company Bayer will soon make a large donation to the US Government that has shown some promise in helping patients suffering from novel coronavirus, according to a senior Health and Human Services official and another source with direct knowledge. Why does it matter:? It doesn't hurt to have potential treatment on hand, but we re still a very long way from having approve, clinically tested treatment for coronavirus. Big picture: Early evidence suggests that chloroquine, inexpensive anti - malarial drug, may work just as well, if not even better, than remdesivir, drug owned by Gilead, which is undergoing clinical trials for treatment of coronavirus. A study published in Nature found that remdesivir and chloroquine ARE highly effective in control of 2019 - nCoV infection in vitro. Chloroquine shouldnt be left out of discussion of candidate COVID - 19 therapies and may actually be leading the pack, Raymond James wrote in a research note earlier this month. Yes, but: this doesn't change the need for massive coronavirus efforts, as there is no proven coronavirus treatment or vaccine.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Remdesivir

Nearly a month after federal scientists claimed that an experimental drug had helped patients severely ill with coronavirus, research has been publish. The drug, Remdesivir, was quickly authorized by the Food and Drug Administration For Treatment of coronavirus Patients, and hospitals rushed to obtain supplies. But until now, researchers and physicians had not seen actual data. And Remdesivir, made by GILEAD Sciences, has a spotty history. It was originally intended to treat hepatitis, but it failed to. It was a test against Ebola, but the results were lackluster. So far, Remdesivir has not been officially approved for any purpose. Fdas Emergency Use Authorization was not formal approval. The Long - await Study, sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, appeared on the New England Journal of Medicine website on Friday evening. It confirms the essence of governments assertions: Remdesivir shortens recovery time from 15 days to 11 days in hospitalized patients. Study define recovery as either discharge from hospital or hospitalization. The trial was rigorous, randomly assigning 1 063 seriously ill patients to receive either Remdesivir or placebo. Those WHO receive drug not only recover faster but also do not have serious adverse events more often than those WHO were given placebo. It was an International Trial, although most sites were in the United States. Patients were assessed daily, and those administering evaluations did not know whether patient had been given Remdesivir or placebo. The monitoring board reviewed data at specified intervals and called for a halt to study when there was clear evidence that the drug was effective. On April 29, NIAID issued a news release stating as much. But Infectious Disease doctors were frustrate, because they did not have access to findings, which might have affected how patients were treat. For God's sake, this is a pandemic. We need some data, says Dr. Judith Feinberg, vice chair of Research at West Virginia University School of Medicine. Publication of the paper has brought some relief. Doctors had been wondering, for instance, whether they should give Remdesivir to patients with the most serious COVID - 19 cases or to those WHO were as sick, especially if there was not enough to go around. Dr. Andre Kalil of University of Nebraska, principal investigator of the study, notes that not only do sicker patients fare as well on Remdesivir, but their average time to recovery is also slightly faster. He added that Hispanics, Black people and White patients all derive equal benefit from drugs, as do men and women as well as adults in every age group. Results were the same for patients regardless of whether they had received Drug Treatment before or after 10 days of symptoms, said Dr. Helen Chu, of University of Washington, WHO was also an investigator of the study. Study designers change outcome measures after study Had begin, but they do not have access to current data.


What is a vaccine?

The pathogen at the center of the outbreak, SARS - CoV - 2, belongs to a family of viruses know as coronaviruses. This family is so named because, under microscope, they appear with crownlike projections on their surface. In developing a vaccine that targets SARS - CoV - 2, scientists are looking at these projections intensely. Projections enable viruses to enter human cells where they can replicate and make copies of them They are know as spike proteins or S proteins. Researchers have been able to map projections in 3D, and research suggests they could be viable antigen in any coronavirus vaccine. That's because S protein is prevalent in coronaviruses we 've battled in the past - including one that caused the SARS outbreak in China in 2002 - 03. This has given researchers a head start on building vaccines against part of S protein and, using animal models, they 've demonstrated they can generate immune response. There are many companies across the world working on the SARS - CoV - 2 vaccine, developing different ways to stimulate the immune system. Some of the most talked about approaches are those using a relatively novel type of vaccine known as nucleic acid vaccine. These vaccines are essentially programmable, containing small piece of genetic code to act as antigen. Biotech companies like Moderna have been able to generate new vaccine designs against SARS - CoV - 2 rapidly by taking a piece of genetic code for S protein and fusing it with fatty nanoparticles that can be injected into the body. Imperial College London is designing a similar vaccine using coronavirus RNA - its genetic code. Pennsylvania biotech company Inovio is generating strands of DNA it hops will stimulate immune response. Although these kinds of vaccines can be created quickly, none have been brought to market yet. Johnson & Johnson and French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi are both working with the US Biomedical advance Research and Development Authority to develop vaccines of their own. Sanofi's plan is to mix coronavirus DNA with genetic material from harmless virus, whereas Johnson & Johnson will attempt to deactivate SARS - CoV - 2, essentially switching off its ability to cause illness while ensuring it still stimulates the immune system. On March 30, Johnson & Johnson said human tests of its experimental vaccine will begin by September. We have a candidate that has a high degree of probability of being successful against the covid - 19 virus, said Alex Gorsky, CEO of Johnson & Johnson, during an interview with NBC News Today. Literally within next few days and weeks, we re going to start ramping up production of these vaccines. Diosynvax, vaccine development company working out of the University of Cambridge, is trying to eschew traditional pathways to vaccine creation with a new platform. The company's approach uses computer modelling of the virus's structure to determine weak spots in SARS - CoV - 2 DNA - places it can target to drive immune reaction without causing any harm to the patient.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine

Scienc's COVID - 19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center. Through the fog of alleged misconduct, hope, hype, and politicization that surrounds hydroxychloroquine, malaria drug touted as COVID - 19 treatment, scientific picture is now emerging. Praise by presidents as a potential miracle cure and dismissed by others as a deadly distraction, hydroxychloroquine was spar seeming death blow last week. On 4 June, after critics challenged data, Lancet suddenly retracted paper that had suggested the drug increased the death rate in COVID - 19 patients, finding that had stopped many clinical trials in their tracks. But now three large studies, two in people exposed to viruses and at risk of infection and other in severely ill patients, show no benefit from drugs. Coming on top of earlier smaller trials with disappointing findings, new results mean it is time to move on, some scientists say, and end most of trials still in progress. It just seems like we are ignoring signal after signal, says Eric Topol, Director of Scripps Translational Science Institute. US President Donald Trumps promotion of it led to scientific obsession with hydroxychloroquine despite thin evidence for its promise, he say. Wed be better off shifting our attention to drugs that might actually work. Peter Kremsner of University of Tubingen agrees hydroxychloroquine is certainly isnt wonder drug. New results leave him wrestling with the question of whether to proceed with two hydroxychloroquine trials, one in hospitals and the other in patients with milder illnesses at home. Hydroxychloroquine and its sister drug chloroquine have been used against malaria and other diseases for decades. The first evidence that they might work against SARS - CoV - 2 came from test tube data. Since then, hundreds of trials have been launched around the globe. Scientists are trying drugs in low doses and high doses; alone or combined with antibiotic azithromycin, antiviral compound favipiravir, or other drugs; and in patients with mild or severe disease, health care workers, pregnant women, and people living with HIV. On 5 June, researchers in the United Kingdom announced results from the largest trial yet, Recovery, in a press release. In a group of 1542 hospitalized patients treated with hydroxychloroquine, 25. 7% had died after 28 days, compared with 23. 5% in group of 3132 patients WHO had only received standard care. These data convincingly rule out any meaningful mortality benefit, write investigators, WHO end study early and promise to publish full results as soon as possible. Results are persuading some doctors to stop using drug for COVID - 19. Recovery trial, in addition to signals from other studies we have received so far, are enough to convince me to not offer hydroxychloroquine to hospitalize patients, Nahid Bhadelia, physician at Boston Medical Center, wrote in an email. Martin Landray of University of Oxford, one of Recoverys principal investigators, agrees: If you, your spouse, your mother are admitted to hospital and are offered hydroxychloroquine, do take it, he say.


Coronavirus and hydroxychloroquine: What do we know?

It's not a good idea to rely on vaccine to stop the spread of coronavirus because that's many months away. The best way to stop spread, right now, is to continue practicing good personal hygiene and to limit interactions with others. The best things to do are simple things like hand washing and hand sanitizing, Thompson say. This outbreak is unprecedented, and changing behaviors is absolutely critical to stopping spread. There are a huge number of resources available from WHO for protecting yourself against infection. It's clear viruses can spread from person to person, and transmission in communities has occurred across the world. Protection boils down to a few key things: washing your hands: For 20 seconds and no less! You can get some handy handwashing tips here. Maintaining social distancing: Try to keep at least 3 feet away from anyone coughing or sneezing. Don't touch your face, eyes or mouth: incredibly difficult task, but this is how viruses initially get into the body. Respiratory hygiene measures: Cough and sneeze into your elbow. If you 've visited a location where COVID - 19 is spreading, then self - isolate for 14 days. For much more information, you can head to CNET's guide originally published in March and constantly updated as new information becomes available.


What is a vaccine?

Vaccine is a type of treatment aimed at stimulating the body's immune system to fight against infectious pathogens, like bacteria and viruses. They are, according to the World Health Organization, one of the most effective ways to prevent diseases. The human body is particularly resilient to disease, having evolved a natural defense system against nasty disease - causing microorganisms like bacteria and viruses. The defense system - our immune system - is composed of different types of white blood cells that can detect and destroy foreign invaders. Some gobble up bacteria, some produce antibodies which can tell the body what to destroy and take out germs, and other cells memorize what invaders look like, so the body can respond quickly if they invade again. Vaccines are really clever fake - out. They make the body think it's infected, so it stimulates this immune response. For instance, measles vaccine tricks the body into thinking it has measles. When you are vaccinated for measles, your body generates records of the measles virus. If you come into contact with it in the future, body's immune system is primary and ready to beat it back before you can get sick. The very first vaccine was developed by a scientist named Edward Jenner in the late 18 century. In a famous experiment, Jenner scrapped pus from milkmaid with cowpox - a type of virus that causes disease mostly in cows and is very similar to the smallpox virus - and introduced pus into young boy. Young boy became little ill and had a mild case of cowpox. Later, Jenner inoculated a boy with smallpox, but he didn't get sick. Jenner's first injection of cowpox pus trained the boy's body to recognize the cowpox virus and, because it's so similar to smallpox, young man was able to fight it off and not get sick. Vaccines have come an incredibly long way since 1796. Scientists certainly don't inject pus from patients into other patients, and vaccines must abide by strict safety regulations, multiple rounds of clinical testing and strong governmental guidelines before they can be adopted for widespread use.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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