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Side Effects Of Type 2 Diabetes

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

When you hear about Diabetes, your mind likely jumps to problems with producing insulin and regulating blood sugar. And that is definitely a key part of this chronic disease, which affects nearly 1 in 10 Americans, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But that is also just the tip of the iceberg. Diabetes is like termites, in that it causes slow, hidden, but significant damage to the body, says Osama Hamdy, MD, ph. D, director of the Inpatient Diabetes Program at Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. Most patients with type 2 Diabetes die from heart attack, Dr. Hamdy say, but because the disease does have many symptoms, people tend to take it lightly. And evidence continues to mount that diabetes affects every system in the body, wreaking havoc if it is not well manage. Learn more below about side effects of Diabetes and how you can protect yourself from complications. When you have type 2 Diabetes, your body ca properly use insulin, hormone that regulates blood sugar. In turn, your HDL cholesterol lowers, and your levels of harmful blood fats called triglycerides rise. Insulin resistance also contributes to hardened, narrow arteries, which in turn increases your blood pressure. As a result, about 2 of 3 people with Diabetes also have hypertensiona, a risk factor for stroke, heart disease, and trouble with thinking and memory. Failing to control high blood pressure and high cholesterol, either with diet and exercise alone or by adding medications, accelerates the rate at which all your other complications progress, says Robert Gabbay, MD, ph. D, chief Medical officer at Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston. It appears that people with Diabetes have some abnormalities of blood flow control to brain, explains Helena Rodbard, MD, endocrinologist based in Maryland. And this appears to correlated with more rapid loss of mental function with age, she say, including the ability to plan, organize, remember things, prioritize, pay attention, and get start on tasks. To protect your brain health, you want to stay active physically and mentally, logging at least 30 minutes of exercise day and keeping your mind stimulate. Read, socialize, work, and play games that challenge your intellect, Dr. Rodbard say. Keep a positive, optimistic attitude permits yourself to become depressed. People with Diabetes are more likely to develop periodontal Disease, infection of gum and bone that can lead to painful chewing problems and tooth loss. This is due in part to elevated Blood Sugar that modifies collagen in all of our tissues, Dr. Rodbard say. It is also due to a slight increase in susceptibility to infections of all kinds. On the other hand, gum diseasespecifically inflammation of gums or development of deep abscessescan raise blood sugar and make diabetes harder to control, according to Dr. Hamdy. To prevent periodontitis, brush and floss daily and consider using mild antiseptic mouthwash to knock out any lingering plaque. Many men with Diabetes will experience some level of erectile dysfunction in their lifetime.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

High Blood Sugar

When you hear the word diabetes, your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often an underestimated component of your health. When it out of whack over long period of time, it could develop into Diabetes. Diabetes affects your body's ability to produce or use insulin, hormone that allows your body to turn glucose into energy. Here are what symptoms may occur in your body when Diabetes takes effect. Diabetes can be effectively managed when caught early. However, when left untreated, it can lead to potential complications that include heart disease, stroke, Kidney Damage, and Nerve Damage. Normally, after you eat or drink, your body will break down sugars from your food and use them for energy in your cells. To accomplish this, your pancreas needs to produce a hormone called insulin. Insulin is what facilitates the process of pulling sugar from the blood and putting it in cells for use, or energy. If you have diabetes, your pancreas either produces too little insulin or none at all. Insulin cant be used effectively. This allows blood glucose levels to rise while the rest of your cells are deprived of much - needed energy. This can lead to a wide variety of problems affecting nearly every major body system.


What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia?

It is especially important to know early signs of hyperglycemia if you have type 1 diabetes. If hyperglycemia is left untreated in people with type 1 diabetes, it can develop into ketoacidosis, where ketones, which are toxic acids, build up in the blood. This condition is an emergency situation that can lead to coma or death. High blood sugar. Increase thirst and / or hunger. Blur vision. Frequent urination. Headache. Fatigue. Weight loss. Vaginal and skin infections. Slow - healing cuts and sores. Vomiting. Dehydration. Unusual fruity smell on breath. Deep labor breathing or hyperventilation. Rapid heartbeat.

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Continued

Learn about three ways that may put type 2 diabetes into remission: Low - carbohydrate diets, low - calorie diets, and Bariatric surgery. Type 2 diabetes is traditionally described as a progressive disease - without major lifestyle changes, A1C levels will gradually increase over time, and more medications such as insulin will be required to manage diabetes. Thus, people with type 2 diabetes are often surprised to hear that they may be able to reverse their diabetes or put it into remission. Because reversal can imply permanent cure, more apt term for this topic might be diabetes remission. This generally means reducing A1C to the level of someone without diabetes and either eliminating diabetes medications altogether or limiting medication to metformin. While this is not possible for everyone with type 2 diabetes, it is an exciting option for some. This article defines diabetes remission and discusses three evidence - base methods to obtain it: Low - carbohydrate diets, Low - calorie diets Bariatric surgery. We also share practical tips from people with type 2 diabetes who have been on a remission journey for two years.


What exactly is diabetes remission?

One model for weight loss suggests that reducing carbohydrate consumption decreases fat storage, reduces hunger, and increases energy expenditure. According to this model, primary driver of weight gain is insulin production triggered by consumption of carbohydrates. Some researchers also suggest that A1C can be improved by a low - carbohydrate diet in the absence of weight loss. However, without accompanying weight loss, low - carb diet may not address fatigued beta cells that are at the root of type 2 diabetes. In other words, someone with diabetes on a low - carb diet may have lower A1C as result of the body needing to process fewer carbohydrates, but this in itself does not reverse physical processes behind type 2 diabetes progression. Some people who lower their carbohydrate intake follow a ketogenic diet, typically eating fewer than 60 grams of carbohydrate per day. This forces the body to burn fat instead of carbohydrates for energy. In some people, this accelerates weight loss, which can lead to diabetes remission. Others follow less restrictive low - carbohydrate diets that still allow for up to 130 grams of carbohydrate per day - i. E, Low Carb, High Fat or Low Carb, Healthy Fat approach. Some researchers believe that carbohydrate tolerance must be individualized to achieve remission in person. For example, one person may be able to sustain diabetes remission on up to 100 grams of carbs per day, while another can only handle 50 grams of carbs per day.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Know Your Medicines

Diabetes drugs can be a great way to keep your blood sugar levels from getting out of whack. But they can sometimes cause side effects or may not mix well with other medicines you take. Talk to your doctor about what you need to watch out for. Side effects can range from upset stomach to serious condition. And other medicines you take can make your DIABETES drug stop working - or even make it work too well. Different types of DIABETES drugs have their own side effects and ways they interact with other medicines. What are the side effects? You may have nausea, gas, bloating, diarrhea, b12 deficiency, and an upset stomach. These problems usually go away in a few weeks, as your body gets used to medicine. It may also help to take drugs with food. In rare cases, metformin may cause a serious condition called lactic acidosis. That's when too much lactic Acid builds up. Call your doctor right away if you get any of these symptoms: unusual weakness, tiredness, or sleepiness Trouble breathing Muscle pain that's not normal. Sudden stomach problems, such as vomiting. Do they clash with other drugs? Some drugs may interfere with some of enzymes that metformin uses to work. Your doctor may need to monitor your blood sugar or adjust your metformin dose if you take any of these: amiloride cephalexin cimetidine digoxin procainamide, Pyrimethamine quinidine quinine, Trimethoprim vancomycin anticholinergic drugs, such as dicyclomine and oxybutynin, may raise the amount of metformin your body absorbs. This may lead to low blood sugar.


Treatment

For example, metformin often causes bloating and gas. Glyburide, sulfonylurea type of medication, can cause low blood sugar, headache, nausea, and dizziness. Sitagliptin, example of DPP - 4 inhibitor, sometimes causes body aches, fever, cough, and stuffy or runny nose. Sglt2 inhibitors, such as canagliflozin, can increase chances of genital infections and cause more frequent urination. Rosiglitazone may cause body aches and pains, sore throat, fever, and, in rare cases, heart failure. Because of this, it should be used with caution in people with cardiovascular issues. Check with your doctor and pharmacist for information about your medication and its potential side effects.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Short-term Diabetes Complications

Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes appear slowly, which makes it difficult condition to diagnose early. More than 7 million people in the US are unknowingly living with Diabetes. Avoiding complications from Diabetes takes disciplined monitoring of blood glucose levels and a healthy routine of eating right and regularly. Type 2 Diabetes leave uncontrolled with no treatment plan can cause serious and long - term health problems. Symptoms can be slow to appear, sometimes taking many years to set off any red flags. That is why it is important to take preventive measures like maintaining a healthy weight and improving dietary habits to lower your risk of developing disease. Also, visit your primary care provider at least annually for routine exam and screening if necessary. Consequences of Uncontrolled levels of Blood Sugar due to Type 2 Diabetes may include: kidney disease: Untreated hyperglycemia over time can increase the strain on your kidneys enough to lead to kidney disease. Symptoms of late - stage kidney disease include loss of sleep, loss of appetite, upset stomach, weakness or trouble concentrating. If kidney damage progresses enough, you may require dialysis treatments or kidney transplant. Eye Damage: Glaucoma, cataracts or retinopathy can occur over time for people with Diabetes not following their recommended treatment plan. Any three of these conditions can progress to vision loss if left untreated. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes should get regular eye exams and immediately make an appointment with their eye doctor if they notice changes in their vision. Heart disease: Diabetes, especially Uncontrolled Blood Sugar, can affect blood vessels in your heart. Symptoms of heart disease may by fatigue, irregular heart rate, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Heart disease can lead to heart attack. Nerve Damage or Neuropathy: Uncontrolled Blood Sugar can cause Nerve Damage which can change your sensation or cause loss of feeling in parts of your body. If this occurs in your feet, then this may affect your ability to detect sore on the bottom of your feet. This sore can become infected and lead to amputation of foot. If you have already received Type 2 Diabetes diagnosis, it is important you implement healthy lifestyle choices and follow your treatment plan to prevent complications. If you are diagnosed but believe you may be at high risk for developing Type 2 Diabetes or have pre - Diabetes, talk with your doctor about how you can slow or halt the progression of the disease. Schedule an appointment with your primary care physician to discuss your risks online or call 1 - 800 - INSPIRA.

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Long-term Complications

Eyes: Blood glucose levels out of range for long periods of time can cause cataracts and / or Retinopathy in the eyes. Both can cause loss of vision. To avoid eye problems associated with Diabetes, keep your blood glucose within range and have yearly eye check - ups that include dilate eye examination with an eye doctor to monitor your eye health. Kidneys: If untreated, Kidney disease lead to impaired kidney function, dialysis and / or Kidney transplant. Uncontrolled diabetes can cause the kidneys to fail; theyll be unable to clean their blood properly. To prevent diabetic nephropathy, you should be tested every year for microalbuminuria, which is a condition that is an early sign of kidney problems. A test measures how much protein is in urine. This test is easily DO with urine sample. When kidneys begin to have problems, they start to release too much protein. Medications can help prevent further damage, once microalbuminuria is diagnose. Nerves: Nerve Damage caused by Diabetes is also know as diabetic neuropathy. Tiny blood vessels feed your nerves, so if blood vessels are damage, then nerves will eventually be damaged as well. In Type 2 Diabetes, some people will already show signs of Nerve Damage when theyre are diagnose. This is an instance where getting blood glucose level under control can prevent further damage. There are various forms of diabetic neuropathy: peripheral, Autonomic, proximal, and focal. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most common form of nerve damage, and it most often affects nerves going to hands and feet. People who have had Type 2 Diabetes for a very long time and who haven't DO well managing their blood glucose may lose sensation in their feet. They may also experience pain, weakness, or tingling. One serious complication of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in feet is that people may not realize when they have sore in their feet. Sore can become infected, infection can spread, and left untreated, feet may need to be amputated to keep infection from spreading more. It is important to have regular foot exams DO by a podiatrist, but you should also have your healthcare provider examine your feet every time you have an office visit.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts as key to let blood sugar into cells in your body for use as energy. If you have type 2 Diabetes, cells do respond normally to insulin; this is called insulin resistance. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually, your pancreas ca keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes and type 2 Diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and can cause other serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and Kidney disease.


What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

The effects of diabetes on your body also depend on the type you have. There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1, also called juvenile diabetes or insulin - dependent diabetes, is an immune system disorder. Your own immune system attacks insulin - producing cells in the pancreas, destroying your body's ability to make insulin. With type 1 diabetes, you must take insulin to live. Most people are diagnosed as children or young adult. Type 2 is related to insulin resistance. It used to occur in older populations, but now more and more younger populations are being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. This is the result of poor lifestyle, dietary, and exercise habits. With type 2 diabetes, your pancreas stops using insulin effectively. This causes issues with being able to pull sugar from the blood and put it into cells for energy. Eventually, this can lead to the need for insulin medication. Earlier phases like prediabetes may be effectively managed with diet, exercise, and careful monitoring of blood sugars. This can also prevent full development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can be control. In some cases, it can even go into remission if proper lifestyle changes are make. Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy. Most of time, you can control gestational diabetes through diet and exercise. It is also typically resolved after the baby is deliver. Gestational diabetes can increase your risk for complications during pregnancy. It can also increase the risk of type 2 diabetes development later in life for both mother and child.


Type 2 Diabetes Risk Factors

Any pregnant woman can develop Gestational diabetes, but some women are at greater risk than others. Risk factors for Gestational diabetes include: age. Women older than 25 are at increased risk. Family or personal history. Your risk increases if you have prediabetes precursor to type 2 diabetes or if close family member, such as a parent or sibling, has type 2 diabetes. You are also at greater risk if you had Gestational diabetes during previous pregnancy, if you delivered very large baby or if you had an unexplained stillbirth. Weight. Being overweight before pregnancy increases your risk. Race. For reasons that aren't clear, women who are Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Asian are more likely to develop Gestational diabetes.


Symptoms

Diabetes symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevate. Some people, especially those with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, may not experience symptoms initially. In type 1 diabetes, symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe. Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are: increased thirst Frequent urination Extreme hunger Unexplained weight loss Presence of ketones in urine, fatigue Irritability blur vision Slow - healing sores Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections Type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, though it often appear during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Hypo danger

With Type 2 Diabetes, if you do work hard to keep your blood glucose level under control, there are short - and long - term complications to contend with. However, by watching the amount and types of food you eat, exercising, and taking any necessary medications, you may be able to prevent these complications. And even if you have some long - term, more serious complications discussed below when youre first diagnose, getting tight control of your blood glucose will help prevent complications from becoming worse. Short - term Complications of Type 2 Diabetes are hypoglycemia and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome, which is very high blood glucose. Long - term complications of Type 2 are diabetic retinopathy, kidney disease, diabetic neuropathy, and macrovascular problems.


Signs of hypoglycemia

Diet, exercise medications and the number of diabetes medications are associated with causing hypoglycemia. Only those medications that increase insulin production increase risk for hypoglycemia. Combination pills that contain one of the medications above may also cause hypoglycemic episodes. This is one reason why it is so important to test your blood sugar, especially when making changes to your treatment plan. Some of the most common causes of low blood sugar are: skipping meals or eating less than usual, exercising more than usual, taking more medication than usual, drinking alcohol, especially without food. People with diabetes are the only ones who experience low blood sugar. You may also experience hypoglycemia if you have any of the following: weight - loss surgery, severe infection of thyroid or cortisol hormone deficiency


Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of low blood sugar level may include: shakiness or nervousness Anxiety Fatigue Weakness Sweating, Hunger, Nausea, Dizziness or lightheadedness Difficulty speaking Confusion Some people, especially those who 've had diabetes for a long time, develop a condition known as hypoglycemia unawareness and won't have warning signs that signal drop in blood sugar. If you experience any symptoms of high or low blood sugar, test your blood sugar and follow your diabetes treatment plan based on test results. If you don't start to feel better quickly, or you start to feel worse, call for emergency help.


Causes

Blood sugar that's either too high or too low for too long may cause various serious conditions, all of which can lead to diabetic coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis. If your muscle cells become starve for energy, your body may respond by breaking down fat stores. This process forms toxic acids know as ketones. If you have ketones and high blood sugar, condition is called diabetic ketoacidosis. Left untreated, it can lead to diabetic coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in type 1 diabetes but sometimes occurs in type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes. Diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. If your blood sugar level tops 600 milligrams per deciliter, or 33. 3 millimoles per liter, condition is called diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome. Severely high blood sugar turns your blood thick and syrupy. Excess sugar passes from your blood into your urine, which triggers a filtering process that draws tremendous amounts of fluid from your body. Leave untreated, this can lead to life - threatening dehydration and diabetic coma. About 25 to 50 percent of people with diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome develop a coma. Hypoglycemia. Your brain needs glucose to function. In severe cases, low blood sugar may cause you to pass out. Hypoglycemia can be caused by too much insulin or not enough food. Exercising too vigorously or drinking too much alcohol can have the same effect.

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Net gain for life?

Table

HBA1c(%)Mean blood sugar (mg/dl)
6135
7170
8205
9240
10275
11310
12345

Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly Control by Insulin, hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers blood glucose level. When blood glucose elevates, Insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize glucose level by promoting uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with Diabetes, absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to Insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be control, it lasts a lifetime. Insufficient production of Insulin, production of defective Insulin, or inability of cells to use Insulin properly and efficiently lead to hyperglycemia and Diabetes. This latter condition affects most cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as Insulin resistance. This is a primary problem in Type 2 Diabetes. Absolute lack of Insulin, usually secondary to destructive process affecting Insulin - producing beta cells in the pancreas, is the main disorder in Type 1 Diabetes. In Type 2 Diabetes, there is also a steady decline of beta cells that add to the process of elevating blood sugars. Essentially, if someone is resistant to Insulin, body can, to some degree, increase production of Insulin and overcome level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and Insulin cannot be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops. Glucose is a simple sugar found in food. Glucose is an essential nutrient that provides energy for proper functioning of body cells. Carbohydrates are broken down in small intestine and glucose in digested food is then absorbed by intestinal cells into the bloodstream, and is carried by bloodstream to all cells in the body where it is utilized. However, glucose cannot enter cells alone and needs Insulin to aid in its transport into cells. Without Insulin, cells become starve of glucose energy despite the presence of abundant glucose in the bloodstream. In certain types of diabetes, cells ' inability to utilize glucose gives rise to the ironic situation of starvation in the midst of plenty. Abundant, unutilized glucose is wastefully excreted in urine. Insulin is a hormone that is produced by specialized cells of the pancreas. In addition to helping glucose enter cells, Insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood. After meal, blood glucose level rises. In response to increased glucose level, pancreas normally releases more Insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter cells and lower blood glucose levels after meal. When blood glucose levels are lower, Insulin released from the pancreas is turned down. It is important to note that even in a fasting state there is low steady release of Insulin than fluctuates bit and helps to maintain steady blood sugar level during fasting. In normal individuals, such a regulatory system helps to keep blood glucose levels in a tightly controlled range.


Alternatives

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Overview

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way your body metabolizes sugar, important source of fuel for your body. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin hormones that regulate movement of sugar into your cells or doesn't produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult - onset diabetes, but today more children are being diagnosed with the disorder, probably due to a rise in childhood obesity. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.


What Is Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 Diabetes is a lifelong disease that keeps your body from usingA insulin the way it should. People with type 2 Diabetes are said to have insulin resistance. People who are middle - age or older are most likely to get this kind of Diabetes, so it used to be called adult - onset Diabetes. But type 2 diabetes also affects kids and teens, mainly because ofA childhood obesity. Itas most common type ofA Diabetes. There are about 29 million people in the US with type 2. Another 84 million haveA prediabetes, meaning their blood sugar is high but not high enough to be diabetes yet.

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Symptoms

Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes share similar symptoms. But Type 1 patients tend to experience symptoms sooner than Type 2 patients. This is largely due to the fact that the pancreas of Type 1 patients do not produce insulin at all. Therefore, individuals with this form of disease are affected much sooner and more intensely than those with Type 2. Type 2 patients actually make greater amounts of insulin for some time as insulin resistance builds. Eventually, body cannot keep up with increased demand, insulin production begins to decline and Type 2 Diabetes results. Typically, in patients with Type 1 Diabetes, their symptoms result in diagnosis, whereas those with Type 2 may not even have symptoms or be aware of problem until they are diagnose.


Causes

Youra pancreas makes a hormone called insulin. It helps your cells turn glucose, type of sugar, from food you eat into energy. People withA Type 2 diabetes make insulin, but their cells don't use it as well as they should. First, your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get glucose into your cells. But eventually, it can't keep up, and glucose builds up in your blood instead. Usually, combination of thingsA causes type 2 diabetes. They might include: genes. Scientists have found different bits of DNA that affect how your body makes insulin. Extraa weight. Beinga overweight or obese can cause insulin resistance, especially if you carry your extra pounds around your middle. Metabolic syndrome. People with insulin resistance often have a group of conditions including high blood sugar, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, andA high cholesterol andA triglycerides. Too much glucose in your liver. When your blood sugar is low, your liver makes and sends out glucose. After you eat, your blood sugar goes up, and your liver will usually slow down and store its glucose for later. But some people's livers do n't They keep cranking out sugar. Bad communication between cells. Sometimes, cells send wrong signals or don't pick up messages correctly. When these problems affect how your cells make and use insulin or glucose, chain reaction can lead to diabetes. Broken beta cells. If cells that make insulin send out the wrong amount of insulin at the wrong time, your blood sugar get thrown off. High blood sugar can damage these cells, too.


Risk factors

Researchers don't fully understand why some people develop prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and others do n't. It's clear that certain factors increase risk, however, including: weight. The more fatty tissue you have, more resistant your cells become to insulin. Inactivity. The less active you are, greater your risk. Physical activity helps you control your weight, uses glucose as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin. Family history. Your risk increases if a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes. Race or Ethnicity. Although it's unclear why, certain people, including Black, Hispanic, American Indian and Asian American people, are at higher risk. Age. Your risk increases as you get older. This may be because you tend to exercise less, lose muscle mass and gain weight as you age. But type 2 diabetes is also increasing among children, adolescents and younger adults. Gestational diabetes. If you develop Gestational diabetes when you are pregnant, your risk of developing prediabetes and type 2 diabetes later increases. If you give birth to a baby weighing more than 9 pounds, you are also at risk of type 2 diabetes. Polycystic ovary syndrome. For women, having Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common condition characterized by irregular menstrual periods, excess hair growth and obesity increases risk of diabetes. High blood pressure. Having blood pressure over 140 / 90 millimeters of mercury is linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels. If you have low levels of high - density lipoprotein, or good, cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high levels of triglycerides have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can let you know what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.


Sources

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Causes

Glucose sugar is the main source of energy for cells that make up muscles and other tissues. Glucose comes from two major sources: food and your liver. Sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, where it enters cells with the help of insulin. Your liver stores and makes glucose. When your glucose levels are low, such as when you haven't eaten in a while, liver breaks down stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within normal range. In type 2 diabetes, this process doesn't work well. Instead of moving into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream. As blood sugar levels increase, insulin - producing beta cells in the pancreas release more insulin, but eventually these cells become impaired and can't make enough insulin to meet the body's demands. In much less common type 1 diabetes, immune system mistakenly destroys beta cells, leaving the body with little to no insulin.

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Risk factors

Although the cause of Type 1 diabetes is unknown, there may be a hereditary component. The tendency to develop autoimmune disorders, such as Type 1 diabetes, is typically passed down from one family member to the next, meaning some people may simply be more genetically prone to acquiring disease. This seems to especially be the case for children born to fathers with Type 1 diabetes, according to one large family study of diabetes. A certain genetic marker that has been shown to make person more susceptible to Type 1 diabetes is located on a specific chromosome know as chromosome 6. A chromosome is a threadlike structure contained in the nucleus - the central part of the cell - where genetic information is held in the form of genes. The genetic connection for Type 1 is situated on chromosome 6 in form of human leukocyte antigen, which is a gene complex that encodes certain proteins responsible for regulation of the persons immune system. However, having one or more of these HLA complexes does not always lead to the development of Type 1 diabetes. Genetic predisposition to Type 1 is just one factor among other possible risk factors making it more likely person will develop disease.

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Treatment for type 2 diabetes

You can effectively manage Type 2 diabetes. Your doctor will tell you how often you should check your blood glucose levels. The goal is to stay within a specific range. Include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet. Eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains will help keep your blood glucose levels steady. Eat at regular intervals. Only eat until youre full. Control your weight and keep your heart healthy. That means keeping refined carbohydrates, sweets, and animal fats to a minimum. Get about half an hour of aerobic activity daily to help keep your heart healthy. Exercise helps to control blood glucose, too. Your doctor will explain how to recognize early symptoms of blood sugar thats too high or too low and what to do in each situation. Theyll also help you learn which foods are healthy and which foods arent. Not everyone with Type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, it is because your pancreas isnt making enough insulin on its own. It is crucial that you take insulin directly. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.

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Taking Insulin

One recent project, started in early 2015, that would benefit people with Type 1 as well as those with advanced Type 2 requiring insulin, is smart insulin patch. Ada Pathway to Stop Diabetes scientist Zhen Gu, professor in Joint University of North Carolina / North Carolina State University Department of Biomedical Engineering, published a paper in Biomedical journal, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, describing development of a new patch that could replace painful and burdensome injections. The Smart insulin patch, made of thin silicon, is about the size of a penny. It includes more than 100 microneedles, each one approximately the size of an eyelash. Microneedles house live beta cells that can sense when blood glucose levels are high and send rapid release of insulin into patients ' bloodstream. Live beta cells are said to reduce risk of complications and last longer than synthetic insulin that was previously preloaded in patch. The final prototype is expected to include glucagon in the device as well. This will make smart insulin patch effective in correcting both high blood glucose levels as well as low blood glucose levels, dangerous potential side effect of taking insulin. Scientists have tested smart insulin patch technology in mouse models, where it was discovered that the device was able to effectively lower blood glucose levels for up to nine hours. Positive results pave the way for continuing research in live animals and eventually clinical trials for humans.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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