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Sleep Apnea And Memory Loss

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Estimate to affect more than 936 million people worldwide, Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a serious condition that occurs when a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep. People with OSA are known to suffer memory problems and also have higher rates of depression, but it is not well understood how these issues are connected with the development of disease. A new study led by RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, examined how conditions affect autobiographical memory and found people with untreated OSA had problems recalling specific details about their lives. Lead investigator Dr Melinda Jackson said the research builds on known links between depression and memory. We know that overly general autobiographical memories people don't remember many specific details of life events - are associated with development of persistent depression, Jackson say. Our study suggests Sleep Apnea may impair the brain's capacity to either encode or consolidate certain types of life memories, which makes it hard for people to recall details from the past. Osa is increasingly common, affecting UP to 30% of elderly people and around one in four Australian men aged over 30. Sleep Apnea is also a significant risk factor for depression, so if we can better understand neurobiological mechanisms at work, we have a chance to improve the mental health of millions of people. The study compared 44 adults with untreated OSA to 44 healthy controls, assessing their recall of different types of autobiographical memories from their childhood, early adult life and recent life. Results show people with OSA had significantly more overgeneral memories - 52. 3% compared with 18. 9% of the control group. Study also look at recall of semantic memory and episodic memory. While people with OSA struggle with semantic memory, their episodic memory was preserve. This is likely to relate to their fragmented sleeping patterns, as research has shown that good sleep is essential for consolidation of semantic autobiographical memory. Across both groups, being older was associated with having a higher number of overgeneral autobiographical memories while higher depression was linked to having worse semantic memory. Jackson, Vice - Chancellor's Senior Research Fellow in RMIT's School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, says the results show the need for further studies to better understand the role of untreated OSA on memory processing. Brain scans of people with Sleep Apnea show they have significant loss of grey matter from regions that overlap with the autobiographic memory network, she say. We need to look at whether there's neurobiological mechanism at work - that is, does dysfunction of that network lead to both depression and memory problems in people with Sleep Apnea? Jackson said use of CPAP machines to treat OSA had been shown to improve some cognitive impairments related to the condition. An important next step will be to determine whether successful treatment of Sleep Apnea can also help counter some of these memory issues or even restore memories that have been lose.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Apnea awareness

Brain Awareness Week is March 16 - 20 this year. The American Sleep Apnea Association is doing its part to get the word out about brain health. It is just as important as any other part of physical health, and we should all be aware of what we need to do to maintain a healthy mind. When you sleep, your body flushes toxins from your brain. If you fail to get restful nights sleep, this cleaning process is interrupt. People with Sleep Apnea may experience a wide range of daytime cognitive symptoms or mental impairment. You most likely already know about the side effects of Sleep Apnea such as diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease. Changes in brain matter and damage to neurons caused by sleep deprivation can lead to memory loss and other complications. Recent studies have shown that Sleep Apnea also changes levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. Fortunately, proper treatment of Apnea and practice of a healthy lifestyle in general can improve and even reverse the effects of damage. Due to waking up multiple times hour throughout the night, people with Apnea are deprived of restful sleep. As a result, people experience symptoms that include shortened attention span and moodiness. The symptoms are much more serious than brain fog, fatigue and daytime sleepiness. During Apnea, brain is deprived of oxygen. This issue, along with chronic fatigue, may cause measurable brain damage. Studies have found up to 20% shrinkage in both gray and white matter of patients with OSA as well as change in how the brain works. In the end, studies have shown that after 3 months To year of positive airway pressure treatment, patients show significant improvement.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

Osa is a respiratory disorder characterized by repeated collapses of the upper airway, causing episodes of airflow cessation, or decreases in airflow, during sleep for periods greater than 10 seconds. 1 diagnosis of OSA is made when an individual experiences more than five apneas or hypopneas per hour during sleep. 2 Untreated OSA is associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, 3 hypertension, 4 stroke, 5 type 2 diabetes, 6 and motor vehicle accidents. 7 OSA is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, 6 reduced quality of life, 8 and psychological difficulties such as depression. 9 Cognitive impairments are also common. 10 - 12 Specifically, OSA has been linked to deficits in executive function, 13, Episodic Memory, 14 and attention. 15 model by Beebe and Gozal 16 proposes that sleep fragmentation and hypoxemia due to OSA are linked to deficits in executive function and other cognitive areas. 17 Sleep fragmentation refers to disturbance of normal sleep architecture due to frequent arousals caused by apneas and hypopneas. 18 Fragmented Sleep is linked to daytime sleepiness. 16 Airway obstructions also lead to hypoxemia, which results in lack of oxygen being delivered to the brain. 19 Beebe and Gozal 16 propose disrupting sleep and hypoxemia disturbs restorative benefits of sleep and causes chemical and structural damage at cellular level. This disturbance affects functions of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus: areas of the brain involved in memory and executive function. In 2003, Beebe and colleagues published a thorough Meta - Analysis investigating neuropsychological effects of Untreated OSA. Two types of studies were include. First were control studies that compared neuropsychological performance of adults with OSA to the healthy control group. Second was uncontrolled studies; for example, those that assessed adults with OSA prior to intervention. Authors examine the overall effect of OSA on a variety of neuropsychological outcomes by comparing individuals with OSA to healthy controls and comparing all included OSA samples to normative data. They conclude that in both control - and norm - referenced studies, OSA does not affect general intellectual or verbal performance; However, vigilance and executive functioning were significantly impair. Evidence of the effect of OSA on Episodic Memory performance was inconclusive. This may have been due to the way memory tasks were group. Episodic Memory is memory of daily events and experiences specific to time and place. 20 Meta - Analysis by Beebe et al. 10 divides Episodic Memory first into visual and verbal domains, then further into short - term and Long - term Memory. Short - term memory measures include recall of information presented once, recall of information presented over multiple trials, and cue recall tasks. Long - term Memory measures include recall of information following delay. Beebe and colleagues report a number of deficits in Episodic Memory functioning in OSA samples; However, results were inconsistent across norm - and control - reference datasets. Norm - reference samples show that individuals with OSA perform significantly worse than age - match norms on tasks assessing long - term verbal memory, but not on short - term verbal memory.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Conclusion

Insufficient or poor - quality sleep affects the immune system, weight management, glucose metabolism, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health, cognition, work productivity, psychological well - being, and public safety. Recent findings indicate that sleep participates in production and clearance of brain metabolic products, including those involved in Dementia pathogenesis. How these new discoveries from animal models provide information on the impact of sleep disorders on brain health is a significant question. The harmful effect of disturbed sleep on brain health is particularly important for older adults presenting Obstructive Sleep apnea. Osa causes not only sleep fragmentation but also intermittent hypoxia, which may affect both brain structure and function. Osa is common, particularly after the age of 65 years, when it has an estimated prevalence of at least 20%. Despite increasing awareness of OSA and its consequences, one recent study show that only 8% of older adults at high risk of OSA are tested in home or in - laboratory Sleep studies; when at risk adults were investigate, OSA was confirmed in 94% of cases. When OSA is diagnosed in older adults, clinicians face a dilemma as to whether patients with the most common forms of mild to moderate OSA and / or those without Daytime Sleepiness or comorbid health problems should be treated or not. Even when treatment is recommend, 30% of adults will refuse it and more than 33% will not use it in the long term. These statistics suggest that many individuals who could benefit from treatment to possibly prevent neurodegeneration remain untreated. To improve treatment decision making and to increase adherence, we need to clearly depict the impact of OSA and its treatment on the aging brain. This Pulmonary Perspective presents the most recent findings on neurocognitive consequences of OSA in older adults, research field that has shown major growth in the past few years. Recent Meta - reviews have confirmed that OSA in middle - aged adults is associated with deficits in multiple cognitive domains. Attention, vigilance, Episodic memory, working memory, and executive function are cognitive domains most commonly impaired, whereas psychomotor abilities, language, and visuospatial function remain less systematically affect. Studies show, however, important heterogeneity in results due to differences in OSA definitions, neuropsychological tests, and variables adjusted for in statistical analyses. In older population, link between OSA and risk of Cognitive decline or Dementia has only recently been documented in prospective cohorts. A study published in 2011 showed that among 298 women aged 82. 3 years on average, higher risk of developing mild Cognitive impairment or Dementia at 4. 7 - year follow - up was associated with OSA, and linked to severity of hypoxia. More recently, study performed with Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort show that OSA was associated with earlier age of progression to MCI or Alzheimers Disease. However, studies using PROOF - SYNAPSE cohort show only small longitudinal changes in select cognitive functions. This weak link between OSA and Cognitive impairment was also conclusion drawn in one recent systematic review and Meta - Analysis.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sleep Apnea and Dementia Risk

Several researchers have Study Sleep Apnea to learn if, and how, it MAY be connected to brain functioning, memory, and risk of dementia. In one scientific review, researchers looked at several prior studies that had been conducted on Sleep Apnea and dementia and found a strong connection between the two factors. Specifically, people who had Alzheimer's Disease were five times more likely than those without Alzheimer's to also have Sleep Apnea. Additionally, they found that approximately half of study participants who had been diagnosed with dementia had experienced Sleep Apnea at some time after their diagnosis. A different study published in Journal Neurology and conducted at New York University School of Medicine outlines research conducted with more than 2000 participants. After reviewing sleeping patterns and cognitive functioning of these participants, researchers reached the following conclusions: persons with Sleep Apnea develop mild cognitive impairment about 10 years earlier in life than those without Sleep Apnea. Sleep Apnea was correlated with the presence of Alzheimer's at younger ageage 83 compared to age 88 in those without Sleep Apnea. Here's good news: in a study, people who were treated for Sleep Apnea by using CPAP machines gained about 10 years of cognitive functioning. They develop mild cognitive impairment at about age 82, while those who do not treat their Sleep Apnea develop MCI at approximately age 72. A third study found that Sleep Apnea was correlated with a decrease in hippocampal volume and increases in white matter lesions in brainchanges that often occur with cognitive problems such as Alzheimer's Disease. Another study determined that people with Sleep Apnea who had seemingly normal cognitive functioning actually demonstrated decreased delay recall and decline in executive functioning when tested with the Trail Making Test. Executive functioning deals with the ability to organize and plan multiple tasks, as well as monitor our own behavior. Researchers in fifth study that reviewed over 400 female participants found that women with Sleep Apnea had a higher likelihood of cognitive problems, including dementia. One other study identified deficits in attention, executive functioning, visual - spatial ability and delayed Memory in participants with Sleep Apnea, but also found that CPAP treatment improved those symptoms.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Continued

People with Sleep apnea tend to experience a range of daytime mental symptoms primarily due to lack of restorative sleep from waking up multiple times hour throughout the entire night. These symptoms include fatigue, shortened attention span, moodiness, and especially reduced short - term recall. Research suggests that people with Sleep apnea have trouble converting short - term memories into long - term ones. Consolidating memories, or storing experiences so that they can be accessed later, is a vital link in the memory - creating process that occurs during sleep. When slumber is impacted by disorder, people have trouble incorporating and categorizing their experiences, which leads to impaired memory formation and forgetfulness.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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