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Sleep Apnea Cause Memory Loss

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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General | Latest Info

Estimate to affect more than 936 million people worldwide, Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a serious condition that occurs when a person's breathing is interrupted during sleep. People with OSA are known to suffer memory problems and also have higher rates of depression, but it is not well understood how these issues are connected with the development of disease. A new study led by RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, examined how conditions affect autobiographical memory and found people with untreated OSA had problems recalling specific details about their lives. Lead investigator Dr Melinda Jackson said the research builds on known links between depression and memory. We know that overly general autobiographical memories people don't remember many specific details of life events - are associated with development of persistent depression, Jackson say. Our study suggests Sleep Apnea may impair the brain's capacity to either encode or consolidate certain types of life memories, which makes it hard for people to recall details from the past. Osa is increasingly common, affecting UP to 30% of elderly people and around one in four Australian men aged over 30. Sleep Apnea is also a significant risk factor for depression, so if we can better understand neurobiological mechanisms at work, we have a chance to improve the mental health of millions of people. The study compared 44 adults with untreated OSA to 44 healthy controls, assessing their recall of different types of autobiographical memories from their childhood, early adult life and recent life. Results show people with OSA had significantly more overgeneral memories - 52. 3% compared with 18. 9% of the control group. The study also looks at recall of semantic memory and episodic memory. While people with OSA struggle with semantic memory, their episodic memory was preserve. This is likely to relate to their fragmented sleeping patterns, as research has shown that good sleep is essential for consolidation of semantic autobiographical memory. Across both groups, being older was associated with having a higher number of overgeneral autobiographical memories while higher depression was linked to having worse semantic memory. Jackson, Vice - Chancellor's Senior Research Fellow in RMIT's School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, says the results show the need for further studies to better understand the role of untreated OSA on memory processing. Brain scans of people with Sleep Apnea show they have significant loss of grey matter from regions that overlap with the autobiographic memory network, she say. We need to look at whether there's neurobiological mechanism at work - that is, does dysfunction of that network lead to both depression and memory problems in people with Sleep Apnea? Jackson said use of CPAP machines to treat OSA had been shown to improve some cognitive impairments related to the condition. An important next step will be to determine whether successful treatment of Sleep Apnea can also help counter some of these memory issues or even restore memories that have been lose.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sleep Apnea and Memory Loss

The link between sleep apnea and changes in the state of the brain is important news for clinicians, Macey say. Especially because there is evidence that treating sleep apnea, such as with using PAP therapy, may return patients ' brain chemicals back to normal levels. Researchers plan to continue investigating this. According to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, pair of studies evaluated the effects of CPAP therapy on several subjects who had seen significant damage to their brain matter. They found that after a year of CPAP treatment, patients ' white matter was almost completely restore, while their gray matter saw substantial improvement after only three months. This is in line with other studies that have confirmed that CPAP treatment, when used regularly, can almost completely alleviate symptoms and effects of sleep apnea. Are you or love one suffering from these brain - related symptoms of Sleep apnea? If so, talk to your doctor and find out more about testing for Sleep apnea. If youre ready to schedule sleep study, click below for more information. American Academy of Sleep Medicine Macey, P. M., Sarma, M. K., Nagarajan, R., Aysola, R., Siegel, J. M., Harper, R. M. And Thomas, M., Obstructive Sleep apnea is associated with low GABA and high glutamate in the insular cortex. Journal of Sleep Research. Doi: 10. 1111 / jsr. 12392 http: / news. Health. Com / 2008 / 06 / 11 / Sleep - apnea - damage - brain - memory / > Science Daily > https: / www. Uclahealth. Org / news / Sleep - apnea - take - atoll - on - brain - function University of California - Los Angeles. Memory Loss linked To Common Sleep Disorder. Sciencedaily. Sciencedaily, 13 June 2008.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Apnea awareness

Sleep Apnea is a condition marked by abnormal breathing during sleep. People with Sleep Apnea have multiple extended pauses in breath when they sleep. These temporary breathing lapses cause lower - quality sleep and affect the body's supply of oxygen, leading to potentially serious health consequences. Sleep Apnea is one of the most common sleep disorders in the United States. It can affect children and adults and people of both sexes, although it is more common in men. Because of sleep apnea prevalence and potential health impact, it is important for people to be aware of what Sleep Apnea is and to know its types, symptoms, causes, and treatments.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sleep Apnea and Dementia Risk

Several researchers have Study Sleep Apnea to learn if, and how, it MAY be connected to brain functioning, memory, and risk of dementia. In one scientific review, researchers looked at several prior studies that had been conducted on Sleep Apnea and dementia and found a strong connection between the two factors. Specifically, people who had Alzheimer's Disease were five times more likely than those without Alzheimer's to also have Sleep Apnea. Additionally, they found that approximately half of study participants who had been diagnosed with dementia had experienced Sleep Apnea at some time after their diagnosis. A different study published in Journal Neurology and conducted at New York University School of Medicine outlines research conducted with more than 2000 participants. After reviewing sleeping patterns and cognitive functioning of these participants, researchers reached the following conclusions: persons with Sleep Apnea develop mild cognitive impairment about 10 years earlier in life than those without Sleep Apnea. Sleep Apnea was correlated with the presence of Alzheimer's at younger ageage 83 compared to age 88 in those without Sleep Apnea. Here's Good News: in a study, people who were treated for Sleep Apnea by using CPAP machines gained about 10 years of cognitive functioning. They develop mild cognitive impairment at about age 82, while those who do not treat their Sleep Apnea develop MCI at approximately age 72. A third study found that Sleep Apnea was correlated with a decrease in hippocampal volume and increases in white matter lesions in brainchanges that often occur with cognitive problems such as Alzheimer's Disease. Another study determined that people with Sleep Apnea who had seemingly normal cognitive functioning actually demonstrated decreased delay recall and decline in executive functioning when tested with the Trail Making Test. Executive functioning deals with the ability to organize and plan multiple tasks, as well as monitor our own behavior. Researchers in fifth study that reviewed over 400 female participants found that women with Sleep Apnea had a higher likelihood of cognitive problems, including dementia. One other study identified deficits in attention, executive functioning, visual - spatial ability and delayed Memory in participants with Sleep Apnea, but also found that CPAP treatment improved those symptoms.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

Over the last few years, there have been many publications exploring reemerging interest in the multifaceted relationship between Sleep and Memory. This, however, is not a new concept. In 1900, Muller and Pilzecker first theorized that new information required process of consolidation before it could assume permanent form 1 - process that was later recognized to be enhanced after nights sleep. 2 Memory is comprised of three interdependent processes: encoding, processing / consolidation, and retrieval. Encoding allows for formation of memory traces in response to new stimulus, which then undergoes the process of stabilization, strengthening, and integration into existing knowledge networks. This information is then accessible for easy recall. 3 Memory is traditionally divided into two different categories - declarative and Non - declarative Memory - and each of them depends on specific neural interactions to mediate their processes. Declarative Memory is explicit, associated with awareness, and can be subdivided into memories associated with specific context that include some element of time and fact - base information. 4 Non - declarative Memory, on the other hand, is often linked with information or abilities not associated with conscious awareness. Sleep, too, is not a homogeneous entity and encompasses different neurochemical states and neural processes characterizing varied sleep stages. It is well described in literature that sleep facilitates memory consolidation and confers memory - retention advantage compared to equivalent periods of time awake for many, but not necessarily all, types of memory. It is not beyond the realm of possibility, then, to expect that when sleep is disrupt, natural processes of memory consolidation may, therefore, altered or impair. In current age, with its high prevalence of sleep disorders - including widespread sleep deprivation and poor sleep hygiene - identifying the impact of these ailments on memory and their treatment is vital. 5 6 Obstructive Sleep Apnea - chronic condition in which repetitive upper airway collapse results in intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation - provides perfect lens through which to explore the interaction of clinical sleep disorder with memory. Moreover, OSA is exceedingly common. Osa syndrome occurs when there are minimum number of apneas and hypopneas per hour associated with daytime symptoms and it has an estimated prevalence of 4%. 7 However, when OSA is defined solely by having Apnea - Hypopnea Index > 15 / hour - where hypopneas are defined as terminating in either 3% drop in oxygen saturation or arousal - prevalence can be as high as 50% in certain populations, especially older individuals. 8 9 in this review, we aim to provide an overview of current literature demonstrating the unique influence of individual sleep stages, specific electroencephalogram oscillatory frequencies, and their bidirectional modulation on different types of memory as well as to highlight dynamic and complex interplay between Memory and Sleep, principally in human subjects. We then review how interruption of these complex processes in OSA sheds light upon the relationship between the two.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Conclusion

Available evidence suggests that sleep is indeed important for forms of offline memory processing or consolidation, but perhaps do so in ways that are specific to particular types of memories, revealed by specific types of memory tests. Neurophysiological properties of sleep such as slow oscillations, spindles, and REM Sleep appear to be more important for some types of memory than others, and how these features interact to bring about phenomenon of offline gains in performance is only beginning to be elucidate. Osa is a common disorder, well poised to specifically affect offline processing or consolidation of memories or augmentation of memory through targeted memory reactivation; However, in fact, these possibilities have been tested only quite minimally. Furthermore, although it seems intuitive that OSA could have the capacity to interrupt slow oscillations, spindles, or REM Sleep, emerging evidence suggests it does so in ways that might be nonlinear. Fundamental questions remain about potentially unique contributions of intermittent hypoxia and Sleep fragmentation on memory, let alone intrathoracic pressure swings and additional recently identified brain structural consequences of OSA such as gray matter edema, 166 gliosis, and other microstructural changes evidenced by mean diffusivity / fractional anisotropy changes 167 168. Thus, although we have some answers about the impact of OSA on memory, clearly multiple avenues of investigation remain wide open.


About Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea is a condition where you stop breathing when you sleep. According to Verywell's Sleep disorders expert, Dr. Brandon Peters, you might hold your breath for 10 seconds, begin breathing again, and then repeat this more than 100 times a night. You might snore, gasp for breath, or cough frequently as your body works to compensate for sleep apnea. As you can imagine, this disturbs your sleep repeatedly. Approximately one in four adults between the ages of 30 and 70 has Sleep apnea. Sleep apnea has already been connected to high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and depression. Review symptoms of obstructive Sleep apnea and consult your physician if you are concerned you may be experiencing Sleep apnea.


RESULTS

As recommended by reviewer, meta - analysis was conducted using only those studies that screened both controls and patients with overnight sleep study. Other screening procedures used include questionnaires and interviews with participants and their partners about sleep, and these studies were not include. For two domains, no studies remain for meta - analysis. For one domain, effect size was substantively unchanged, but the effect was no longer significant, likely because of the drop from 9 to 6 studies. For the remaining 5 domains, all effects remain significant. This finding supports moderator analysis, which found no effect of control screening on results. This suggests meta - analyzed memory deficits present in OSA samples are large enough to be detected even when control samples are screened by either questionnaire / medical history or by PSG.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

OSA PHENOTYPES

New knowledge of obstructive Sleep Apnea pathophysiology has highlighted the heterogeneity of this common chronic health condition. Recent advances in OSA Phenotyping concepts have provided a novel framework in which to understand OSA pathophysiology on an individual patient basis. This has also provided new potential precision Medicine strategies to optimize efficacy and success rates with current OSA treatments including mandibular advancement therapy. This review summarizes how different PHENOTYPES contribute to OSA pathophysiology and highlights potential mechanisms by which mandibular advancement splints alter upper airway physiology according to the OSA Phenotyping framework. In addition, it explains how understanding these PHENOTYPES can facilitate novel and improved approaches to therapy, with focus on Phenotyping to improve mandibular advancement splint treatment prediction and efficacy. The potential to translate phenotyping concepts into clinical settings is also discuss. Lai V, Carberry JC, Eckert DJ. Sleep Apnea Phenotyping: Implications For Dental Sleep Medicine. J Dent Sleep Med.


Introduction

One approach to activating upper airway muscles during sleep is to deliver current to muscles via direct stimulation or via stimulation of hypoglossal nerve. Clinically, this is achieved via surgical implantation of a stimulation device connected to a cuff placed around the nerve. 105 Mechanistic studies have also used fine - wire electrodes or non - invasive methods such as transcutaneous electrodes. Improvements in inspiratory airflow, AHI, apnea duration, oxygen saturation, arousal Index, Sleep architecture, and excessive daytime Sleepiness have all been reported to varying degrees using these methods. 107 - 111 Clinical trial follow - up studies show long - term sustained reductions in AHI. 111 - 114. However, it is difficult to predict responders. The STAR trial uses endoscopy for pre - screening to eliminate patients with concentric airway collapse, which may have increased response rate to therapy. 105 However, one - third of patients were still classified as Non - responders. 105 Thus, other factors such as airway shape and Pcrit are also likely to be important considerations to optimize treatment response rates. 105 110 to date, attempts to develop pharmacotherapy to increase upper airway muscle activity to treat OSA have not been successful. Targets include serotonergic, noradrenergic and GABAergic systems, as well as potassium channels. 115 116 However, recent studies with tricyclic antidepressant Desipramine, which has strong noradrenergic, mild antimuscarinic, and mild serotonergic effects, have shown preservation of Sleep - related reductions in genioglossus activity. 117 Desipramine also yields improvements in airway collapsibility and OSA Severity in patients with poor muscle responsiveness. 118. Thus, this combined approach may be superior to single system targets. 115 119 - 121 Interestingly, hypnotic zolpidem shows potential to increase pharyngeal muscle responsiveness during airway narrowing without impairing other key causes of OSA. 122 Designer Receptors Exclusively activated by Designer Drugs that allow for selective targeting of group of neurons via introduction of engineered macromolecule with viral vectors that can be activated with specific drug have also recently been tested in animal models with the objective of increasing pharyngeal muscle activity during Sleep. 123 124 These exciting findings demonstrate lasting increases in genioglossus activity and offer promise that these new concepts will ultimately translate to humans. Other strategies to improve pharyngeal muscle function include training modalities. Indeed, regular didgeridoo playing and oropharyngeal exercises can reduce snoring and OSA Severity and daytime Sleepiness. 125 - 128 However, mechanisms are largely unknown. No studies have investigated upper airway muscle tone or muscle properties pre - training versus post - training. Longitudinal follow - up studies are also lacking. Understanding mechanisms may help to inform which OSA phenotypes are most likely to respond to this form of therapy.


Methods

The gold standard approach to quantifying respiratory arousal threshold is impractical for routine clinical use as it is time - consuming, costly, and somewhat invasive. Preliminarily, findings indicate that respiratory sensation to inspiratory loading during wakefulness is related to respiratory arousal threshold during sleep. 155 Edwards et al has developed a simple tool to estimate respiratory arousal threshold with high sensitivity and specificity based on three measures from standard overnight PSG. 38 Thus, while prospective intervention studies are require, this simple approach could easily be implemented in clinical setting to inform treatment decisions. Give that over 40% of OSA patients may also have insomnia, 156 - 158 simple accurate tools to determine which OSA patients will benefit versus those at risk of harm with hypnotics would be invaluable.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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