Advanced searches left 3/3
Search only database of 8 mil and more summaries

Small Cell Vs Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

Summarized by PlexPage
Last Updated: 02 July 2021

* If you want to update the article please login/register

General | Latest Info

Lung Cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the lungs. Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? A thin lining layer called pleura surrounds the lungs. Pleura protects your lungs and helps them slide back and forth against the chest wall as they expand and contract during breathing. Below the lungs, thin, dome - shaped muscle called a diaphragm separates the chest from the abdomen. When you breathe, diaphragm moves up and down, forcing air in and out of your lungs.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Types of lung cancer

Generally speaking, lung Cancer is divided into two categories, non - small cell and small cell lung Cancer. Non - small cell is by far the most common, making up 85% of all lung cancers. Definition is an extremely archaic one, dating back to the earliest days of lung cancer treatment. It was found that if you look at tumors from these cancers under microscope, some have small cells and some have bigger cells, said David P. Carbone, MD, PhD, director of the James Thoracic Center at Ohio State University in Columbus.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Continued

If cancer continues to grow during treatment or comes back, any further treatment will depend on the location and extent of cancer, what treatments you have had, and on your health and desire for further treatment. It is always important to understand the goal of any further treatment before it start. You should understand if it is to try to cure cancer, to slow its growth, or to help relieve symptoms. It is also important to understand benefits and risks. If cancer continues to grow during initial Chemotherapy treatment or if cancer starts to grow after chemo has been stopped for less than 6 months, another type of chemo, such as topotecan may be try, although it may be less likely to help. For cancers that come back after initial treatment is finish, choice of chemo drugs depends on how long the cancer has been in remission. Another option for people whose cancer continues to grow after two or more lines of treatment are immunotherapy drugs nivolumab or pembrolizumab. For more on dealing with Recurrence, see Coping With Cancer Recurrence.


Treating stage 0 NSCLC

Treatment for stage IIIA NSCLC may include some combination of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and / or surgery. For this reason, planning treatment for stage IIIA NSCLC often requires input from medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, and thoracic surgeon. Your treatment options depend on the size of tumor, where it is in your lung, which lymph nodes it has spread to, your overall health, and how well you are tolerating treatment. For patients who can tolerate it, treatment usually starts with chemo, often combined with radiation therapy. Surgery may be an option after this if the doctor thinks any remaining cancer can be removed and the patient is healthy enough. This is often followed by chemo, and possibly radiation therapy if it hasnt been given before. For people who are not healthy enough for surgery, radiation therapy, which may be combined with chemo, is often used. If surgery, radiation or chemoradiation are not considered tolerable treatment options, immunotherapy with Pembrolizumab may be considered as first treatment.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Lung Cancer Prognosis

Lung Cancer is highly lethal. In Europe, 5 - year overall survival rate is 12. 3%. The highest record 5 - year patient survival rates are observed in the United States. US data collected from 2009 - 2015 indicates that the 5 - year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 19. 4%, reflecting steady but slow improvement from 12. 5% in 1975. However, 5 - year relative survival rate varies markedly, depending on how advanced the disease is at diagnosis, as follow: prognostic factors for NSCLC are summarized in the image below. Retrospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data analysis suggest that the number of nodes with cancer may be predictive of survival. Mean lung Cancer - specific survival decreased to 8. 8 years for patients with one positive lymph node to 3. 9 years for patients with more than eight positive lymph nodes. Patients with in situ and stage I lung Cancer may respond to surgery. Their prognosis is far better than that of patients with more advanced disease. In patients with radiologically occult lung neoplasms, 5 - year survival rate is 24 - 26%; in those with abnormal chest radiographic findings, rate is 12%. If cancer is nonresectable, prognosis is poor, with a mean survival rate of 8 - 14 months. Mostertz et al found that in some patient populations, oncogenic pathway activation profile of tumor can have prognostic significance. Retrospective analysis of 787 patients with predominantly early - stage NSCLC, using gene expression profiling, shows the following: meta - analysis by Parsons et al suggests that smoking cessation after diagnosis of early - stage lung Cancer may improve prognosis, probably by reducing Cancer progression. Life table modelling on the basis of data from 9 studies give estimated 5 - year survival rate of 33% in 65 - year - old patients with early - stage NSCLC who continue to smoke, compared with 70% in those who quit smoking. In an analysis of data on 4200 patients who participated in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network's NSCLC Database Project, patients who were current smokers at time of diagnosis had worse survival compared with patients who never smoke, and among younger patients with stage IV disease, current smokers had worse survival compared with former smokers who quit smoking more than 12 months before being diagnose. Secondary analyses of the Womens Health Initiative randomize, placebo - control trial demonstrate an association between use of daily conjugate equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate and NSCLC. Women who used CEE plus MPA for more than 5 years were at increased risk for NSCLC, and women using CEE plus MPA who were diagnosed with NSCLC had higher mortality than women with NSCLC who did not take hormone therapy. Whi analyses include 16 608 multiethnic postmenopausal women aged 50 - 79 years. Confirmation of lung cancers was completed by medical record review. This area deserves more attention and study to determine risks and benefits of hormone therapy for postmenopausal women who smoke. In contrast, study by Bouchardy et al found that patients who had received antiestrogen treatment for breast cancer had lower lung cancer mortality rate. However, use of antiestrogens does not significantly lower standardized incidence ratios for lung cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

An overview of NSCLC

In non - small Cell Lung Cancer, results of standard treatment are poor except for most localized cancers. All newly diagnosed patients with NSCLC are potential candidates for studies evaluating new forms of treatment. Surgery is potentially the most curative therapeutic option for this disease. Postoperative chemotherapy may provide additional benefit to patients with resected NSCLC. Radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy can produce cure in a small number of patients and can provide palliation in most patients. Prophylactic cranial irradiation may reduce the incidence of brain metastases, but there is no evidence of survival benefit and the effect of prophylactic cranial irradiation on quality of life is not know. In patients with advanced - stage disease, chemotherapy or epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors offer modest improvements in median survival, although overall survival is poor. Chemotherapy has produced short - term improvement in disease - related symptoms in patients with advanced NSCLC. Several Clinical Trials have attempted to assess the impact of chemotherapy on tumor - related symptoms and quality of life. In total, these studies suggest that tumor - related symptoms may be controlled by chemotherapy without adversely affecting overall quality of life;. However, impact of chemotherapy on quality of life requires more study. In general, medically fit elderly patients with good performance status obtain the same benefits from treatment AS younger patients. Identification of gene mutations in Lung Cancer has led to development of molecularly targeted therapy to improve survival of subsets of patients with metastatic disease. In particular, genetic abnormalities in EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling pathways in subsets of NSCLC may define mechanisms of drug sensitivity and primary or acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors. Egfr mutations strongly predict improved response rate and progression - free survival of inhibitors of EGFR. Fusions of ALK with EML4 and other genes form translocation products that occur in ranges from 3% to 7% in unselected NSCLC and are responsive to pharmacological inhibition of ALK by agents such AS crizotinib. Meet oncogene encodes hepatocyte growth factor receptor. Amplification of this gene has been associated with secondary resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Recurrent fusions involving ROS1 gene are observed in up to 2% of NSCLCs and are responsive to treatment with crizotinib and entrectinib. Ntrk gene fusions can occur in up to 1% of NSCLCs and can BE treated with TRK inhibitors, larotrectinib and entrectinib. Standard Treatment options for each stage of NSCLC are present in Table 7. In addition to standard treatment options present in Table 7, treatment options under Clinical Evaluation include the following:


TREATMENT

Forty percent of patients with newly diagnosed non - small cell lung cancer have stage IV disease. Treatment goals are to prolong survival and control disease - related symptoms. Treatment options include cytotoxic chemotherapy, target agents, and immunotherapy. Factors influencing treatment selection include comorbidity, performance status, histology, and molecular and immunologic features of cancer. Therefore, assessment of tumor - genomic changes and program death - ligand 1 expression is critical before initiating therapy. Radiation therapy and surgery are generally used in selective cases for symptom palliation. Treatment options under clinical evaluation for newly diagnosed stage IV, recurrent, and relapse NSCLC include the following:


CHEMOTHERAPY

Patients with resected Lung Cancer have a high risk of relapse. Meta - analysis was conducted in 1995 using updated data on patients from 52 randomized clinical trials compared outcomes after surgery alone with outcomes of surgery followed by chemotherapy. 57 It shows 5 - year survival benefit of borderline significance for patients receiving platinum - base chemotherapy and prompt initiation of several Lung Cancer Adjuvant trials. 58 - 66 International Adjuvant Lung Cancer Trial enrol 1867 patients with resected stages IA through IIIA Cancer. Patients were randomized to receive platinum - base chemotherapy or observation. 58 At 5 years, absolute survival benefit was 4. 1%, and the relative reduction in risk of death was 14%. 58 National Cancer Institute of Canada and Intergroup Study JBR. 10 includes 482 patients with completely resect stage IB and II cancers. Patients in this trial were randomized to receive 4 cycles of Adjuvant vinorelbine and cisplatin or observation alone. 59 Overall survival strongly favor patients in the Adjuvant chemotherapy arm, with absolute survival benefit of 15% at 5 years and 30% relative reduction in risk of death. Adjuvant Navelbine International Trialist Association Trial randomized 840 patients with completely resect stage IB, II, or IIIA NSCLC to receive Adjuvant therapy with vinorelbine and cisplatin or observation alone. 60 After median follow - up time of more than 70 months, statistically significant survival advantage was detected for patients receiving Adjuvant chemotherapy, with an absolute overall survival benefit of 8. 6% At 5 years. The Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9633 Trial failed to demonstrate a statistically significant survival advantage at 5 years. 61 this Trial enrol 344 patients with resected stage IB NSCLC who were randomized to receive 4 cycles of Adjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin or observation alone. 61 For the most part, however, phase 3 randomized clinical trials strongly support use of chemotherapy after complete resection of stages IIA to IIIA Lung Cancer. 58 - 60 several trials performed in Japan have addrest issue of Adjuvant chemotherapy for early - stage Lung Cancer. 62 - 69 These studies use oral agent that combine tegafur and uracil at a 1: 4 mol / L ratio. Currently, UFT is unavailable in the United States. In one of these studies, UFT was given to 979 patients with resected stage I Lung Cancer. 69 this study shows survival benefits in favor of the UFT arm. However, subset analysis shows that benefit was limited to patients with stage IB Lung Cancer. Thus, future studies are needed to better determine the role, if any, of Adjuvant chemotherapy in treatment of patients with stage IA resect Lung Cancer.


18F-FDG PET scanning

The combination of CT imaging and 18F - FDG PET scanning has greater sensitivity and specificity than CT imaging alone. For patients with clinically operable NSCLC, recommendation is for biopsy of mediastinal lymph nodes that were found to be larger than 1 cm on the shortest transverse axis on chest CT scan or were found to be positive on 18F - FDG PET scan. Negative 18F - FDG PET scanning does not preclude biopsy of radiographically enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. Mediastinoscopy is necessary for detection of cancer in mediastinal lymph nodes when results of CT scan and 18F - FDG PET scan do not corroborate each other.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

An overview of SCLC

Over the past twenty years, incidence of SCLC has decrease, which is most likely related to global reduction in tobacco use. It is estimated that at least 95% of patients diagnosed with SCLC have a positive smoking history; However, individuals WHO quit smoking not only have a reduced incidence of disease but also have a 50% chance of reduced mortality when this type of Lung Cancer is diagnosed in its early stages. In addition to the history of smoking, other environmental and occupational hazards that have been associated with causing SCLC include exposure to chloromethyl ether, which is a chemical that can be used in various industrial settings, as well as high radon levels, which is particularly concern for uranium miners. Although SCLC only comprises about 15% of all Lung Cancer diagnose, this form of Lung Cancer is highly aggressive. In addition, since many patients with SCLC also have multiple comorbidities due to previous tobacco use, which can include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic cardiopathy, and hypertension, treatment for this type of Lung Cancer can be highly complicate. Whereas patients with limited disease type of SCLC are often treated with concomitant chemoradiation, those with extensive disease type are instead treated with palliative chemotherapy. Many patients with SCLC will respond well to initial treatment; However, it is common for patients with resistant disease to relapse. In the event that cancer relapses, median survival is typically in the range of 4 to 5 months when second - or third - line chemotherapy is used.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Other cancers affecting the lungs

The most common types of lung cancer are those found right in the lungs. Other rarer types of cancer may also occur in the lungs and chest wall. Lung nodules are small masses of tissue. They may be benign, precancerous or metastatic tumors that have spread from other parts of the body. Generally, larger nodules are more likely to be cancerous than smaller one.S Lung nodules are often found when a patient is being tested for unrelated symptoms, such as abdominal pain or injury. Non - small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. It grows and spreads more slowly than small cell lung cancer. Three main kinds of non - small cell lung cancer are named for type of cells in the tumor: adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer in the United States and usually begins along outer sections of lungs. It is also the most common type of lung cancer in people who have never smoke. Large cell carcinomas are a group of cancers with large, abnormal - looking cells. These tumors may begin anywhere in the lungs and tend to grow quickly. Squamous cell carcinoma is also called epidermoid carcinoma. It often begins in bronchi near the middle of the lungs. For non - small cell lung cancers that have not spread beyond the lung, surgery is used to remove cancer. Surgery may also be used in combination with radiation therapy and chemotherapy in cancers that are more advanced. These treatments can also be given prior to surgery to shrink tumors and prevent the spread of cancer cells through the blood stream. This is called neoadjuvant therapy. Almost all cases of small cell lung cancer are due to cigarette smoking. It is a fast - growing cancer that spreads much more quickly than other types of lung cancer. There are two different types of small cell lung cancer: small cell carcinoma combined small cell carcinoma surgery is most commonly used in non - small cell lung cancers and less frequently in small cell lung cancer, which tends to spread more quickly to other parts of the body. Chemotherapy is the most common treatment for small cell lung cancer, as these medicines circulate throughout the body, killing lung cancer cells that may have spread outside of the lung. Radiation therapy is frequently used in combination with chemotherapy when a tumor is confined to the lung and other areas inside of the chest. Radiation therapy may also be used to prevent or treat development of small cell lung cancer that has spread to the brain. In radiation therapy, precisely targeted X - rays are used to destroy localized cancer cells. Radiation therapy can be used to prevent tumor recurrence after surgery, to treat tumors in patients who are not candidates for surgery or to treat tumors causing symptoms in other parts of the body. Mesothelioma is a rare cancer of the chest lining, most often caused by asbestos exposure. It accounts for about 5 percent of all lung cancer cases.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Lung nodules

Lung nodules are usually small abnormalities seen on chest x - ray or CAT scan, which are most often less than a centimeter in size. It may be scar tissue, infection, inflammation, or tumor / cancer. About 60% of Lung Nodules are benign or non - cancerous. Lung Cancer is an abnormal growth of tissue which destroys normal tissue and produces substances that can make the entire body weak and sick. It is the second most common cancer among both men and women in the US. Lung Cancer begins in the lungs with abnormal cells which cluster to form tumor. These cancer cells grow without any control or order, destroying healthy lung tissue around them. The reason Lung Cancer causes so much concern is that it often spreads to lymph nodes or other organs in the body, such as the brain. If cancer cells grow too quickly, they can prevent organs in the body from working properly. Cancer that begins in other parts of the body may spread to the lungs, but this is not the same as lung cancer. Two main types of Lung Cancer are small cell Lung Cancer and non - small cell Cancer. Small cells are more aggressive, spread faster, and have fewer treatment options. Non - small cell cancer is more treatable and may be caught at an earlier stage. Doctors diagnose Lung Cancer using physical exams, and various imaging and lab tests. Treatment will vary as there are many available options based on type of lung cancer, stage its in, and how far it has advance. Cancer has spread to lymph nodes on the same side of the chest where Cancer begin. Cancer has spread to lymph nodes on opposite side of the chest where cancer starts or above the collar bone. The most advanced stage of disease cancer has spread to both lungs and surrounding fluid, as well as to another part of the body.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Rare forms of lung cancer

Your lungs are 2 sponge - like organs in your chest. Your right lung has 3 sections, called lobes. Your left lung has 2 lobes. Leave Lung is smaller because the heart takes up more room on that side of the body. When you breathe in, air enters through your mouth or nose and goes into your lungs through trachea. Trachea are divided into tubes called bronchi, which enter lungs and divide into smaller bronchi. These divide to form smaller branches called bronchioles. At the end of bronchioles are tiny air sacs know as alveoli. Alveoli absorb oxygen into your blood from inhaled air and remove carbon dioxide from your blood when you exhale. Taking in oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide are your lungs ' main functions. Lung Cancers typically start in cells lining bronchi and parts of the lung such as bronchioles or alveoli.


Types of lung cancer

About 80% to 85% of lung cancers are NSCLC. The main subtypes of NSCLC are adenocarcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. These subtypes, which start from different types of lung cells, are grouped together as NSCLC because their treatment and prognoses are often similar. This type of lung cancer occurs mainly in current or former smokers, but it is also the most common type of lung cancer seen in non - smokers. It is more common in women than in men, and it is more likely to occur in younger people than other types of lung cancer. Adenocarcinoma is usually found in outer parts of the lungs and is more likely to be found before it has spread. People with a type of adenocarcinoma called adenocarcinoma in situ tend to have a better outlook than those with other types of lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma: Squamous cell carcinomas start with squamous cells, which are flat cells that line inside of airways in the lungs. They are often linked to the history of smoking and tend to be found in the central part of lungs, near the main airway. Large cell carcinoma: Large cell carcinoma can appear in any part of the lung. It tends to grow and spread quickly, which can make it harder to treat. Subtype of Large cell carcinoma, know as Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, is a fast - growing cancer that is very similar to small cell lung cancer. Other subtypes: few other subtypes of NSCLC, such as adenosquamous carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma, are much less common.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

logo

Plex.page is an Online Knowledge, where all the summaries are written by a machine. We aim to collect all the knowledge the World Wide Web has to offer.

Partners:
Nvidia inception logo

© All rights reserved
2021 made by Algoritmi Vision Inc.

If you believe that any of the summaries on our website lead to misinformation, don't hesitate to contact us. We will immediately review it and remove the summaries if necessary.

If your domain is listed as one of the sources on any summary, you can consider participating in the "Online Knowledge" program, if you want to proceed, please follow these instructions to apply.
However, if you still want us to remove all links leading to your domain from Plex.page and never use your website as a source, please follow these instructions.