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Smallpox Vaccine Mandatory

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Last Updated: 02 July 2021

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The development and growing use of Smallpox Vaccine in the early 1800s triggered the establishment of Vaccination mandates, especially for children. Then, as the incidence of Smallpox declines over time, some governments loosen requirements, while other mandates remain in place. At the same time, variety of government agencies and regulations have emerged to oversee production and testing of vaccines. The Judicial branch of the US federal government has had a role as well in Vaccination. A variety of Court decisions have considered the validity of Vaccination mandates and have attempted to address conflict between individual rights and protection of public health. Below are a variety of events associated with the establishment of Vaccination mandates and the role of government agencies in monitoring Vaccine production and use. The British Vaccination Act of this year provided conscience clause to allow exemptions to mandatory Smallpox Vaccination. This clause gives rise to the term conscientious objector, which later comes to refer to those opposed to military service. By the end of the year, magistrates had issued more than 200 000 Vaccination exemptions. Antivaccinationists in England, other parts of Europe, and the United States were active in publishing, speaking, and demonstrating about their objections to Vaccination. The US Congress passed an Act to regulate sale of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products, later referred to as the Biologics Control Act. This was the first modern federal legislation to control the quality of drugs. This Act emerges in part as a response to 1901. Louis and Camden contamination events. The Act created Hygienic Laboratory of US Public Health Service to oversee manufacture of biological drugs. Hygienic Laboratory eventually become National Institutes of Health. At this time, many United States schools require Smallpox Vaccination before children can attend. Some students and their families, however, seek help from the courts to avoid requirement. One such case was considered by the US Supreme Court, when Rosalyn Zucht, student from San Antonio, Texas, was excluded from a public school for failure to present proof of Vaccination. The complaint alleges that City ordinances requiring Vaccination To attend Public School violate due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. The court dismissed the writ of error that brought the case to them, stating that the constitutional question present was not substantial in character, and citing previous cases which had determined that the City ordinance was law of the stateand that it was within the police power of the state to provide for compulsory Vaccination. Massachusetts become first US state to encourage use of Vaccination against Smallpox. Dr. Waterhouse, first doctor in Boston to obtain Vaccine material, convinced the citys Board of Health to sponsor public test of Vaccination. Nineteen volunteers were successfully vaccinate. Initially, Waterhouse sought to retain monopoly over Smallpox Vaccine in North America, refusing to provide Vaccine material to other doctors without a fee or a portion of their profits.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

First vaccines

Especially in the 1830s, after the initial generation had been vaccinated and the incidence of Smallpox had declined markedly in the United States and Europe, vociferous antivaccination movement emerge. 33 Sometimes antivaccinationists were protesting what they consider intrusion of their privacy and bodily integrity. Many working-class Britons, for example, view compulsory vaccination laws, passed in 1821, as direct government assault on their communities by the ruling class. 34 in addition, by mid-eighteenth Century, the rise of irregular medicine and unabashed quackery encouraged antivaccinationism. For instance, irregulars generally view vaccination as a destructive and potentially defiling procedure of heroic medicine, akin to blood-letting. 35 in addition, antivivisectionists, WHO abhor animal experimentation, sometimes join forces with antivaccinationists. 36 to great extent, nation-States respond by articulating that they possess the right to immunize for the common good. In 1905, for example, US Supreme Court ruled in Jacobson v. Massachusetts that the need to protect public health through compulsory Smallpox vaccination outweighs individuals ' right to privacy. 37 Barring exceptions for religious belief, which exist in all but two US States, this tenet has been consistently reiterated and is lent scientific muster by the concept of herd immunity, whereby certain target of the populationapproximately, 85-95 percent, depending on diseasemust be immunized for protection to be confer upon entire group. 38 until quite recently, historical studies frequently depict all antivaccinationists as irrational and antiscientific. This characterization was misguide. If we interpret antivaccinationists on their own terms and by applying historical context, we can see that many behave as rational actors WHO were weighing pros and cons of inoculation. While nineteenth-Century fears of vaccination might have been based on anecdotal horror stories of other infections, statistical risks of Vaccine-induced infection from that era would not be medically acceptable today. In addition, many Vaccine critics do not reject immunization outright but instead emphasize issues of safety and efficacy or are opposed to specific, but not necessarily all, Vaccines. The Passage of the 1986 National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act, spearheaded by parents troubled by the putative link between vaccination and neurological problems, illustrates that legislators and scientists alike continue to be exceedingly concerned with the issue of Vaccine safety. 39 in the past decade in particular, parents and their watchdog groups have raised important questions about the purported link between a noticeable rise in autism and the preservative thimerosal. Even though a series of scientific studies have demonstrated that there is no causal connection between thimerosal and autism, in 1999 US Food and Drug Administration, in conjunction with the US Public Health Service and American Academy of Pediatrics, ceased to license thimerosal-containing Vaccines. Similar claims about a causal link between MMR and autism have also been alleged and sometimes sensationalized by the media. Not surprisingly, suggestion that vaccinating one child might lead to developmental disorders has fostered unease among many parents.

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Other questions you might have

Authorities are concerned that terrorists or governments hostile to the United States may have some of the variola virus that causes Smallpox Disease. If so, they could use it as a biological weapon in bombs, sprays or other methods. People exposed to variola virus, or those at risk of being expose, can be protected by Vaccinia Vaccine. Smallpox can be prevented through the use of Smallpox Vaccine. The World Health Organization uses Smallpox Vaccine to eradicate natural Smallpox from the planet. About 95 % of people are protected within 10 days of getting a single Smallpox Vaccination. From 1983 through 2002, most service members did not get vaccinated against Smallpox. Those vaccinated before 1983 DO not have much immunity leave. Until the late 1970s, many billions of people around the globe received Smallpox Vaccine. Smallpox Vaccine is still used routinely to protect a small number of people WHO work in labs with Smallpox Vaccine virus or similar viruses. Between December 2002 and December 2017, more than 2. 6 million service members receive Smallpox vaccinations. There is no proven treatment for Smallpox Disease, but research to evaluate new antiviral medications is ongoing. Patients Infect with Smallpox likely will benefit from these antivirals and immune globulins, as well as Supportive therapy and antibiotics, as indicate. Research indicates that the first dose of Smallpox Vaccine offers an increased level of protection from Smallpox for 3 years. Immunity decrease thereafter. Substantial, but waning, immunity persists for 7-10 years. Subsequent vaccinations increase and extend protection. After three doses, substantial protection persists for 30 years or longer. In European study from 1970s, about 30 % of unvaccinated people Infect with Smallpox die. About 1. 4 % of people vaccinated up to 10 years earlier die. Among people vaccinated 11 to 20 years earlier, 7 % die. Among people vaccinated 21 or more years earlier, 11 % die. These data show that immunity falls off over time and that revaccination is needed to maintain immunity. We cannot quantify the threat that Smallpox could be used as a bioweapon, but we DO know that the consequences of its use could be great. Military missions must go on even if a Smallpox outbreak occur. If an outbreak occurs, America will expect military units to be on the job, not on the sideline. It may not be feasible to vaccinate Military forces soon after exposure if they are deployed to remote locations and / or engage in Military operations. Some Military personnel will not be able to postpone vital missions if Smallpox is used as a weapon. Vaccination is a prudent course for Preparedness and may serve as a deterrent. We begin with the assumption that any Service member covered by this policy WHO refuses Vaccination may be uninformed about facts relating to the deadly effects of Smallpox virus and protection afforded by Vaccine. Our first action with those WHO might refuse Vaccine will be to carefully listen to and identify their concern and provide education which addresses concern.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Path to safety

Smallpox Vaccine protects people from Smallpox by helping their bodies develop immunity to Smallpox. Vaccine IS made from a virus called vaccinia, which IS a poxvirus similar to Smallpox, but less harmful. The Smallpox Vaccine contains live vaccinia virus, not kill or weaken viruses like many other vaccines. For that reason, people who are vaccinated must take precautions when caring for place on their arm where they were vaccinate, so they can prevent the vaccinia virus from spreading. Vaccine do not contain the Smallpox virus and cannot give you Smallpox. For most people with healthy immune systems, live virus vaccines are effective and safe. Sometimes people getting live virus Vaccine experience mild symptoms such as rash, fever, and head and body aches. In certain groups of people, complications from the vaccinia virus can be severe. The Smallpox Vaccine Safety page has more information about who IS more likely to experience these side effects. Other live virus vaccines currently use include measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox. A Smallpox vaccination can protect you from Smallpox for about 3 to 5 years. After that time, its ability to protect you decreases. If you need long-term protection, you may need to get a booster vaccination. Find out who should get Smallpox Vaccine. Historically, vaccines have been effective in preventing Smallpox infection in 95 % of those vaccinate. In addition, Vaccine was proven to prevent or substantially reduce infection when given within a few days after a person was exposed to variola virus. Routine Smallpox vaccinations among the American public stopped in 1972 after the disease was eradicated in the United States.


Getting the Smallpox Vaccine

The Smallpox vaccine is given by special technique. It is not administered as a shot in the way that most other vaccines are. It is given using a two-pronged needle that is dipped into the vaccine solution. When remove, needle holds droplet of vaccine. A needle is used to prick skin a number of times in a few seconds. Pricking is not deep, but it will cause sore spot and one or two drops of blood to form. Vaccine usually is given in the upper arm. If vaccination is successful, red and itchy lesion develop at the vaccine site in 3 to 4 days. In first week, lesion become large blister, fill with pus, and begin to drain. During the second week, lesion begins to dry and scab forms. Scab falls off in the third week, leaving small scar. People who are being vaccinated for the first time have a stronger reaction than those who are being revaccinated. The following pictures show the progression of site where vaccine is given to someone who has not gotten vaccine before.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Things to consider

The Smallpox vaccine IS NO longer available to the public. In 1972, routine smallpox vaccination in the United States end. In 1980, World Health Organization declared smallpox was eliminate. Because of this, public doesnt need protection from disease. Today, smallpox virus only exists in samples in research laboratories. Vaccine still IS used to protect certain people, like those WHO work with viruses. The United States also has a supply of smallpox vaccine available in case of an outbreak, which IS unlikely. If you get vaccinated before 1972, you are NO longer protect. Studies show that vaccine IS effective for 3 to 5 years.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Vaccination Laws Emerge

In budding pre-revolution American colonies, smallpox posed a serious threat to the welfare of developing nation: mortality from smallpox disproportionately affected Native Americans, and epidemics were recorded among Anglo-Americans in 1677, 1689-1690, and 1702. 1 by 1721, city of Boston had become a prosperous port town of 11 000 residents. Many of those who were older than 20 years of age had contracted smallpox in the epidemic of 1702 and, therefore, were conferred lifelong immunity. However, each year between 1702 and 1721 brought with it a newly born cohort of residents that had not been exposed to the epidemic of 1702, and by 1721 the percentage of Bostonian residents who were susceptible to smallpox swell. On April 22 1721, British vessel arrived in Boston harbor, passed quarantine inspection, and dock. Within one day, one of the ship's crew was diagnosed with smallpox and quarantine. By early May, nine more seamen from the ship were determined to have smallpox, and cases begun to appear among Boston residents. As the number of smallpox cases mount, approximately 1 000 residents flee Boston. Then, Onesimus, African slave of influential Bostonian Puritan minister Cotton Mather, informed Mather about variolation, centuries-old procedure practice throughout Africa that protects against smallpox by cutaneous insertion of material from smallpox pustules. Thereafter, Mather preached fervently in favor of variolation 3 4 and convinced the Boston physician, Zabdiel Boylston, to use variolation on 282 Boston residents. 5 Boylston kept records of 5 759 residents who were struck by smallpox and were not inoculate as well as 282 residents on whom he had performed variolation. At that time, commonly held view among Boston residents was that variolation run counter to the will of God, and Boylston's work was met with strong opposition and, occasionally, outright violence. 6. Boylston was subsequently arrested and released on condition that he would not inoculate anyone without governmental permission. However, Boylston's work shows that among 5 759 residents who were struck by smallpox and were not inoculate, 884 died of smallpox, compared with just six who died from smallpox among 282 who were inoculate. In July 1726, Boylston presented results of his work 7 at a meeting of the Royal Society chaired by Sir Isaac Newton, representing the very first written record of work that focus on immunization coverage in American colonies and its association with immunization efficacy. Benjamin Franklin declared the incontrovertible success of variolation during the smallpox outbreaks of 1753-1754 in Boston. 8 in that study, 514 of 5 544 people infected with smallpox and not variolated died of smallpox, compared with 30 of 2 113 who were variolated. However, variolation had other drawbacks that include its cost and labor time lost during one-to two-month preparation for and recovery from induced illness. In addition, inoculated individuals pose clear transmission risk to the rest of the population. As result of these concerns, every colony except Pennsylvania passed laws to restrict practice.

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Exemptions to State Vaccination Laws

States and local subdivisions first made Immunization condition of school entrance in the 1850s. The legality and constitutionality of these requirements will be tested repeatedly over the next seventy years. In 1922, US Supreme Court upheld exclusion of unvaccinated girl from School in Zucht v. King, validating States ' authority to tie Compulsory Immunization to School attendance. The US Supreme Court heard a similar case in 1905, after Reverend Henning Jacobson refused to comply with Cambridge, Massachusetts, Board of Health regulations requiring smallpox Immunization. The famous Jacobson v. Massachusetts rulingwhich, remains settled lawupheld, Immunization requirement as a reasonable exercise of State police power. At the time of the Jacobson case, only 11 States had enacted Compulsory Vaccination Laws. This number increased gradually through 1981 after the 1960s CDC campaign and subsequent State efforts. States have always permitted individuals with medical contraindications to opt out of Immunization Requirements. These provisions cover immunocompromised individuals, those who are allergic to vaccine ingredients, and those who have experienced adverse reactions. As State Compulsory policies proliferated throughout the late twentieth century, legislatures also enacted non-medical Exemptions. As of 2015, every state except for West Virginia, Mississippi, and California permits non-medical Exemptions. Between 1991 and 2004, State allowing non-medical Exemptions saw an overall increase in vaccine exemptions. This period was also marked by growing vaccine skepticism, fostered by Andrew Wakefields ' 1998 paper in Lancet, which falsely identified link between the MMR vaccine and autism, and was subsequently retracted in 2012. Two states currently experiencing major measles outbreaks, Oregon and Washington State, permit philosophical or personal belief exemptions, although legislation advancing in Washington would eliminate states ' philosophical exemption.S

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* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

A pressing need

To prevent infection, vaccination is considered to be highly effective. Modern-day Vaccinia Vaccine contains live cowpox virus, member of the Variola family that produces less severe infection. Vaccine is typically administered in the upper arm and Successful Immunization is noted by the formation of characteristic scar. 20 in general, smallpox vaccination do not grant lifelong immunity, but instead last on average five to seven years. Immunity varies greatly among individuals, however, ranging from four months to 10 years. 21 vaccination is also recommended to prevent or ameliorate illness after smallpox exposure. Vaccination administered within four to five days of exposure probably offers considerable protection against death but not against infection and illness. 22 Successful vaccination with Vaccinia occurs for first-time recipients in more than 95 percent of vaccinations. For those with failed first-time vaccination, revaccination is recommend. 23 major motivating factor in halting vaccination in 1972 was the presence of adverse events associated with vaccination. These reactions range from common and mild to rare and potentially fatal. The Side-effect profile associated with smallpox Vaccine is more severe than any other commonly used Vaccine. 24 Historically, one death occurs for every One million people who receive first-time vaccination and about one death for every four million revaccinated. Life-threatening reactions occur in 15 of every million people vaccinate. 25 risk of adverse events and death in those who have been vaccinated previously is very small. Primary vaccination in children under the age of 10 appears to be the most risky according to historical record. These rates may underestimate side effects today because the US population includes more people considered to be at high risk for serious side effects. 26 these groups include infants, immuno-compromised patients, including those with HIV / AIDS, pregnant women and those with eczema. 27 28 29 One argument for offering voluntary vaccinations is to allow for careful screening and identification of the general population for those who may be high risk. 30 recently completed scientific study has highlighted concern that there is a small but significant risk that individuals who receive vaccination may spread infection to unvaccinated people. 31 study reanalyzed data from Americans vaccinated for the first time in 1963 and 1968. For every 100 000 people vaccinated for the first time, study found that Vaccinia spread by close contact to two to six others not previously vaccinate. Most unvaccinated people who catch viruses develop accidental infections consisting of sores that heal on their own and most likely act like secondhand vaccinations that give them immunity. However, one or two individuals infected with secondhand become very ill with a condition called eczema vaccinatum, which may cause fever and severe extensive rash, scarring, and, in rare cases, death. Of those infected secondhand, vast majority occur in children under age 5, who catch infection from household member. Others point out that in 1968, out of 14 168 000 vaccinations, there were 114 reported accidental inoculations of others and one death in young child.

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Making a mandate

Governments can never force someone to get themselves or their child vaccinated. It is a foundational principle of medical ethics that consent must be given for any procedure. The decision to make vaccination mandatory is therefore a decision to impose some form of penalty on those who do not follow the law. A common penalty is to exclude unvaccinated children from school, because these are hotspots for disease outbreaks. This has long been the case in the United States. Since 1980, all 50 States have formally linked Vaccination to School entry. Australia, France and Italy have taken similar action. Australia also has legislation that withholds financial child support from parents of unvaccinated children without medical exemptions. In Italy, fines are also levied on parents. But penalties can be considerably softer. Josephine Sauvage, one of the London doctors who wrote to the UK Health secretary, suggested that mandate could record children's Vaccination status at school entry, and require anyone who declines immunizations to register conscientious objection. It would be the first such UK mandate since one was implemented for smallpox more than 100 years ago. Although mandatory vaccination has existed in various forms for more than 200 years, there is a paucity of good epidemiological studies of the effects of different mandates, MacDonald say. The introduction of new laws is often accompanied by increased publicity about vaccination, which makes it harder to identify specific effects of legislation. Social contexts in which mandates are apply also vary from place to place and are continually shifting. In the United States, which recommends panel of vaccinations, number of States with specific mandates proliferated from 20 in 1963 to 50 in 1980. That expansion was back by nationwide surveys in the 1970s showing that the incidence of measles was higher in States without mandates, and lowest in States where mandates were strictly enforce. Early evidence from Italy and France shows that immunization coverage has risen with the introduction of mandates. And No Jab, No Pay legislation withholding State benefits that was introduced in Australia in 2015 coincides with full immunization rates rising by around 3 %. Nationwide coverage is now nearly 95 %. Several US States have taken steps to restrict people's ability to opt out for non-medical reasons. In 2016, after a well-publicize outbreak of measles at Disneyland in California, State made it impossible for people to legally opt out of immunization on anything other than medical grounds. Legislators in New York took the same action this year after a measles outbreak in Brooklyn, as do the State of Maine. There is evidence that California legislation has worked between 2013 and 2017. The proportion of children attending kindergarten who were not up to date on their vaccinations halve, to 4. 9 %. But this might not tell the whole story. Daniel Salmon, director of Johns Hopkins Institute For Vaccine Safety in Baltimore, Maryland, points out that the number of unvaccinated children being educated at home in California almost quadrupled between 2016-17 and 2018-19 school years.

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The wrong problems

Vaccines are responsible for many global public health successes, such as the eradication of Smallpox and significant reductions in other serious infections like polio and measles. Even so, vaccinations have also long been the subject of various Ethical controversies. Key Ethical debates relating to Vaccine regulation, development, and use generally revolve around mandates, research and testing, informed consent, and access disparities. Pasteur successfully prevented rabies in nine-year-Old Joseph Meister by post-exposure Vaccination. Meister mother brings a boy, severely bitten by a rabid dog, to Pasteur in hopes of preventing disease. Several factors make Pasteurs potential involvement in boys care controversial. Pasteur had never before successfully used Vaccine on human. The concept of attenuation of viruses and bacteria was in its infancy at this time. Injecting humans with disease agent, even weakened one, was a new and controversial action. Pasteur was not a medical doctor and might have faced serious consequences had Meister not survived injections. Pasteur felt certain that the boy would die from rabies infection if he did nothing. So he began a course of 13 injections, one each day, of Vaccine made from rabbit nervous system tissue. Each successive injection contains less-attenuate virus. Meister never developed rabies, and the incident was regarded as a success. Later in life, Meister worked as caretaker of Pasteurs tomb at Institut Pasteur in Paris. Researcher Hilary Koprowski at Lederle Laboratories conducted the first human trial of his attenuated oral poliovirus Vaccine at a New York State facility for intellectually disabled children and children with epilepsy. He tested his Type II Vaccine, developed with co-researcher Herald R. Cox, on 20 children and demonstrated that none of them become ill with polio and all of them developed Type II poliovirus antibodies. At the time, Koprowskis methods generated considerable controversy among others WHO were working on experimental vaccines. Many think that the move to testing live Vaccine in human subjects was premature, and some object to testing Vaccine on institutionalized children, though practice was frequent in this era.

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Funding And Patronage

Since the Jenners ' discovery, governments have often invest, albeit unevenly and incompletely, in vaccines. Initially, vaccines were considered a matter of national pride and prestige. They quickly become integral to utilitarian and public health notions of societal security, productivity, and protection. In Europe and North America during the nineteenth century, for instance, Smallpox vaccination was made compulsory under State laws. In the twentieth century, as standard battery of childhood immunizations, including diphtheria, measles, mumps, and rubella, was develop, vaccination was frequently managed or adjudicated by governmental entities and eventually was required for public school attendance. After the founding of the World Health Organization and related organizations such as United Nations Childrens Fund, Vaccine programs go global. In 1974, for example, WHO launched an expanded Programme on Immunization, with the goal of dramatically increasing vaccination rates among children in developing countries. For more than three decades, EPI has functioned through WHOs regional offices to meet target immunization rates for almost every disease with corresponding immunologic agent. 18 Perhaps WHOs most spectacular achievement was the Smallpox campaign of 1960s and 1970s. Direct by Donald Henderson, this massive effort culminated in the last naturally occurring case of Smallpox in Somalia in 1977. 19 Today this example of success serves as a beacon of encouragement for international health workers involved in ongoing and challenging Immunization campaigns against polio, measles, and other diseases. For more than fifty years, similar effortsboth Immunization campaigns and Vaccine trailshave been supported by global health organizations and major philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation and Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 20 ironically, as vaccines have become more commonplace, they have lost some of their allure, particularly to public funding agencies. One might argue that vaccines have worked so well that many people now take them for grant. In this sense, scientific success has paradoxically contributed to current problems with adequate funding mechanisms. In a similar twist, triumph of polio Vaccine in 1955 fostered the idea that it was possible to obtain sufficient funding without primary support of government, instead relying on contributions from philanthropic groups and pocketbooks of millions of Americans.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

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