South Africa's dependancy on coal as a primary fuel resource for electrical energy generation makes it among the top 15 greenhouse gas emitters worldwide. Net discharges in 2015 were approximated at 512 Mt CO2eq, an increase of 20 percent from 2000. The energy sector represents about 80 percent of gross discharges, with energy industries1 and transport as the leading sources. Climate change is already changing South African ecosystems, economic situations, and resources. Since 1990, the national average temperature has increased two times as quick as global temperature level. 2 Climate influences on water security are especially extreme,3 with more frequent dry spell and water lacks causing water deficiency partially of the country. Plants and fauna are also detrimentally affected by climate change. The country's special seaside fynbos plant life range is forecasted to decrease by up to 65% and the marine environment, which supports about one percent of the country's GDP, has experienced degradation. The Tropic of Capricorn runs throughout the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan resources city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. On the southwestern edge of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the legislative capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. Port Elizabeth rests on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton flower can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Just north of Maputo is where the Limpopo River clears into the Indian Ocean. Regular El Ni o-related effects at different times of the year over South America consist of: 1 drier than normal problems over north South America, the Amazon container, and northeastern Brazil, 2 wetter than normal conditions over southerly Brazil, Uruguay, northeastern Argentina, and over seaside Ecuador and north Peru, and 3 over normal temperature levels over eastern Brazil. The extreme rainfall in Uruguay and southerly Brazil during December 1997_May 1998 is highlighted by time collection for 2 individual stations Fig. 59a 1450 mm of rain was tape-recorded in between mid-December 1997 and mid-April 1998 normal is 450 mm, with 900 mm of rainfall observed during the 41-day period 20 December 1997-31 January 1998. In extreme southern Brazil, Santa Maria experienced the beginning of heavy rains in mid-December, and an extension of excessive rainfall via May Fig.
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