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Stage 4 Prostate Cancer Survival Rate

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Last Updated: 22 September 2020

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General | Latest Info

Prostate Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that develop in men and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, behind lung cancer and just ahead of colorectal cancer. The Prognosis for Prostate Cancer, as with any cancer, depends on how advanced the cancer has become, according to established stage designations. Prostate gland is a walnut - size gland present only in men, found in the pelvis below the bladder. Prostate gland wraps around urethra and lies in front of the rectum. Prostate glands secrete part of the liquid portion of semen, or seminal fluid, which carries sperm made by testes. Fluid is essential to reproduction. The term stage Cancer is meant to describe the obvious extent of cancer in the body at the time that cancer is first diagnose. Clinical staging of Prostate Cancer is based on pathology results, physical examination, PSA, and, if appropriate, radiologic studies. Stage of Cancer helps doctors understand the extent of cancer and plan Cancer Treatment. Knowing overall results of different treatments for similarly stag prostate cancers can help doctors and patients make important decisions about choices of treatment to recommend or to accept. Prostate Cancer comprises nearly always adenocarcinoma cells - cells that arise from glandular tissue. Cancer cells are named according to the organ in which they originate, no matter where in the body we find such cells. If Prostate Cancer cells spread from body to bones, it is labelled Prostate Cancer metastatic to bones, not bone Cancer. Metastasis is a process of cancer spread through the blood or lymphatic system to other organs / areas throughout the body. In late stages of disease, Prostate Cancer more commonly metastasizes to lymph nodes in the pelvis and to bones. Cancer staging is first described using what is called the TNM system. T refers to description of size or extent of primary, or original, tumor. N describes the presence or absence of, and extent of spread of cancer to lymph nodes that may be nearby or further from the original tumor. M describes the presence or absence of metastases - usually distant areas elsewhere in the body other than regional lymph nodes to which cancer has spread. Cancers with specific TNM characteristics are then grouped into stages, and stages are then assigned Roman numerals with numerals used in increasing order as the extent of cancer being stag increases or cancer prognosis worsens. Prognosis is finally reflected by considering the Patient's PSA Score at presentation as well as their Gleason Score in assigning final stage designation. The American Joint Commission on Cancer system for Prostate Cancer staging is as follow: T designations refer to characteristics of Prostate Cancer primary tumor. T1 Prostate cancers cannot be seen on imaging tests or felt on examination.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Symptoms

Early prostate cancer often has no symptoms. Once cancer has spread beyond the prostate, doctors refer to it as advanced prostate cancer. Difficulty urinating or weak or slow urine stream need to urinate more frequently, usually at night blood in urine or semen, erectile dysfunction, weakness or numb feeling in legs or feet, loss of control of bladder or bowel, although many of these symptoms can occur due to conditions other than prostate cancer, anyone who experience them should see doctor for evaluation. Once prostate cancer has spread to bones, symptoms can include: bone pain, weak bones that are more likely to fracture, pain or stiffness in the neck or back, trouble urinating, constipation, numbness and weakness from spinal cord compression. Bone metastasis can cause bones to release their calcium into the bloodstream, resulting in high levels of calcium building up in blood. This condition is know as hypercalcemia. Untreated hypercalcemia can be very dangerous, and symptoms may include: nausea, constipation, appetite loss, feeling very thirsty, urinating more frequently, fatigue and weakness, headaches, bone pain, confusion, depression, memory loss, and irritability. People who experience any of these symptoms should see a doctor immediately. Treating bone metastases early on can help prevent further complications.


What is advanced prostate cancer?

Hormone therapy suppresses male hormones that help prostate cancer cells to grow. Your doctor may recommend any of the following hormone therapies: orchiectomy is a surgical procedure to remove testicles, which is where hormones are produce. Luteinizing hormone - releasing hormone agonists are drugs that lower testosterone production in testicles. You can receive these drugs by injection or by or by implantation under your skin. Lhrh antagonists are drugs that rapidly lower testosterone levels. You can receive these drugs by monthly injections under your skin. Cyp17 inhibitors and anti - androgens are available as pills you can take daily. Side effects of hormone therapy drugs include injection site reactions, sexual dysfunction, and anemia.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Prostate Cancer Prognosis

Because most prostate cancers are diagnosed with early screening measures and are curable, average long - term prognosis for Prostate Cancer is quite encouraging. Figures below, provided by the American Cancer Society, represent the average relative survival rate of all men with Prostate Cancer. They represent patients ' chances of survival after a specified number of years as compared with larger populations ' chances of survival during that same timeframe. Since these numbers include all stages of Prostate Cancer, they will not accurately predict an individual's prognosis. 5 - year relative survival rate of nearly 100 percent: Five years after diagnosis, average Prostate Cancer patient is about as likely as a man without Prostate Cancer to still be living. 10 - year relative survival rate of 98 percent: Ten years after diagnosis, average Prostate Cancer patient is just 2 percent less likely to survive than man without Prostate Cancer. 15 - year relative survival rate of 95 percent: Fifteen years after diagnosis, average Prostate Cancer patient is 5 percent less likely to survive than man without Prostate Cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

What is metastatic prostate cancer?

Prostate cancer can spread to local or distant areas of the body. Prostate cancer with local metastasis means that cancer has spread to other organs within the pelvis, which usually means nearby lymph nodes. However, this type includes any organ or structure in the pelvis. Distant metastasis means that prostate cancer has spread beyond the pelvis. Bones, brain, liver, and lungs are common sites of cancer metastasis. In many cases, prostate cancer grows very slowly. Some men do not even know that they have a disease. Sometimes, disease metastasizes to other organs away from the prostate. When prostate cancer metastasize, it can become much harder for doctors to treat.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Treatment

Patients with advanced Prostate Cancer can have cancer cells that have spread to their bones, called bone metastases. Bone metastases commonly cause pain, increase the risk of fractures, and can lead to life - threatening conditions characterized by increased amount of calcium in blood called hypercalcemia. Treatments for bone complications may include drug therapy or radiation therapy. Zometa is a bisphosphonate drug that can effectively prevent loss of bone that occurs from cancer that has spread to bones, thereby reducing the risk of fractures, and decreasing pain. Bisphosphonate drugs work by inhibiting bone resorption, or breakdown. Zoledronic acid may be used to reduce risk of complications from bone metastases or to treat Cancer - related hypercalcemia, xgeva target protein know as RANK ligand. This protein regulates the activity of osteoclasts. Studies have suggested that Denosumab may be more effective than Zoledronic acid at delaying bone complications in Prostate Cancer patients with bone metastases. Denosumab is associated with side effects including hypocalcemia and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Xofigo: radium 223 is a targeted radiopharmaceutical agent that bind with minerals in bone to deliver radiation directly to bone tumors, thereby limiting damage to surrounding normal tissues. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the drug in May 2013 after a trial known as Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer Patients was stopped early after interim analysis showed that treatment significantly improved survival. Radiation therapy: Pain from bone metastases may also be relieved with radiation therapy direct to affected bones. Treatment of Localized Stage IV or D1 Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer may not be diagnosed until it has invaded adjacent organs, such as the rectum or bladder, or spread to lymph nodes in the pelvis. When this occur, surgery is seldom an effective treatment. Current treatment involves a combination of external beam radiation therapy and hormone therapy. In Localized Stage IV Prostate Cancer, hormone therapy and radiation therapy are often given together and studies have demonstrated that patients treated with radiation therapy and immediate hormonal therapy are more likely to be alive 5 years from initiation of treatment without evidence of cancer progression or development of distant metastatic disease than Patients treat with radiation and delayed hormonal therapy. The Combination of radiation and immediate hormonal therapy appears to increase survival of some patients.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Outlook

The Prognosis for advanced prostate cancer depends on where the cancer has spread, as well as how aggressively it is growing. The American Cancer Society measures the outlook for many types of cancer using a 5 - year survival rate. This compares the likelihood that a person will survive for 5 years beyond diagnosis to that of person without cancer living for the same amount of time. According to the American Cancer Society, survival rates are as follow: local prostate cancer without spread has a 5 - year survival rate of nearly 100%. Prostate Cancer with local spread also has a 5 - year survival rate of nearly 100%. Prostate Cancer with distant metastasis has a 5 - year survival rate of around 30%. If doctor diagnoses prostate cancer before it spread, or if it has only spread to nearby structures, survival rate is excellent. However, survival rates do not take into account many other factors, such as people's age and overall health. A doctor with working knowledge of persons prostate Cancer progression can produce a more accurate and individualized outlook. This makes routine screening and early diagnosis essential to successfully treating prostate cancer. Men over the age of 50 years should speak to a healthcare professional about different screening options and which one is most appropriate for them.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Introduction

Prostate Cancer is one of the top ten leading causes of cancer - related death among men in China, second in the United States, and third in Europe 1 2 3. Previous studies show that advanced age is the primary risk factor, with more than 75% of all Prostate cancers diagnosed in men aged 65 years old 4. Geographic variation may be attributed to different incidence rates around the world. For most men, Prostate Cancer is slow - growing, does not lead to clinical signs at early stage and is usually detected by routine testing 5. However, in some men, PCa progresses quickly and can cause hematuria or urinary obstruction. Cancer that spreads past gland may result in lower extremity edema from regional lymphatic obstruction or pain from bone metastasis. Patients ' social and clinical characteristics would have an important effect on prognosis. Social characteristics include kind of race, marital statues, living in rural or urban places, education level, family income, and percentage of poor people in the city. Some research reports that married individuals would enjoy lower mortality and longer overall survival compared to those who were single, separate, widow, or divorced persons 6 7 8 9. Men living in urban areas were more likely to receive definitive treatment for their early - stage Prostate Cancer than those who living in rural areas 10. Education level and neighborhood socio - economic status were independently associated with risk of advanced PCa 11. Patient clinical characteristics include prostate - specific antigen level, Gleason scores, histological grade, clinical stage, TNM stage, treatment therapy and metastasis status. Psa testing and digital rectal examination are used as primary screening tools in early detection of Prostate Cancer. Trans - rectal ultrasound and TRUS - guide needle biopsies are performed to confirm diagnosis following PSA or DRE testing 12. Effective early detection and treatment strategies in asymptomatic men would potentially provide great benefit. Unfortunately, some patients suffer from advanced PCa within two years due to development of bone metastases 13 14. Approximately 10% of newly diagnosed PCa patients present with bone metastasis, increasing to 80% at advanced stages of disease 15 16. Butler SS et al. Report that incidence of localized Prostate Cancer declined across age groups from 2012 to 2015,. However, incidence of distant metastatic disease increased gradually 17. These metastases are associated with poor prognosis, bone pain, and pathological characteristics and indicate incurability of disease in most cases 18. In the current study, we aim to identify risk factors associated with cancer prognosis and to detect bone metastasis pattern of PCa patients in SEER database and Chinese hospital. We compare consistency and difference between SEER data and local hospital data. We were particularly interested in isolated metastasis to bone, as bone metastasis has worse outcome and prognosis in PCa. Identification of prognostic factors and pattern of bone metastasis in PCa may guide clinicians, researchers and patients to better understand this cancer.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

Sources

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions.

* Please keep in mind that all text is machine-generated, we do not bear any responsibility, and you should always get advice from professionals before taking any actions

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